Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources and natural resources. Since organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens the opportunity to ‘manage’ oneself, a pre-requisite to attempting to manage others.
Classical economists such as Adam Smith (1723–1790) and John Stuart Mill (1806–1873) provided a theoretical background to resource-allocation, production, and pricing issues. About the same time, innovators like Eli Whitney (1765–1825), James Watt (1736–1819), and Matthew Boulton (1728–1809) developed elements of technical production such as standardization, quality-control procedures, cost-accounting, interchangeability of parts, and work-planning. Many of these aspects of management existed in the pre-1861 slave-based sector of the US economy. That environment saw 4 million people, as the contemporary usages had it, “managed” in profitable quasi-mass production.
By about 1900 one finds managers trying to place their theories on what they regarded as a thoroughly scientific basis (see scientism for perceived limitations of this belief). Examples include Henry R. Towne’s Science of management in the 1890s, Frederick Winslow Taylor’s The Principles of Scientific Management (1911), Frank and Lillian Gilbreth’s Applied motion study (1917), and Henry L. Gantt’s charts (1910s). J. Duncan wrote the first college management textbook in 1911. In 1912 Yoichi Ueno introduced Taylorism to Japan became first management consultant of the “Japanese-management style”. His son Ichiro Ueno pioneered Japanese quality assurance. The first comprehensive theories of management appeared around 1920. The Harvard Business School offered the first Master of Business Administration degree (MBA) in 1921. People like Henri Fayol (1841–1925) and Alexander Church described the various branches of management and their inter-relationships. In the early 20th century, people like Ordway Tead (1891–1973), Walter Scottand J. Mooney applied the principles of psychology to management, while other writers, such as Elton Mayo (1880–1949), Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933), Chester Barnard (1886–1961), Max Weber (1864–1920), Rensis Likert (1903–1981), and Chris Argyris (1923 – ) approached the phenomenon of management from a sociological perspective.
Peter Drucker (1909–2005) wrote one of the earliest books on applied management: Concept of the Corporation (published in 1946). It resulted from Alfred Sloan (chairman of General Motors until 1956) commissioning a study of the organization. Drucker went on to write 39 books, many in the same vein. H. Dodge, Ronald Fisher (1890–1962), and Thornton C. Fry introduced statistical techniques into management-studies. In the 1940s,Patrick Blackett worked in the development of the applied mathematics science of operations research, initially for military operations. Operations research, sometimes known as “management science” (but distinct from Taylor’s scientific management), attempts to take a scientific approach to solving decision problems, and can be directly applied to multiple management problems, particularly in the areas of logistics and operations.
Some of the more recent developments include the Theory of Constraints, management by objectives, reengineering, Six Sigma and various information-technology-driven theories such as agile software development, as well as group management theories such as Cog’s Ladder. As the general recognition of managers as a class solidified during the 20th century and gave perceived practitioners of the art/science of management a certain amount of prestige, so the way opened for popularized systems of management ideas to peddle their wares. In this context many management fads may have had more to do with pop psychology than with scientific theories of management. Towards the end of the 20th century, business management came to consist of six separate branches, namely:
•Human resource management
•Operations management or production management
•Information technology management responsible for management information systems
In the 21st century observers find it increasingly difficult to subdivide management into functional categories in this way. More and more processes simultaneously involve several categories. Instead, one tends to think in terms of the various processes, tasks, and objects subject to management. Branches of management theory also exist relating to nonprofits and to government: such as public administration, public management, and educational management. Further, management programs related to civil-society organizations have also spawned programs in nonprofit management and social entrepreneurship. Note that many of the assumptions made by management have come under attack from business ethics viewpoints, critical management studies, and anti-corporate activism. As one consequence, workplace democracy has become both more common, and more advocated, in some places distributing all management functions among the workers, each of whom takes on a portion of the work.
