At birth surprisingly a child has intellectually learned to do things already such as smell their mother and recognise her voice. They have also learnt that when they cry it lets people know that they need help and within the first few days of life they learn to use their senses particularly touch, taste and sound. At infancy a child is expected to weigh around 3.5kg or 7 1/2lbs and 50cm long. Bonding is very important socially and emotionally for both mother and baby, helps relationship in later life because they become closer. The babies reflexes are now improving, some of them are automatic responses. E.g. sucking a nipple or a bottle. Grasp reflex is when a baby automatically grasps a finger if it is placed in their hand and also a startle reflex which is when a baby will hear a noise and clench their fists and move their head towards the noise. Walking and standing reflex is when baby is held upright and automatically make stepping movements following this is the moro reflex which is known as the falling reflex which is when a baby falls they know that they should grip something in front of them before falling or putting their hands down onto the floor to save their fall.
Babies at one month physically their reflexes have now become much stronger and are starting to progress onto different reflexes. Intellectually and socially the baby will learn a familiar voice, this sometimes stops them from crying because they know that someone they know is around them and enjoy being around that person. Emotionally the baby will stop crying when they are picked up but cry when they are put down. Start to relax when they are put into the bath or put to lie down for a nappy change. A baby at three months will now physically lift and turn its head to a stimulus in the room around them and will be interested in playing with their finger or other body parts. Intellectually the baby will learn to become excited when they see a bottle because they know that they are getting fed.
Social and emotionally the baby will now start to enjoy bath time and other play times and enjoy being around other people and seeing smiling faces and smiling back. At 6 months old a baby will now physically start to place things in their mouth as soon as they pick them up, they will also sit up alone with support of something behind them and try or successfully roll over from stomach to back or vice versa. Intellectually the baby will remember the tune to a certain song and enjoy with a smile on their face whilst someone is singing it this will help them make more noises such as babbling and laughing.
A baby that is aged between nine months and one year have very similar development stages between these ages they will physically learn to crawl and possibly pull themselves up onto things and maybe start taking a few steps. They will now start to pick at their food and feed themselves with their fingers. Intellectually the little one will now start exploring things in more detail and start making noises if they find it interesting .e.g. “oooooo”, some babies will no associate the word “bye bye” with waving their hand. Socially and emotionally the baby will want to stay close to parent or carer and will cry if they can’t see or are away from that person. At 18 months the child is now able to physically walk up down stairs with the help of an adult and also be able to pick up a spoon and feed themselves their food. Intellectually they will learn to be able to pronounce some easy words rather than babble. Socially and emotionally the child will show signs or temper and frustration and now will start wanting to become independent in some of the things that they do.
Start to show interest in playing with other children. When a child is two years old they have no physically learnt to run and climb and play on sit and ride toys possibly in the garden. Intellectually the child has now learnt words of familiar objects and also learnt how to solve simple jigsaws. Socially and emotionally the child will now start to enjoy playing in bigger groups of children and play different types of games. When the child doesn’t get what they want frustration is defiantly now shown and when they enjoy something they will show you that they are happy. When a child is going through childhood they still continue to grow at a steady rate, the rate that they grow at can vary due to genetic gene from their mum and dad and also from the diet, if the child is given the right food with lots of vitamins and calcium which helps bones grow stronger it will enable them to grow faster.
The main muscles in the body such as the legs grow longer and the muscle mass increases because they need to be able to run around and do activities. This can be helped by more exercise so they get used to having the experience of running around and having plenty of sleep so that they are able to get up and do these things without becoming too tired. Starting to enjoy physical activity such as outdoor activities, p.e, at these ages they love being outside and being energetic and having the chance to run round and interact with different objects. Now the child’s small muscle control improves for example the use and grasp of their hands, giving them play do to play with or providing them with the right equipment and helping them improve individually. At this age the child would have started school so manipulative development improves, for example they will be taught to use a knife and fork properly at the dinner table or learning how to hold a scissors correctly and cut out shapes.
