1. The consequences of agricultural revolution was a turning point. Civilizations began focusing on making surpluses rather than producing new food and crafts. They became more modern. (pg.20)
2. The archaeological evidence that supports the cultivation, harvesting, storage and processing of cereal grains is since there weren’t any other foodstuff to makes soup they were able to make a thick porridge or a thin broth or gruel. This discovery led to the creation of tools and techniques to collect, process, and store grain. (pg.11-12)
3. The result of farming led to food surplus, The result was the first permanent settlements such as those established on the eastern coast of the mediterranean from around 10,000 BCE. They consisted of simple round huts with roofs supported by wooden posts and floors sunk up to a yard into the ground. (pg.13-14)
4. There was never a particular reason for the switch to farming. There are theories, perhaps the amount of food available to hunter-gatherers in the fertile crescent diminished, for example, either because of climatic changes, or because some species died out or were hunted to extinction. Another possibility is that sedentary lifestyle increased human fertility, leading the population to grow. Or perhaps, once beer was discovered, and its consumption had become socially and ritually important.
5. The storehouses were definitely communal due to the fact that they were larger than any single family would need. Keeping surpluses of food was back up for any future food shortages; ritual and religious in which the gods were called upon to ensure good harvest.(pg.22-23)
6. The discovery of beer led people to settle in one place and farm. They were able to make new discoveries out of beer like porridge ect. It led to many cultural traditions as well. Some people believed beer was a gift from the gods. For example the egyptians believed beer was accidentally discovered by Osiris.
1. The two rivers of Mesopatamia are the Tigris and Euphrates. They roughly correspond to modern Iraq.(pg.24) 2. The grain surplus was important to the civilization because it was a diet in two civilizations. It consumed in both solid and liquid forms. It also freed administrators and craftsmen from the need to produce their own food.(pg.26)
3. Grain was the basis of the national diet in both Egypt and Mesopotamia. It was a sort of edible money, and it was consumed in both solid and liquid forms.(pg.26)
4. Drinking was seen as playful and humorous, beer made them human. Beer was also important in culture, it was a god-given drink that underpinned their existence. A meal without beer was incomplete. 5. Beer played a major role from birth to death to Egyptians and Mesopotamians. It led to many discoveries from writing to farming, Its myths from culture were passed down from generation to generation. It led to the emergence of complex societies.Its popularity followed from the surplus of beer.
1. Vines were being cultivated and grapevines were were grown alongside olives,wheat, and barely which led the possibility of producing wine.
2.Wine became an important drink in the Zagros Mountains. It soon spread west to Greece and Anatolia.
3.The Greeks were on a higher level of thinking and learning. They laid the foundations for modern western politics, philosophy, science, and law.
4. The Greeks judged how cultured a person was at a symposion, they would try in outdo each other in wit and poetry. Greeks were very civilized.
5. The importance of a symposion was it allowed people to celebrate and be playful but have adversarial discussions.
1. The Romans adopted the Greek culture by borrowing their gods and myths. They modified an alphabet based on the Greeks alphabet. Their architecture was also based on the Greeks architecture,.(pg.69)
3. In a roman covinium you were served wine based on your position in society. The service depended on your social class, you drank your own wine however way you liked it. In a Greek symposion everyone was equal, you drank sine from a shared krater.You could sit anywhere and it didn’t matter if you were poor or rich.(pg.77-78)
4. In christianity wine was a miracle. Wine drinking in christianity was a form of sacred communion. In Islam alcohol was an abomination divided by satan. It is a distraction from daily prayers to god. It leads to other sinful doings like gambling prohibition of alcohol in Islam.(pg.87)
5. Wine drinking predominates in the South of Europe. In the north of Europe beyond the reach of roman rule. Today, the worlds leading producers of wine are France, Italy, and Spain. Beer is drank in Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, the Czech Republic, Britain, and Ireland.(pg.89)
6. Greek and Roman cultures had an impact on modern day american and European culture. They passed on architecture and literature. They also passed down law and christianity.
1. One of the many acheivments of the arabs was a technique that gave rise to a new range in drinks(distillation). It involved vaporizing and then re-condensing a liquid in order to separate and purify its constituent parts. The Greeks became familiar with this technique, it became dominant. European explorers established colonies and then empires around the world.
2. Prince Henry becoming the mastermind of exploration led to him going abroad North africa for military excursions that made and broke his reputation. Prince Henry payed for expeditions and collated the resulting reports, observations, and maps. He encouraged other captains to embrace advances in navigation. (pg.101-102)
3. The production of sugarcane was a lot work. It required enormous amounts of water and manpower. They came up with tops to save from the hassle. Sugar in some cases was a medicine. It also served as a spice and seasoning. It became in big demand. Arabs relied on slaves brought in from Africa.
4. In 1492 Columbus discovered the new world. He came across the Caribbean. He declared it as the sugar making place. Over periods of times millions of african slaves were transported to the new world.
