Child labourers are exploited, exposed to hazardous work conditions and paid a pittance for their long hours of work. They belong to the unorganized labour force. The Constitution of India says that: Child labourers are exploited, exposed to hazardous work conditions and paid a pittance for their long hours of work. They belong to the unorganized labour force. The Constitution of India says that: (a) No child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any hazardous employment (Article 24) (b) Childhood and youth are to be protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment (Article 39 (f)). (c)
The State shall endeavour to provide within a period of 10 year from the commencement of the Constitution free and compulsory education for all children until they have completed the age of 14 years (Article 45). A survey conducted by a research group sponsored by the Ministry of Labour, Government of India (Joshi, 1986) has reported that of the estimated 102.3 million households in the country, 34.7% had working children. Seventy nine per cent working children are in the rural areas. Two thirds of the working children belong to the 12-15 years age-group and the rest are below 12 years. A survey conducted by the Operations Research Group (ORG) Baroda (Vadodara) in 1985 had put the figure of working children at 44.5 million. 2. Nature of Child Work
A majority of the working children are found in rural area. In urban areas, they are found in canteens/restaurants, or are found engaged in picking rags and hawking goods on foot-path. But some children are working in highly hazardous conditions. For examples fireworks and match box units in Sivakasi in Ramanathapuram district in Tamil Nadu employ 45,000 children. A large number of children are working in stone polishing units in Jaipur, brassware industry in Moradabad, lock making units in Aligarh, Slate- industry in Markapur (Andhra Pradesh), Mandsaur (Madhya Pradesh) and the carpet-making in Jammu and Kashmir. 3. Government’s Policies for Enacting Lass against Child Labor The first Act to regulate the employment of children and their hours of work was the Factory Act of 1881. A Commission was established in 1929 to fix the minimum age of child employment, on whose recommendation, the Child Labour Act 1933 was passed prohibiting employment of children below 14 yeas of age.
The Factory Act of 1948 provided some safeguards to child labourers. In 1986, the Parliament enacted the Child Labour Act (Regulation and Prohibition), planning the employment of children in certain jobs and regulating the condition of work in hazardous occupations. The Juvenile Justice Act came into force on October 2, 1987 after superseding different Children’s Act of different States/UTs. India has ratified six ILO conventions relating to labour and three of them as early as in the first quarter of the 20th century. Through a Notification dated 27 January 1999, the Schedule to the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, has been substantially enlarged bringing the total number of occupations and processes listed in the Schedule 13 and 51 respectively. The National Policy on Child Labour was formulated in 1987 which enforces legal actions to protect the interests of children, makes development programmes for the benefit of child labour and projects based plan of action in the areas of high concentration of child labour.
National Child Labour Projects (NCLP) has been set up to rehabilitate child labour. The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) in their meeting on January 20, 1999 approved continuance of the scheme of National Child Labour Project (NCLP) during the Ninth Plan. The CCEA also approved the increase in the number of such projects from 76 to 100. The Government’s commitment to address the problem of child labour is reflected in the statement of National Agenda for Governance (1998), where it says that no child should remain illiterate, hungry/lack medical care and that measures will be taken to eliminate child labour. The Supreme Court of India in its judgement dated December 10, 1986 has directed to pay compensation of Rs 20,000 by the offending employers for every child employed in hazardous occupations. Efforts will be made to modify the existing National Child Labour Project under the Ninth Plan. You May Also Like:
* 481 words essay on television
* 5 essential characteristics of Child Centered Education Whenever a student is being asked to write an essay about 1000 words, a buzz sound is definitely going to alarm his/her head and student kept wondering about the length of 1000 words essay. Students want to complete the tricky assignment as soon as possible ignoring the quality of essay writing. Whether you write 1000 word essay or 250 words essay, your essay won’t worth the penny if it doesn’t have the quality to be appraised.
Some students are very fond of filling in the pages without considering how much they should write so that the reader can get something out of it. What if your teacher assigned you to write a 1000 words essay; what will you do now? You should realize that essay writing is neither about the words nor pages; it is about the goal you seek to grab the attention of your audience. Pages & words serve you the guideline to write an essay.
You have to answer a few questions before considering about the pages for 1000 word essay?
Are you going to write your 1000 word essay on MS word or A4 size paper? How much the line spacing would you be using for your essay writing? What would be the font size of your 1000 words essay?
Here is the tip:
The ideal font size for essay writing is 12; therefore, it’s always better to choose this font size. If you’re going to use MS word to write an essay; then it would count you 2 pages with a SINGLE LINE SPACE for the font size of 12 and DOUBLE LINE SPACE with a word count of 3 ½ pages for the similar font size. On the other hand, if you are using the A4 size paper; it would conclude your essay in 3 pages. Self help is the best help
What is self help? It means helping oneself. Does it mean that one need not help others? Reading between the lines, it indicates that one should not depend on others for any help. Is it possible not to depend on anybody? A school student has to depend on his/ her parents to pay for his studies and look after him/her. So, it does not apply to students or young boys and girls. It is exclusively for the grown up, whom by putting a little extra effort, can stand on his/ her own leg. When a man starts earning his own bread, he should plan his expenditures in such a way that it does not overlap his income, otherwise, he will have to go and borrow money or things from the others. Some people take hefty amount as dowry from the bride’s parents. It is a disgraceful thing. No man with self respect would demand dowry. Though demanding or taking dowry is a crime liable for punishment, such crude practice still exists among all religions. This way all religions stand united! These people not only stop with the dowry.
They squander more from the girl’s parents though they are well off”. Some people spend lavishly for their children hoping that the children would take care of them at later stages of life! This is unwise! Most of the young men after getting married, desert their own aged father and mother. Such aged people took refuge in homes! Instead, if only they had set aside some money for themselves, they need not go to homes. Similarly, some young working women leave their babies under the care of die servant maid. But will the maid look after the baby die way the mother does? No; a maid is a paid servant.
Her interest lies only in the money she earns. It has 110 real loves for the child. On die other hand, a mother, whose love for her child is incomparable will look after her own child better than anybody. There is a great saying that says, “A mother knows, what her dumb son says!” How great it is! It is not only at home; even some nations depend on the other for help. God has created platform for, every one of us. It is in our hands as to how we play our | cards and stand tall at any time and age. So, do not expect help from any body, no matter even if lie/ she are your own brother or sister. Do not seek recommendation for job or for any help. Instead, help yourself. This way, you will not give room for others to dent your self respect. Remember this great saying: “Save money and money will save you!