However, these models predate any current political issue, and may occur more naturally than does a command hierarchy. All management to some degree embraces democratic principles in that in the long term workers must give majority support to management; otherwise they leave to find other work, or go on strike. Despite the move toward workplace democracy, command-and-control organization structures remain commonplace and the de facto organization structure. Indeed, the entrenched nature of command-and-control can be seen in the way that recent layoffs have been conducted with management ranks affected far less than employees at the lower levels. In some cases, management has even rewarded itself with bonuses after laying off level workers. According to leading leadership academic Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries, it’s almost inevitable these days that there will be some personality disorders in a senior management team.
Management operates through various functions, often classified as planning, organizing, staffing, leading/directing, controlling /monitoring and motivation. •Planning: Deciding what needs to happen in the future (today, next week, next month, next year, over the next five years, etc.) and generating plans for action. •Organizing: (Implementation) pattern of relationships among workers, making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans. •Staffing: Job analysis, recruitment and hiring for appropriate jobs. •Leading/directing: Determining what needs to be done in a situation and getting people to do it. •Controlling/monitoring: Checking progress against plans. •Motivation: Motivation is also a kind of basic function of management, because without motivation, employees cannot work effectively. If motivation does not take place in an organization, then employees may not contribute to the other functions (which are usually set by top-level management).
•Interpersonal: roles that involve coordination and interaction with employees.
•Informational: roles that involve handling, sharing, and analyzing information.
•Decisional: roles that require decision-making.
•Political: used to build a power base and establish connections.
•Conceptual: used to analyze complex situations.
•Interpersonal: used to communicate, motivate, mentor and delegate.
•Diagnostic: ability to visualize most appropriate response to a situation.
•Technical: Expertise in one’s particular functional area.
Formation of the business policy
•The mission of the business is the most obvious purpose—which may be, for example, to make soap. •The vision of the business reflects its aspirations and specifies its intended direction or future destination. •The objectives of the business refers to the ends or activity at which a certain task is aimed. •The business’s policy is a guide that stipulates rules, regulations and objectives, and may be used in the managers’ decision-making. It must be flexible and easily interpreted and understood by all employees. •The business’s strategy refers to the coordinated plan of action that it is going to take, as well as the resources that it will use, to realize its vision and long-term objectives. It is a guideline to managers, stipulating how they ought to allocate and utilize the factors of production to the business’s advantage. Initially, it could help the managers decide on what type of business they want to form.
Implementation of policies and strategies
•All policies and strategies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff. •Managers must understand where and how they can implement their policies and strategies. •A plan of action must be devised for each department.
•Policies and strategies must be reviewed regularly.
•Contingency plans must be devised in case the environment changes. •Assessments of progress ought to be carried out regularly by top-level managers. •A good environment and team spirit is required within the business. •The missions, objectives, strengths and weaknesses of each department must be analyzed to determine their roles in achieving the business’s mission. •The forecasting method develops a reliable picture of the business’s future environment. •A planning unit must be created to ensure that all plans are consistent and that policies and strategies are aimed at achieving the same mission and objectives. All policies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff that is required in the execution of any departmental policy. •Organizational change is strategically achieved through the implementation of the eight-step plan of action established by John P. Kotter: Increase urgency, get the vision right, communicate the buy-in, empower action, create short-term wins, don’t let up, and make change stick.
Policies and strategies in the planning process
•They give mid and lower-level managers a good idea of the future plans for each department in an organization. •A framework is created whereby plans and decisions are made. •Mid and lower-level management may add their own plans to the business’s strategies.
Levels of management
Most organizations have three management levels: first-level, middle-level, and top-level managers. These managers are classified in a hierarchy of authority, and perform different tasks. In many organizations, the number of managers in every level resembles a pyramid. Each level is explained below in specifications of their different responsibilities and likely job titles.
