Breastfeeding is the most importance nutrition a newborn can receive. The benefits of breastfeeding are tremendous. The Surgeon General states, “Breastfeeding protects babies from infections and illnesses that include diarrhea, ear infections and pneumonia, breastfed babies are less likely to develop asthma, children who are breastfed for six months are less likely to become obese, and breastfeeding also reduces the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)” (“Fact sheet,” n.d., p. 1). State the objective of the policy
Increase breastfeeding and best breastfeeding techniques for healthier babies. Create support for mothers who are thinking about, are new to, or are thinking about skipping breastfeeding their new baby. Create programs for the support people in the new mothers’ life, including the father and the grandparents, to educate about the importance of breastfeeding. Create strong community support with other nursing mothers and provide counseling. Create a national campaign to promote and support breastfeeding. Formulation stage
The second stage of the policy making process is formulation. Boundless.com states formulation “involves policymakers proposing courses of action for addressing issues that have been brought to the agenda” (“Formulation,” n.d., p. 1). Formulation is the stage of policy process that involves proposing solutions to agenda issues. Legislative stage
There are several steps in the Legislative stage of policy making. The first step is to introduce the bill. Any member of Congress can introduce a bill and the person or persons who introduce the bill are the sponsors of the bill. Introduced bill are given a number to identify them. The identifying number begins with H.R. The second step is Committee action. The chairman determines if there will be a hearing on the bill that was introduced in the first step. At this step the Committee members can meet and offer mark ups. Mark ups are amendments to the bill. After the amendments have been agreed upon the bill will be reported out. The third step is the Committee Report. The Committee report is a description of the intent of the bill, history of the bill hearings, impact of existing laws, and position of the members of the committee. The fourth step is floor debate and votes.
The decision to put a bill before the full body for debate is made by the Majority Leader of the Senate and the Speaker of the House. Rules apply to how the governing debate is handled on both the House and Senate sides. The House can only offer an amendment is that the Rules Committee has approved it. Senators in The Senate can offer an amendment at any time as long as the amendment is relevant to the current bill being proposed. A majority vote will rule for an amendment and for the final passage of the bill.
The fifth step is a Conference on the bill. When changes are made to a bill then the changes must go back to the original chamber for a concurring vote. If the House and Senate make too many different amendments to the bill then the conference committee is given the task to reconcile both House and Senate changes into one bill that is agreed upon. If there is not an agreement to the combined changes from the conference committee then the bill dies. If an agreement is reached the conference report is written with the recommended changes from the conference committee. At this point both the House and the Senate have to approve the report form the conference committee. If either side cannot agree on the conference report, the bills dies.
The sixth step in the legislative process is action by the President. The final bill is sent to the President after the conference report has been approved by the Senate and the House. If the President approves then it is signed into law. There are some caveats to this process. If the President does not sign the bill with in ten days and Congress is still in session then the bill will automatically become a bill. The President can veto a bill if he is opposed to it. A pocket veto happens if the President takesno action on a bill and the Congress has already adjourned for its second session. At that point the bill also dies. Legislative body’s approval process
As stated by The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), “The two most important players in the budget process are the legislature and the executive budget office” (Posner & Park, 2007, p. 1). An earmark is a congressional provision to allow direct funds to be spent on specific projects. Merriam-Webster defines earmark as, “A provision in Congressional legislation that allocates a specified amount of money for a specific project, program, or organization” (“Earmark,” n.d., p. 1). Earmarks can also be from mandatory fees or tax exemptions. An appropriation bill is a legislative authorization to spend money. This is a bill that has been created to store away money for spending or funding of another bill. Implementation stage
The Implementation stage is the process that is involved to put the new policy into effect. There are three steps in this process The first step is once the President has signed the bill and made it a law the law is passed to the appropriate levels of government through the appropriate agency. For instance, a law enforcing new traffic safety rules would be passed down to the state, city, and county law enforcement agencies for implementation. The second important step in Implementation is the law is able to be clearly interpreted. Clear operating rules and procedures are necessary for the new bill to be followed correctly. Confusion about the bill makes it hard for agencies to adopt it and can bring the bill to the judiciary level for further clarification. The third step is difficult for agencies that are already feeling the effect of budget cuts. Resources are hard to come by for some agencies and this causes difficulty in Implementation of the law. Accountable parties and their roles
In the first stage of the Implementation process the new law would be handed down to the appropriate levels of government agencies. The Women, Infant, and Child (WIC) program would be able to help establish community program and counseling on breastfeeding. Federal, state, and local health departments would be able to help support and grow the national campaign on breastfeeding. In the second stage of Implementation, exact clarification and understanding of the bill would need to come from the Federal level, to the state and then local governments. Getting the correct policies and procedures for all participating agencies is vital for continuity of the law to be delivered correctly. Without clear rules and guidelines to follow then different agencies may feel able to change the law to suit their own needs or agenda. The third stage is difficult to achieve for any law, but a new law that is trying to create a national, state, and local campaign on breastfeeding and the benefits for mother and child will need to receive funding from somewhere.
Hospitals help provide some funding for classes and groups in the local community. Employers can also support nursing mothers with longer breaks for expressing milk or the ability to work towards paid maternity leave. All levels of government will need to find extra funds to help promote breastfeeding. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states, “continues its long-standing dedication to improving the health and wellness of all Americans through the Community Transformation Grant (CTG) Program” (“Funding,” n.d., p. 1). Conclusion
Breastfeeding is an important and vital resource for mothers and families in the nutrition and wellbeing of newborns, infants, and beyond. As long as the mother is comfortable with nursing mother’s milk has the best nutrition and ability to help prevent health issues in the child. Getting a bill passed into law is an arduous process and may not come to fruition. Understanding the legislative process is necessary for the development and process of getting a bill passed into law.
Community Transformation Grants. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dch/programs/communitytransformation/ Definition. (n.d.). In Earmark. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/earmark Policy Formulation. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.boundless.com/political-science/domestic-policy/policy-making-process/policy-formulation/ Posner, P., & Park, C. (2007). Role of the