Biowastes are organic matter which can be broken down in a reasonable amount of time. These include food wastes, animal wastes or manure, vegetable wastes, sewage and slaughterhouse wastes. Bio-wastes from the food chain are of potential benefit to use in agriculture. Agriculture in general and organic farming in particular needs alternative plant nutrients inorder to have better yields. However, once these biowastes are not properly treated, they may pollute the environment and can cause ecological imbalance. The collection and utilization of biowaste (e.g. waste from slaughterhouses, households, restaurants, foods and beverage industry and from toilets) is a central component in the development of a sustainable society. The outlet of nitrogen to water and air, the use of petrol and commercial fertilizers and the negative impact on the environment of waste handling can be reduced if increasing amounts of biowaste is to be recycled. For agriculture it may be attractive to use recycled biowaste, mainly as a fertilizer but also for energy and as feedstuff. Farmers, especially organic farmers need alternatives to mineral fertilizers.
Manure and crop wastes are not enough to compensate for meat, milk, vegetables and other products that are taken away from the farm. Sewage sludge and other biowastes have been extensively used in conventional agriculture in all Nordic countries except Iceland, (Petersen & Petersen, 1998), however, for organic farming sewage sludge is not accepted. But, recycling of biowaste has to be regulated and controlled in such a way that harmful effects on soil, vegetation, animals and man are prevented (http://www.actavetscand.com/content/43/S1/S6). Best results are got if biowaste is mechanically processed and converted into useful material such as organic fertilizer. In this modern era, it calls for a diverse scientific skills and processes in coming up with something new in the field of science and technology.
The invention of machines like bio-waste grinding and recycling machine will be of of great help in making biowastes useful and beneficial not only to farmers but for everybody. It is an eco-friendly machine because it does not make use of gasoline for its operation and does not even pose any hazard to the health of people and to the environment. This study will also be of great help in addressing the problem on biowastes in the country. The improvised machine will be of use in minimizing organic wastes and converting them into useful product like organic fertilizer. The study does not only contribute to waste management but it can also be an avenue for people to develop their manual, technical and scientific skills, thus, enabling to develop optimally their mind and body potentials.
Statement of the Problem:
This research study aimed to introduce a biowaste grinding and recycling machine that can be operated manually, hence, it is an efficient energy saver. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:
1. What are the general features of the biowaste grinding and recycling machine? 2. What is the quality of the ground materials through the use of the biowaste machine? 3. What is the acceptability level of the biowaste grinding and recycling machine? 4. What are the benefits that can be derived from the biowaste grinding and recycling machine?
Statement of Hypotheses:
This study was anchored on the following hypotheses:
Ho1: The machine is not ideal for grinding and recycling biowastes. Ho2: The machine is not acceptable for grinding and recycling biowastes. Ha1: The machine is ideal for grinding and recycling biowastes. Ha2: The machine is acceptable for grinding and recycling biowastes.
Significance of the Study:
One of the major problems affecting the health of people and the balance in nature is the spread of various diseases brought about by the improper disposal and mismanagement of biowastes. These materials can pollute the environment if not properly given a treatment and may bring about some changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the ecosystem.
To address the said problem, it is in dire need to look for the possible ways and means of recycling the huge amount of biowastes thrown to the surroundings so as to prevent the spread of various forms of diseases. Likewise, to produce an organic fertilizer that can be utilized by farmers for their crops in which it will eventually be of great help for them to have an abundant yield. Through improvisation of machines like biowaste grinding and recycling machine, organic wastes will be minimized and lessened.
This project aimed also to strengthen manual, technical and scientific skills among individuals particularly the youth that results from the right training of the hands which forms the basis of all endeavours. The Holy Bible gives ample evidence of the importance of labor. Jesus Christ, in His youth, exemplified the essentials of manual labor when He toiled in His father’s carpentry shop. This work prepared Him for the multitudinous tasks that lay ahead in His earthly ministry. Manual occupation for the youth is essential….The proper exercise of mind and body will develop and strengthen all the powers. Both mind and body will be preserved, and will be capable of doing a variety of work. (White,2013).