Consists of board of directors, president, vice-president, CEOs, etc. They are responsible for controlling and overseeing the entire organization. They develop goals, strategic plans, company policies, and make decisions on the direction of the business. In addition, top-level managers play a significant role in the mobilization of outside resources and are accountable to the shareholders and general public. According to Lawrence S. Kleiman, the following skills are needed at the top managerial level.  •Broadened understanding of how: competition, world economies, politics, and social trends effect organizational effectiveness . The role of the top management can be summarized as follows – •Top management lays down the objectives and broad policies of the enterprise. •It issues necessary instructions for preparation of department budgets, procedures, schedules etc. •It prepares strategic plans & policies for the enterprise. •It appoints the executive for middle level i.e. departmental managers. •It controls & coordinates the activities of all the departments. •It is also responsible for maintaining a contact with the outside world. •It provides guidance and direction.
•The top management is also responsible towards the shareholders for the performance of the enterprise.
Consist of general managers, branch managers and department managers. They are accountable to the top management for their department’s function. They devote more time to organizational and directional functions. Their roles can be emphasized as executing organizational plans in conformance with the company’s policies and the objectives of the top management, they define and discuss information and policies from top management to lower management, and most importantly they inspire and provide guidance to lower level managers towards better performance. Some of their functions are as follows: •Designing and implementing effective group and intergroup work and information systems. •Defining and monitoring group-level performance indicators. •Diagnosing and resolving problems within and among work groups. •Designing and implementing reward systems supporting cooperative behavior.
Consist of supervisors, section leads, foremen, etc. They focus on controlling and directing. They usually have the responsibility of assigning employees tasks, guiding and supervising employees on day-to-day activities, ensuring quality and quantity production, making recommendations, suggestions, and upchanneling employee problems, etc. First-level managers are role models for employees that provide: •Basic supervision.
•Performance feed back
Toward the end of your studies, you may get to take courses on business policy and strategy. You’ll discuss case studies, descriptions of real companies facing real challenges. You’ll use everything you’ve learned in your other classes, from business law to human resources to finance, to practice solving business problems. This is a great way to bridge the gap between your classroom studies and the world of management.
Management graduates typically find management and supervisory jobs in every type and area of business, industry and government. Grads may choose to use their diploma as a stepping stone to a BBA degree.
Business Administration: Management Concentration(BBM)
The Bachelor of Science degree in Business Administration prepares students with the skills necessary to meet today’s business demands and those for the future. This major provides students with a solid business core that includes an extensive background in the functional areas of marketing, finance, accounting, and management; an understanding of the business environment to include the legal, economic, behavioral, human resource, ethical, and international aspects; technical skills in information systems and quantitative analysis; and the ability to communicate, integrate and synthesize. The degree focuses on integrating theory and practice, so that graduates possess the ability to communicate effectively; understand the internal and external environments of business; appreciate the legal, ethical, strategic and behavioral contexts of business decisions; and understand the financial and economic dynamics that constitute the context for business activity. Graduates profit from the technological emphasis of the College, which helps to better prepare them for their career choices, including continued study in a graduate program.
Supervisory/management positions within a variety of business environments, and for other related positions of interest. Preparation in international business, including participation in a “Study Abroad” program in Germany, affords graduates the skills and abilities to seek positions with multi-national corporations. Elective courses, including participation in an internship with a business of the student’s choice further increase a
All students entering the major are tested for English, mathematics and reading deficiencies. Students are expected to remediate any deficiencies during their first semester. In addition to the standard remediation requirements, applicants to this major must remediate algebra deficiencies identified during placement testing.
All transfer credits will be evaluated on a course-by-course basis to determine where they would fit into the curriculum sequence. Students must have earned a grade of ‘C’ or better in courses transferred into the B.S. Program Goals
A graduate of this major should be able to:
understand how to plan, organize, lead, and control within an organizational setting. increase individual knowledge and understanding of self, the dynamics of group and team interactions, and their impact upon productivity, efficiency, and effectiveness. recognize the skills and techniques needed for problem solving and decision making. understand the application of laws and the legal system to the business environment. communicate effectively both orally and in writing.
understand basic statistical and quantitative analysis and their application in the business environment. understand the international arena and its current role and impact on business. recognize the importance of business ethics and social responsibility to business operations. understand basic accounting methods and their business applications. utilize financial analysis within a business environment. analyze business operations using information systems.
identify the broad functions of marketing and their applications to business. apply the strategic management process to an analysis of the current business environment, identifying and forecasting trends, and making recommendations on preferred courses of action.