First teeth that human were born with will now start to fall out and will be replaced by adult teeth. Great intellectual growth happens around these ages, things like learning to read and write happen now because they are attending school and learn to do this on a daily basis. Attending school means that the child will be solving problems, mathematics, count to a certain number, learning harder words and having spelling tests and moving up a stage on a book are all now taking place and are improving. All these skills that they learn in school will also be learned when they are in the house. Learning numbers can help the child to learn how to tell the time and start relating things with numbers such as there is 4 apples on that tree etc. The child can now concentrate for longer periods of time.
At the age of 4-5 years it’s uneasy for them to stay in the same place for a long space of time they like to be up and moving around but for older children going into 6-10 years old it is easier for them to sit and concentrate for longer. Focused interests such as collecting things like stamps and cards, or anything that interests them in general will now be something they might enjoy to do. The child is now developing a sense of logic and understanding this means that they could be given a game to play and they can understand it more easily, get along with the game and start playing in by them selves. Better sense of the tenses like past present and future, more able to explain when things happened, or when they are happening to people. The child still relies on their parents to look after them for example make them food when their hungry but as they do get older they are able to make their own food such as cereal and simple things like toast. They also still need to give them shelter and money so they can have a healthy lifestyle.
At the age of 7-10 they find out about self discovery they become their own person and also becomes less dependant on their parents, at this age they will start socialising with more people and start doing things themselves such as going out to play after school they also begin to have more confidence in themselves, believing that they can do more things than they think they can do. Now that the child is growing up they will like to play with the same sex child such as liking to play football with the boys or liking to play dress up with the girls. When they are outside playing or in the classroom they will start to introduce rules in a game with friends, normally making up the rules as they go along, such as changing where ‘den’ is. The child has now learnt their rights from their wrongs; this can be influenced hugely by the parents or the main carer through out their life.
At this stage in life this is where puberty takes affect on the body and changes a child into adolescence. Normally boys are behind girls in the form of development because the girls tend to hit puberty first. In both male and female hormones change and take affect on the mood swings and the way the body works, Also in both male and female the reproductive organs mature and are now ready to be used, such as the girls will start releasing eggs and the boys will now produce sperm. The male changes are things such as Testis enlarge, Pubic hairs grow, Body odour may develop, Growth spurt (grow taller).
Acne may develop, Voice deepens and the Shoulders broaden all these changes can take place over a certain time but they are all part of a man going into puberty. There are fewer changes for a female to go through but it happens quicker and normally before the boy, these changes are things such as, Breasts enlarge, Pubic hairs grow, Periods start and the Hips broaden. Now at this age a child is starting to pull away from their family and starting to become their own person completely for example they will like spending time with friends a lot more than spending time with their own family, going out not only after school but to town on the weekend. Strong peer links this means that they have a friend and they have the special connection with, they spend a lot of time with them and have more confidence whilst being around them. Also at this age young men and women start to become interested in the opposite sex, the boyfriend and girlfriend scene starts to begin and close relationships start to form. Being in school and around friends means that the child will start to try hard to fit into a group such as following a fashion group or people that have different types of interest that might make the person feel comfortable in. Peer pressure can also take a big effect on someone’s life at this stage some good and some bad.
Good influence are having friends and having the support you need off them when you’re sad. Although some friendship groups can lead you astray and make you do things such as drinking alcohol and taking drugs or the person might just be doing them to fit into a certain group so they don’t have to feel left out. You also become less argumentative because you’ve learnt your right from wrongs and know not to do them which causes let arguments between you and other people. Towards the end of adolescence you will think about leaving home due to things like college and university. You will now be having more independent thoughts you want to be more independent in the way you think and act, go out with your friends and do the things you want to do without anyone telling you that you can and cant. Concentrating on things for longer is now easier because you have a bigger attention span and can sit at set tasks without becoming distracted or acetated. You are also able to work more intensely on homework because you’ve sat there and concentrated in school so you can include more content in homework tasks. Working towards goals for example getting the exam marks you want and setting a goal to get into college or university and having your own home and car. Thoughts become more mature; the thoughts that are made in your mind become more moral.