5. Rum played an important role, it was used to buy more slaves. Rum was the result of a mixture of materials and technologies all around the world. It was made by arabs. Rum wouldn’t have existed if weren’t for cruelty of the slave trade. Along with rum came the good and bad, due to the suffering some endured and the power some gained.
1. England wanted the land because once it was established it would supply mediterranean goods such as olives and fruits. It would make England less dependent on imports from continental Europe.
2. The supply of molasses (what rum was made of) had been disrupted during war. Other grains were were hard to grow near the coasts. Moving whiskey was expensive too, Whiskey could be made anywhere easily.
1.Coffee soon became a preferred drink over alcohol due to the fact that people would rather have their days start off with a cup of coffee. It kept them alert and active. It allowed people to get sober and keep away headaches.
2. A tavern was back then was similar to a base nowadays. It was where people went to relax and enjoy a couple of drinks (alcohol). A coffee house was similar to coffee houses nowadays. Respectable people could be seen their enjoying a cup of coffee.
3. Coffee anitially originated from the arabs. There were many stories on how coffee began. One is a ethiopian man noticed the his flock became frisky after eating brown cherries from a tree. The ethiopian man went to the imam and the imam took the cherries and boiled them in the water creating coffee.
4. Coffee soon became introduced to the american population after Europeans embraced it. Coffee began to spread around the world by european powers. Coffee became a worldwide substance.
1. Coffee houses were very important. They were important because it was where people would go to buy coffee, People would have conversation and hang out too. They would also go because it was a quieter place to read.
2. The London Stock Exchange developed due to the rapid growth of trade. The government passed an act “to restrain the number of practice mod brokers and stockjobbers”. The informal way of coffeehouse trading became apparent. People would go to Jonathan’s Coffee House to trade.
4. Voltaire was was a French philosopher. He extended the t=new scientific rationalism into the social and political spheres.
5. English coffeehouses were places of unrestrained political discusion and were even as the headquarters of political parties. French coffee houses were for entertainment poets would go there. They even allowed women. Philosophers attended and so did actors and scientists, dozens of coffees were drunk.
7. Todays coffeehouses and coffeehouses in the book have a lot in common. People meet to discuss, develop, and exchange ideas and information. They also were and still are hangout spots.
1. Tea was used as fuel for workers who operated machine powered factories. It started off as a luxury drink.. Then it soon became the drink of a working class man.
2. Tea became the national drink of the Chinese Empire. Emperor Shen Nung was the first to brew a cup of tea. It was refreshing and medicinal.
3. The major imports of the Tang dynasty was silk, tea, paper, and ceramics. Chinese customs flourished.
4. Tea was made popular in Europe because it was medicinal.
5. In france tea was eclipsed by coffee and chocolate.. Tea became fashionable from the queen and Charles’s. it was also served at meetings.
1. The Americans separated manufacturing from assembly. Specialized machines were used to crank out large numbers of interchangeable parts, which were used to crank out large numbers parts which then became fixed products. This became the beginning of of americas industrial might. It made it possible for the mass production and mass marketing of consumer goods, which quickly became an integral part of the American way of life.
2. John Priestley an English man became curios and began experimenting different things. He held a candle over above beer and marked down that the layer of gas was extinguished. The smoke from the glass then carried along by the gas, rendering it briefly visible, and reveling that it ran over the sides . The gas was heavier than air. He could then cause the gas to dissolve in water creating sparkling water.
3. Pemberton added syrup to carbonated water by accident. Pemberton stopped making French Wine Coca because on July 1, 1886 Atlanta and Fulton county to prohibit the sale of alcohol for a two year trial period. Pemberton then needed to produce a nonalcoholic beverage fast!
4. Coca cola could was viewed as a cure for “Sovereign Remedy for Headache”. It was sold to pharmacies. It was only limited to those who identify with the symptoms.
1. Manufacturing was separated from assembly by the americans. Special machines were used to crank out large numbers of interchangeable parts, they then became fixed products. It was then possible for mass production and and mass consumer goods.
2. John priestly was curios and he experimented things. Priestly put a candle over beer and a layer of gas was extinguished. The glasses smoke was carried by the gas, he caused it to dissolve in water and that made sparkling water.
3. Pemberton put syrup in the carbonated water. Pemberton stopped making wine coke because atlanta and fulton county prohibited the selling of alcohol for two years.
4. coca cola was a cure for ‘Sovereign Remedy for Headache”. It was only for people who had symptoms and it was sold at pharmacies.
1. Coca cola and WWII went together because soldiers were given coca cola for 5 cents wherever they were and however much it costs the company. Coca cola was popular among soldiers. Coca cola reminded soldiers of home.
2. Communist countries became outraged. Communist believed coke was not healthy. They also believed consuming coca cola would pollute europeans with american culture values.The fall of the iron curtain led coke to abandon its plans.
1. The most important beverage today is coffee. It is the first thing most people drink when they wake up. It keeps the wake and focused. In fact, many people can’t function without it.
2. Developed nations view tap water just as safe as bottled water. In developing world water is a matter of life or death.
3. Countries caused war from water because some worried it was contaminated.