Business Management & Administration
Main Aim(s) of the Unit:
The unit introduces the student to a range of studies which are useful in understanding people in the workplace. It examines the concept of management within the global business environment and through the appraisal of business cases, a variety of approaches are considered. The unit prepares students for their likely future roles as managers in organisations. It encourages them to synthesize knowledge and experience gained in other units by considering competing perspectives on the nature of management. It encourages them to reflect upon the contribution that they might make as individuals to the management process, and to explore their own skills as potential managers, within the context of their peer group. The unit touches practical, moral and ethical dimensions of the management role and examines the key problems and dilemmas that may emerge for stakeholders in contemporary organisations.
Main Topics of Study:
The Organisational Background to Business Administration
The Management Framework to Business Administration
•What are Business Administration and Management?
•The Board of Directors
•Functions within an Organisation
•The ‘Systems’ Approach to Organisation
•Planning-Control Feedback Cycles
Characteristic Features of Organisations
•The Structure of Organisations and the Need for Authority
•The Features of Bureaucratic and Non-Bureaucratic Organisations
•Traditional Principles and Types of Organisation
•More about Systems & Subsystems
The Structure of Business Enterprises
•The Pattern of Organisations
•Business Types including; Sole-Trder Enterprises, Partnerships, Limited
•Partnerships, The Limited Liability Company, Non-Profit-Making Units (Clubs & Societies), Public Enterprises
•Public Sector Organisations; Autonomous Public Corporations, Nationalised Industries, Local Government Institutions, Central Government Departments Functions within Organisations
The Production Function:
•The Production Process and Types of Production
•Site Selection & Factory Planning
•Plant & Equipment
•Materials & Materials Handling
•Costing Aspects of Production
•Maintenance & Production
•CAD, CAM & CIM
The Purchasing Function:
•The Nature of Purchasing and the Role of the Purchasing Officer
•Purchasing Department Procedures, Inventory Control, Stores Control and Economic Order Quantity The Research & Development Function:
•The Functions of the Research & Development Department
•Applied Research & Development
•Patents, Trade Marks & Service Marks
•Research & Development in the Business Organisation
The Marketing Function:
•Introduction to Marketing and The Marketing Philosophy
•Market Analysis & Research
•Promotion, Publicity & Public Relations
•Transport & Distribution (Logistics)
•The Need for Staff
•The Functions of the Personnel Department and a Personnel Policy
•Promotion, Transfer, Termination & Dismissal
The Administrative Officer’s Role
•Industrial Relations Practice
•The Remuneration of Staff
•The Role of the Administrative Officer
•Facilities Management – The ‘New-Look’ Office Administrator
•The Office & its Functions
•The Clerical Function, Business Correspondence, Mail Inwards, Mail
•Outwards, Systems for Producing Business Correspondence.
•Meetings, Conferences, Functions and Delegation
Other Responsibilities of the Administrative Officer:
•The Organisation & Methods Department
•Security Aspects of Business
•The Environment of Organisations
•What is a Claimant?
•Assessing the Impact of Claimants
Learning Outcomes for the Unit On successful completion of this unit students will be able to:
Provide critical evaluation of the major functional areas of a business and describe their interrelationship. Evaluate competing perspectives on the nature of management as both a function and process within organisations
Discuss the concept of managerial power and authority, in the context of the work of individual managers, and organisations within their social and cultural contexts. Discuss models of managerial decision-making
Discuss the development of organisations in their historical, social and cultural contexts, and the choices that this creates for the management of organisations
Explain the process of organisational change and development. Discuss management as a moral and ethical process