If a child is less developed in reading than other children around them, if they have reading time on the carpet in groups, they might feel uncomfortable and upset they are unable to read out loud in front of the class. The child might then feel that they are unable to form friendships with other children due to embarrassment and low self esteem. These will affect their language and social development. This can cause the child to feel lonely and angry at themselves because they are not like the other children. If a child doesn’t like to share toys, this can cause a problem with social interaction as they will find it hard to form friendships with other children or are trying to share toys with them.
The other children will try to avoid the child that is unable to share knowing that the child isn’t going to be very nice, this can affect the emotional and social development of the child who isn’t to sharing as they will feel lonely because no other child will play with them. A child could be overweight and obese then he will struggle to do PE at school as he won’t have the energy and will get tired very quickly. This can cause his classmates to be annoyed at him for delaying the class because of his weight and they will bully him for it. This would leave the child feeling very hurt, embarrassed and he will lose his confidence and self-esteem. This will then effect his physical, social and emotional development. If a child is use to having his way all the time, such as him or her eating his lunch whilst watching TV, when the child is at nursery and rules are in place this will cause the child to have temper tantrums. This will affect his or her social, emotional and behaviour development. As he or her will not understand why at home he or her can watch TV and eat on the sofa, but at nursery he or her has to sit with the other children at the table and eat. This will make him or her feel very upset and frustrated as he or her is unable to understand the reasons behind it.
Background- The family that the child is a part of is a very big act on their lives. Many children grow up in all different families such as birth families, foster families and care families. Children who have good relationships with their families will have less stress to deal with and will find development a lot easier due to lots of confidence. If parents are split up and families are apart this tends too knock the child’s emotional development and also their social development. As they are cared for by two parents they might think that one is treating them differently than the other and get very confused. Health- Health is very very important in the development in a child. Sometimes children are born with health conditions and this can automatically effect their development and as they grow older it could develop into bigger problems for them and take a toll on their emotional development because of people making fun of them for example and them thinking that they are not normal like others.
If a child is ill for a long space of time this might effect their social development because they are unable to play or learn like other children which may delay them in making friends. Environment- The environment that children live in can have quite a big effect on the way a child develops. Some children are lucky because they have lots of opportunities to learn and progress in their education. Going to a good day nursery is a start; this boots their development because they have help to do so before starting school. If a child lives in an area that doesn’t have much facilities around them this can affect their development because they aren’t doing new things or having the chance to experience new things like other children in well facilitated areas would.
If a child does not talk to anyone or only speaks a few words, this may cause concern. This would socially affect the child because he or she would find it hard to make friends, work in groups with other children or even interact with adults. It will also affect the child’s communication development because he or she would find it hard to speak to people and also may find it hard to listen to instructions whilst being in the classroom for example. Early reorganisation would be the best way to help this child and concern, the first step would be to have the child ’s hearing checked because if they have poor hearing they will find it hard to hear people so will not want to socialise with others in case they get something wrong.
Poor reading and writing.
If a child has difficulties with their reading and writing it may cause concern to you but this may be hard to notice until the child is around the age of 6- 7 because by this age they should have learnt in school how letters are written correctly and start to put words together themselves. These are the main skills a child needs and should have at this age to help them develop in all areas of further school work and life. If the child has poor reading and writing the child will start to fall behind other people in the class. They may find it difficult to talk or make friends with others who are more advanced than them, in case they are bullied and made fun of. They would struggle with their intellectual development not only with the reading and writing, but they would struggle with their concentration. First of all the child could have tests done to see of any signs off a learning difficulty, if not then extra reading and writing support can be given to the child at home and and at school to allow him or her to to be at the same standard as people in the same class.