Scope and Delimitations of the Study:
This study was conducted to determine the acceptability level of the improvised machine for grinding and recycling biowastes. The materials that were subjected to grinding and recycling processes were dried cow dung, vegetable wastes and dried leaves with three trials for each type of the said biowastes. The study covered the period from June 15 to July 31, 2013 at Narvacan national Central High School and in one of the researchers’ residence in Barangay Paratong, Narvacan, Ilocos Sur.
Operational Definition of Terms:
For vivid understanding of the study, the following terms are hereby defined: Biowastes. These are organic wastes from living organisms that can be converted into organic fertilizer. In this study, cow manure, dried leaves and vegetable wastes were utilized. Machine. Any device that helps facilitate a certain work.
Biowaste Grinding and Recycling Machine. This refers to the improvised machine in the study that is utilized in breaking down the organic wastes such as cow manure, dried leaves and vegetable wastes into smaller particles for use as organic fertilizer. Grinding. This is a process of chopping a material into smaller parts. Recycling. It is a process of converting discarded materials into useful ones.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Organic waste – biowaste is actually kitchen waste. It represents one third of house waste and it is a valuable raw material for production of quality compost.
For the production of organic compost as raw material can be used fresh and dried remains of fruits and vegetables, egg shells, coffee sludge, tea filter bags, dead flowers (just not ones from the flower shop where pesticides are used in their plant), straw, mown grass before seaweed, leaves, wood, paper and cardboard that is not colored with artificial colors and does not contain lead, waste from production of beer wine etc. The diverse composition of the starting material, the compost is richer in nutrients. Biowaste from the food chain is of potential benefit to use in agriculture. Agriculture in general and organic farming in particular needs alternative plant nutrients. However, the quality concerning hygiene and soil contaminants must be assured. This recycling has to be regulated in a way that harmful effects on soil, vegetation, animals and man are prevented. The problems with heavy metals and organic contaminants have been focused on. Still, maximum threshold values are continuously discussed to avoid an increase of soil concentrations.
The effect on the ecosystems of residues from use of medicines needs further attention. There is also a risk for a spread of antibiotic resistant micro-organisms in the environment and then to animals and man. Infectious diseases may be spread from biowaste and new routes of disease transmission between animals and humans can be created. Zoonotic diseases in this context play a central role. Pathogens recently introduced to a country may be further spread when biowaste is recycled. The very good health status of domestic animals in the Nordic countries may then quickly change. The quality of biowaste is of enormous importance if biowaste is to gain general acceptance for agricultural use, especially for organic production. A balance needs to be maintained between risk and advantage for its use. Cow dung, also known as cow pats, cow pies or cow manure is the waste product of bovine animal species.
These species include domesticcattle (“cows”), bison (“buffalo”), yak and water buffalo. Cow dung is the undigested residue of plant matter which has passed through the animal’s gut. The resultant faecal matter is rich in minerals. Colour ranges from greenish to blackish, often darkening soon after exposure to air. Cow dung, which is usually a pale red colour,(usually combined with soiled bedding and urine) is often used as manure (agricultural fertilizer). If not recycled into the soil by species such as earthworms and dung beetles, cow dung can dry out and remain on the pasture, creating an area of grazing land which is unpalatable to livestock. In many parts of the developing world, and in the past in mountain regions of Europe, caked and dried cow dung is used as fuel.
Dung may also be collected and used to produce biogas to generate electricity and heat. The gas is rich in methane and is used in rural areas of India/Pakistan and elsewhere to provide a renewable and stable source of electricity. In central Africa, Maasai villages have burned cow dung inside to repel mosquitos. In cold places, cow dung is used to line the walls of rustic houses as a cheap thermal insulator. Cow dung is also an optional ingredient in the manufacture of adobe mud brick housing depending on the availability of materials at hand. A deposit of cow dung is referred to in American English as a “cow pie,” and in British English as a cowpat. Also known as “cow chips” when dry, it is used in the practice of “cow chip throwing” popularized in Beaver, Oklahoma in 1970. On April 21, 2001 Robert Deevers of Elgin, OK set the record for cow chip throwing with a distance of 185 feet 5 inches.
