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Chemistry of Life: Study Guide Essay Sample

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Chemistry of Life: Study Guide Essay Sample

1) What are the major components of an atom? Proton, Electron and Neutron
2) Which Subatomic particle is most important to biological systems? The most important subatomic particle to biological systems is
3) Be able to indentify various Chemicals bonds.
4) How does polarity of water make it an excellent solvent? The polarity of water is caused by the electro negativity of the oxygen atom, so electron density is drawn towards it from the hydrogen’s thus leaving a permanent dipole
5) How are the various properties of water utilized in biological systems?

6) Be able to analyze the components of a pH scale.

7) Why is Carbon the building block of all life on Earth?

Among all of the chemical elements, carbon has the greatest capacity to bond to itself and to most other nonmetallic elements, especially nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulfur, and hydrogen. This ability makes it the building block of life as we know it.

8) Identify Products in a chemical equation
9) Identify reactants in a chemical equation
10) The definition of organic molecule is An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. 11) Four macromolecules are Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids and Nucleic Acid. 12) Carbohydrates- Short term energy( sugar ) and structural energy Lipids- Long term energy storage and insulation

Proteins- Build or repair tissue and catalyze chemical reactions Nucleic Acid- storage of heritable information and helps make protein 13) Carbohydrates- Grains and Fruits
Lipids- Butter and Oil
Proteins- Meat, eggs, soybeans
Nucleic Acid- Nucleus of living cells
14) Carbohydrates- Plants: cellulose Animals:Glycogen
Lipids- Cell Membranes: Phospholipids
Proteins- Humans: Skin, Hair, Nails , Organs.. Enzymes: make or break molecules Nucleic Acid- DNA: Genetic Blueprint… RNA:

Copies DNA
15) Carbohydrates- Monomer: Monosaccharide… Polymer: Polysaccharide Lipids- Monomer; Glycerol Head and Fatty Acid tail
Proteins- Monomer: Amino Acid… Polymer: Polypeptide Chain
Nucleic Acid- Monomer: Nucleotide… Polymer: DNA/RNA strands 16) All four are important. Carbohydrates and lipids make up the majority of structures in cells. Proteins make up the majority of enzymes and drive energy production in the cell. But none would exist without the genetic code stored by nucleic acids in DNA. So I think nucleic acids are the most important. 17) To make or break molecules

18) Substrates are molecules that enzymes help to bring together. When substrates are brought together, the chance of a chemical reaction occurring becomes higher. Enzymes also lower the activation energy of chemical reactions (meaning the energy required for the reaction to start). So basically, it doesn’t take as much energy to get the reaction going if an enzyme is involved. 19) Understanding of “induced fit” and “lock and key”.

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