Instructions: Below you will find two questions for each of the eight Berk text chapters we have covered so far. One type of question requires you to connect with course content and the other requires you to apply it. Thoroughly and succinctly answer one question for each chapter (e.g. 1a or 1b but not both, 2a or 2b but not both). Your answers should be written in complete sentences and should demonstrate understanding of the material. This exam assesses your learning and comprehension, so show off your scholarship. Answers should be stated in your own words. Copy/pasted quotes and statements lifted directly from the textbook will not be accepted. You may either save this document on your computer and insert your answers into it or copy/paste your chosen questions into a new document and answer them. Be sure to proofread your work. One half of one percentage point will be deducted for each grammar and spelling error.
1a Application: A 4-year-old becomes frightened of the dark and refuses to go to sleep at night. How would a psychoanalyst and a behaviorist differ in their views of how this problem developed and what should be done about it. NOTE: Do more than summarize the concepts of the two approaches, here—you must explain concretely how each would explain the problem of fear of the dark and how the perspectives would differ.
A psychoanalyst believes that fears are from experienced events or the fear is a symbol of something that happened in the past. So if a child was afraid of the dark maybe the child was left at a young age and is afraid of being alone.
A behaviorist believes that a child acts a certain way due to a response that has been rewarded. In other words if the child acts scared of the dark, he or she is expecting to be able to have a light on or be comforted by the adult. That is what happened the previous time.
2a Connection: Read the description of the study investigating antisocial boys and their friendships on page 44 of your text. The data collection method was structured observation. What type of research design did the researchers use, and why?
The best research design for this type of information to be collected would be correlation design. This tested would be done with children living their normal day to day life with nothing altered to get the most accurate result.
3a Application: Nora, pregnant for the first time, has heard about the teratogenic impact of alcohol and tobacco. Nevertheless, she believes that a few cigarettes and a glass of wine a day won’t be harmful. Provide Nora with research-based reasons for not smoking or drinking.
Nora it is a proven fact that alcohol and tobacco use is very harmful to a baby during the pregnancy as well as after. The American Cancer Society stated that if a if the mother did not smoke five percent of the infant deaths would not have occurred. If the mother smokes while being pregnant she has a higher chance of delivering early. Premature babies have a higher chance of not making it. Children of smokers have high rates of heart defects. They are also three to four chances of being affected by sudden infant death syndrome, also known as SIDS. Smoking during pregnancy effects the growth of the fetus which turns the child into having a low birth weight. Even after the baby is born and the mother continues to smoke, the nicotine can be passed through the breast milk of a breastfeeding mother. (American Cancer Society)
Mothers who abuse alcohol during pregnancy are also harmful to their unborn child. Drinking while pregnant may cause a still birth, a miscarriage or may even preterm labor. The alcohol in the mothers blood runs right through the childs blood. A babies liver is much too tiny to work that hard and may cause long term health issues if it does survive the birth. The baby may have sight and hearing problems, birth defects, speech problems, behavior issues, as well as many other issues. (March of Dimes Foundation, 2012)
American Cancer Society. (06.2). Smoking can affect your baby`s health. In American Cancer Society. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/CancerCauses/TobaccoCancer/WomenandSmoking/women-and-smoking-health-of-others
March of Dimes Foundation. (2012, July). March of dimes Retrieved from http://www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/alcohol_indepth.html
4b Application: After several weeks of crawling, Benji learned to avoid going headfirst down a steep incline. Now he has started to walk. Can his mother trust him not to try walking down the steep surface? Explain, using the concept of affordances.
Affordances are action possibilities. Since Benji figured out how to crawl down the steep incline an knows that it is possible he will then try to walk down it. Mom needs to be aware of this and be available till he masters that skill.
5b Application: Lucia had a mild brain hemorrhage shortly after birth. Using what you know about brain plasticity, explain why her doctors believe her mental development will be normal, or near normal.
Brain plasticity would allow the brain to make up for areas that cannot do its job. When the brain is that young the specific jobs so to say are not given yet. All sections of the brain have a high capacity for learning. Once the hemispheres laterized this cannot be done as easily.
6a Application: Brett’s preschool teacher creates many opportunities for sociodramatic play in his classroom. Brett’s mother wonders whether Brett is learning anything from so much pretending. Using research findings, respond to her concern.
Children learn from deferred imitation. Children incorporate deferred imitation into their make believe play. Make believe play teaches children how to interact with other children. It lets children make believe normal life situations. Children will associate behavior and actions. A child’s communication socially and cognitively come into play as well.
7a Connection: Why are preschoolers’ eyewitness testimony usually less accurate than that of older children. What situational factors combine with reconstructive processing to heighten children’s suggestibility?
Children only report half of what was shown. Often children will report of gist which has more chances of being wrong. Older children are less likely to be misleaded by questions. Older children have a larger more development language. Pre-schoolers are not good at remembering the source of where they obtained their information.
8a Application: Eight-year-old Regina, an immigrant from Mexico, couldn’t answer test items asking for word definitions and general information. But she figured out which number comes next in a complex series and solved puzzles easily. How does Regina score in crystallized and fluid intelligence, and what might explain the difference?
Different cultures teach differently. Crystallized intelligence is based on experience as fluid intelligence is based on basic skills and processing. Regina is most likely higher on the fluid intelligence being able to problem solve. Since she could not recite general information her crystallized intelligence could be lower since she did not have to exercise that as often while living in her native home.