The grinding machine consists of a bed with a fixture to guide and hold the work piece, and a power-driven grinding wheel spinning at the required speed. The speed is determined by the wheel’s diameter and manufacturer’s rating. The user can control the grinding head to travel across a fixed work piece, or the work piece can be moved while the grind head stays in a fixed position. Fine control of the grinding head or tables position is possible using a vernier calibrated hand wheel, or using the features of numerical controls.
A grinding machine, often shortened to grinder, is a machine tool used for grinding, which is a type of machining using an abrasive wheel as the cutting tool. Each grain of abrasive on the wheel’s surface cuts a small chip from the workpiece via shear deformation.
Grinding is used to finish workpieces that must show high surface quality (e.g., low surface roughness) and high accuracy of shape and dimension. As the accuracy in dimensions in grinding is on the order of 0.000025 mm, in most applications it tends to be a finishing operation and removes comparatively little metal, about 0.25 to 0.50 mm depth. However, there are some roughing applications in which grinding removes high volumes of metal quite rapidly. Thus, grinding is a diverse field.
Machine tool that uses a rotating abrasive grinding wheel to change the shape or dimensions of a hard, usually metallic, workpiece. Grinding is the most accurate of all the basic machining processes. All grinding machines use a wheel made from one of the manufactured abrasives, silicon carbide or aluminum oxide. To grind a cylindrical form, the workpiece rotates as it is fed against the grinding wheel.
To grind an internal surface, a small wheel moves inside the hollow of the workpiece, which is gripped in a rotating chuck. On a surface grinder, the workpiece is held in place on a table that moves under the rotating abrasive wheel. grinding machine, tool that employs a rotating abrasive wheel to change the shape or dimensions of a hard, usually metallic, body.
2.2Review of Related Studies
Biodegradable waste, a type of waste which can be broken down, in a reasonable amount of time, into its base compounds by micro-organisms and other living things, regardless of what those compounds may be.
Biodegradable waste can be commonly found in municipal solid waste (sometimes called biodegradable municipal waste, or BMW) as green waste, food waste, paper waste, and biodegradable plastics. Other biodegradable wastes include human waste, manure, sewage, and slaughterhouse waste. In the absence of oxygen, much of this waste will decay to methane by anaerobic digestion.
The main environmental threat from biodegradable waste is the production of methane in landfills. Methane is 21 times as potent a greenhouse gas as carbon dioxide and accounted for some 3% of total greenhouse gas emissions in the EU-15 in 1995. The Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC obliges member states to reduce the amount of biodegradable waste that they landfill to 35% of 1995 levels by 2016, which will significantly reduce the problem.
Biodegradable waste can often be used for composting or must doubtless be a resource for heat, electricity and fuel in future as it is being achieved by the Swiss Kompogas treatment for 20 years now. This produces additional Biogas and still delivers the compost for the soil. It is a fully developed system and produced 27 million Kwh of electricity and Biogas in 2009. The oldest of the companies own lorries has achieved 1.000.000 kilometes driven with biogas from household waste in the last 15 years.
Organic fertilizers are fertilizers derived from animal or vegetable matter. (e.g. compost, manure). Naturally occcuring organic fertilizers include manure, slurry, worm castings, peat, seaweed, humic acid, and guano. Sewage sludge use inorganic agricultural operations in the U.S. has been extremely limited and rare due to USDA prohibition of the practice (due to toxic metal accumulation, among other factors). Processed organic fertilizers include compost, bloodmeal, 7
humic acid, amino acids, and seaweed extracts. Other examples are natural enzyme-digested proteins, fish meal, and feather meal. Decomposing crop residue (green manure) from prior years is another source of fertility.
There are some kinds of a grinding machine, like the A grinding mill is a unit operation designed to break a solid material into smaller pieces. There are many different types of grinding mills and many types of materials processed in them. Historically mills were powered by hand (mortar and pestle), working animal (horse mill), wind (windmill) or water (watermill). Today they are also powered by electricity. The grinding of solid matters occurs under exposure of mechanical forces that trench the structure by overcoming of the interior bonding forces. After the grinding the state of the solid is changed: the grain size, the grain size disposition and the grain shape.
