1. South African Police Services
1.1 Problems in the SAPS
The SAPS is faced with unfit and overweight officers, this is due to officers not keeping fit after they have been appointed. The main cause for the officers not maintaining their fitness is that there is no policy that binds them to stay fit throughout their employment in the police service. Even though there are gym facilities provided, staff can only make use of this facility after hours and it seems some officers would much rather go home than spend an few minutes in the gym, which would help them maintain reasonable weight and a healthy body. Another problem is the manner in which candidates are recruited and selected; in the case study there is no mention of an aptitude or psychometric test that is conducted before selection of employees. Fitness is not the only important thing for police officers and any other position, staff should also be able to think logically even under pressure.
1.2 Recruitment & Selection Process
Recruitment is the process of acquiring applicants who are available and qualified to fill positions in the organisation. Selection is the process of interviewing and evaluating candidates for a specific job and selecting an individual for employment based on certain criteria. Employee selection can range from a very simple process to a very complicated process depending on the firm hiring and the position available. G. Roberts, 2004.
Judging from the case study, recruitment in the SAPS is not academic; it depends entirely on the individual’s weight as well as body fat percentage and the ability to survive the fitness test. Physical aspects are the only things that candidates are tested on at the SAPS, their mental abilities are not focused on at all and this is not a very wise approach for selection. A mental or skills test is important because it helps the employer view the mental capacity of the applicant and, it is crucial in the SAPS because once employed the applicants will be dealing with people’s lives and one needs to know if the selected applicants are mentally fit for the police environment.
Most applicants who undergo the fitness test at SAPS are not selected because of their passion to serve and protect our country; some candidates make sure that they pass the fitness test simply because they are desperate to secure a job and also knowing that they will not spend more than 6 months in training before they are employed on a permanent basis. The proper selection framework is not followed in the SAPS and candidates do not undergo interviews, which would help the employer to learn more about the applicants’ personality, skills and background. The training period should be longer than 6 months so that the employer has adequate time to evaluate each candidate’s performance and dedication as well as shortfalls, there should also be a reassessment before applicants are permanently employed.
1.3 The Retention Function
An organisation needs employees who are loyal and work hard with full dedication to achieve the organization’s objective that is why it is important for the management to retain its valuable employees who think in favour of the organization and contribute their level best. Management Study Guide, Role of HR in Employee Retention Accessed: http://www.managementstudyguide.com/role-of-hr-in-employee-retention.htm 8.08.2012 The retention function is made up of five factors, below is an explanation of each factor: * Training and Development
Employee training and development is the key factor in meeting an organisation’s goals because sometimes you find that new employees may not have the necessary skills and abilities required for competency on a certain job but with training, they become fully equipped to carry out their duties with more confidence. Development of employees is the process of updating skills and knowledge that staff have and it enables employees to acquire the skills required for a promotion and eases the transition to a position that entails greater responsibilities. Training and development of employees increases job satisfaction and motivation among employees which in some way improves the performance and image of the organisation. Pg 395
* Performance Management
This process affects organisational success by having managers and employees work together to set expectations, review results and reward performance. Most companies measure performance based on individual Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). Performance is awarded in some companies in the form of cash ie, performance bonuses and this helps keep staff motivated and in spirit of achieving results above their capabilities. Pg 293 * Remuneration and Benefits
Reward for employment in the form of pay, salary, or wage, including allowances, benefits (such as company car, medical plan, pension plan), bonuses, cash incentives, and monetary value of the noncash incentives. To make your company competitive and attractive to job candidates, you have to offer an exceptional package. William J Tothwell, HC Kazanas; Strategic Planning for Personnel Management 2nd Edition, Published: HRD Press Inc 2006
* Labour Relations
This is a continuous relationship between a defined group of employees, represented by a union and an employer. The existence of labour relations focuses on the laws, rules, regulations, structures and procedures governing the employment relationship by proving Employee Assistance Programme (EAP) and advocacy for both the employee and employee in the event of disputes or misconduct.
* HR Administration
Human resource administration refers to the managing of human capital within an organization or industry. Once called “personnel management,” human resources is leading the way for improving the overall employment experience for billions of hard-working professionals around the world. This section deals with record keeping, calculations and processing of salaries as well as leave administration.
Below I will discuss how each of the above factors of retention are utilised in the SAPS: * Training and Development: Candidates only receive training before selection and only six months after they are selected but once they are hired as officers, there are no measures taken to further train and develop their skills and fitness levels.
* Performance Management: Continuous efforts have been made to establish and maintain performance management systems within the Service to ensure accountability and to monitor and assess employees’ performance and that is why we have witnessed changes in the leadership. Judging from the case study, the SAPS does not seem to have an effective performance management system for officers who are not at executive level and that may be the cause for employees to have less passion and commitment to their jobs. When performance is not monitored employees less attention to performing their tasks, they reach a comfort zone and that is why police officers have a bad reputation.
* Remuneration and Benefits: Police officers earn lucrative salaries coupled with housing and medical aid benefits. The SAPS supports its employees through ensuring the best possible benefits for its employees, collectively.
* Labour Relations: The Service has operated within the collective bargaining arena for the past ten years. As part of continuous efforts by the SAPS to improve labour relations, a critical analysis and audit of labour relations within the SAPS was undertaken. South African Police Annual Report 2004-2005. http://www.saps.gov.za/saps_profile/strategic_framework/annual_report/2004_2005/part4_pg22_32.pdf
* HR Administration: The SAPS employees always get paid on time and hav.
1.4 Possible Solutions
As the Human Resource Manager I would suggest the following solutions to the problems faced by the SAPS, as identified in 1.1: * Enforcement of fitness by creating a policy that binds SAPS employees to train and maintain their fitness levels throughout their employment in the service. * Provide gym facilities in the work environment so that officers can keep fit. * Prolong the training period to be a maximum of 18 months so that there is enough time to monitor and evaluate the candidate’s attitudes and commitment to the job. * For selection purposes I would conduct interviews and aptitude tests in order to evaluate all applicants’ intellectual and mental skills instead of focusing on fitness only, selection will be more stringent.
2.1. Internal VS External Marketing
This is a means of involving staff at all levels in effective marketing programme by enabling them to understand their role within the marketing process. Treating employees as internal customers, is increasingly recognized as an effective means of raising staff motivation and, ultimately, organizational performance. One of the biggest challenges facing many internal marketers is how to create, manage and keep up-to-date their large email lists with traditional tools like Microsoft Outlook, which are designed to handle personal email requirements and not pan-organizational campaigns. Another major challenge is being able to measure the response to communication campaigns and internal change initiatives in order to gauge their effect and success. Training staff for the purpose of skills or self development is another means of internal marketing. External Marketing
Retention: To retain good staff and to encourage them to give of their best while at work requires attention to the financial and psychological and even physiological rewards offered by the organization as a continuous exercise.