This chapter presents the materials used in the study, the research design, the procedure and the flow chart design of the study. Materials:
In this study, the following materials were utilized:
c. Blind rivets
d. Dull bits
e. GI flat sheet
f. Welding rod
g. Flat bar
The descriptive-experimental design was applied in the study. The biowaste grinding and recycling machine was evaluated by professionals particularly engineers as to its level of acceptability and the quality of the grinded materials in three trials according to a certain criterion. The results of the evaluation were analysed and interpreted through the use of mean as the statistical tool. Flow Chart Design of the Study:
The researchers draw first the plan of the biowaste machine to be made. Next, the researchers make the structure of the machine using the metal and connecting it using the welding rod. After that, make the grinder out of flat bar, connect it on the middle part of the machine where the grinder should be placed. Cover the machine using the RCB or the GI flat sheets and in order to connect the RCB or GI flat sheets the researchers used blind rivets. After making the machine, the researchers collected cow manure, dried leaves, and dried vegetable wastes to test the quality ground of the machine.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
1. What are the general feature of the biowaste grinding and recycling machine? Biowaste grinding and recycling machine is designed to decrease the amount of organic wastes thrown to the surroundings by processing the materials into useful product like organic fertilizer. This machine is ideal for food wastes, vegetable wastes and animal manure. It consists of three parts; the mouth where the biowastes will be placed; the body where the biowastes will be processed and grinded into smaller particles and the base or pillar which receives the grinded biowastes ready for use as fertilizer. The model and specification of the machine is shown below.
COST OF MATERIALS: P2000.00
COST OF CONSTRUCTION FEE: P1450 this includes the labor fee and welding fee. TOTAL COST: P3450.00
Construction Fee :
2. What is the quality of the grinded and recycled material through the use of the biowaste machine? The following rating scales with the corresponding descriptive ratings were set to describe the quality of the ground material: * – 5.00 all particles are totally grinded
3.00 – 3.99 most of the particles are grinded
2.00 – 2.99 some of the particles are grinded
1.00 – 1.99 few particles are grinded
Quality of the Ground Materials Using the Biowaste Machine
Kind of Biowaste| Quality of the Ground Material Per Trial| TOTAL| MEAN|
| Trial 1| Trial 2| Trial 3| | |
Dried Cow Dung| 3.99| 4.00| 5.00| 12.99| 4.33|
Dried Leaves| 3.99| 4.00| 4.00| 11.99| 3.99|
Dried Vegetables Waste| 3.99| 4.00| 4.00| 11.99| 3.99|
3. What is the level of acceptability of the biowaste grinding and recycling machine?
To evaluate the level of acceptability of the biowaste grinding and recycling machine, the following rating scales were set:
4.00 – 5.00 very much accepted
3.00 – 3.99 accepted
2.00 – 2.99 moderately accepted
1.00 – 1.99 slightly accepted
Level of Acceptability of the Biowaste Grinding and Recycling Machine
Evaluator| Level of Acceptability|
4. What are the benefits that can be derived from the biowaste grinding and recycling machine? The following are the benefits that can be derived from using the biowastes grinding and recycling machine: 1. Great amount of energy is saved because it is a manually operated device. Hence, it can be utilized even without current. 2. Manual occupation among individuals particularly among youth is enhanced because both body and mind will be developed and strengthened. 3. It helps in the waste management program of the counrty particularly on the proper treatment of biowastes, thus,
contributing to a clean and healthy environment. 4. Biowastes are converted into organic wastes that can be of great help to farmers in producing good quality of crops through the use of the grinded and recycled material as organic fertilizer.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents the significant findings of the study, the conclusions drawn and the recommendations for the improvement of the study. Summary
1. Based on the results of the study, Bio-waste crusher(BWC) is effective in crushing cow dung, dried leaves, and vegetable waste. 2. The mean of dried cow dung is 4.33, the mean of dried leaves is 3.99, and the mean of dried vegetable waste is 3.9 in terms of quality of the ground materials. 3. The level of acceptability of the Bio-waste Grinding Machine has a mean of 4.4. 4. Bio-waste grinding machine is possible to grind a dried cow dung, dried leaves and dried vegetable waste.
Based from the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn: 1. Bio-waste grinding machine is acceptable in grinding biodegradable waste in making a fertilizer. As the result shown in this research
Based on the salient findings of the study, the following recommendations are hereby forwarded. 1.