Childhood Disorders Essay Sample

Childhood Disorders Pages
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•Behavior disorders
oAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
oConduct Disorder
oOppositional Defiant Disorder
•Separation/anxiety disorder
•Elimination disorders
oEnuresis
oEncopresis

•Disorders in cognitive, motor, and communication skills
oLearning disorders
Reading disorder (dyslexia)
•Deficits in ability to read
Mathematics disorder
•Deficits in mathematics skills
Disorder of written expression
•Deficits in the ability to write
oMotor skills disorders
Developmental coordination disorder

•Deficits in the ability to walk, run, hold on to objects oCommunication disorders
Expressive language disorder
•Deficits in the ability to express oneself through language
Mixed receptive-expressive language disorder
•Deficits in the ability both to express oneself through language and to understand the language of others
Phonological disorder
•Use of speech sounds in appropriate for age or dialect
Stuttering

•Sever problems in word fluency
•Mental retardation
oMild, moderate, severe, and profound mental retardation
•Pervasive developmental disorders
oAutism
oRett’s disorder
oChildhood disintegrative disorder
oAsperger’s disorder
•Tic disorders
oTourette’s disorder
oChronic motor or focal tic disorder
oTransient tic disorder

•Feeding and eating disorders
oPica
oRumination disorder
oFeeding disorder of infancy in early childhood
•Other disorders
oSelective mutism
oReactive attachment disorder
oStereotypic movement disorder

•Treatments for ADHD
oStimulants
Most children with ADHD are treated with stimulant drugs, such as Ritalin, Dexedrine, and Adderall
May work by increasing levels of dopamine
oOther drugs (e.g. atomoxetine, clonidine, and guanfacine)
Not stimulants but affect levels of norepinephrine
oBehavioral therapies
Focus on reinforcing attentive, goal-directed, and prosocial behaviors and extinguishing impulsive and hyperactive behaviors oCombination of stimulant therapy and psychosocial therapy is best

•Treatment for Conduct and Oppositional Defiant Disorders oPsychological and Social Therapies
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: teach problem-solving skills, teach “self-talk”, discuss real and hypothetical situations, and practice appropriate response. Family Therapy
oDrug Therapies

•Proposed Etiologies for Separation Anxiety Disorder
oBiological
May be genetic predisposition to anxiety disorders, including separation anxiety and panic attacks. oBehavioral inhibition
Children are born with an inhibited, fearful temperament. oTraumatic and uncontrollable events
Traumatic events can cause chronic uncontrollability; parents may encourage fearful behavior or not encourage independence.

•Treatments for Separation Anxiety
oCognitive-Behavioral Therapies
New skills for coping and for challenging cognitions that feed anxiety Relaxation exercises
Challenge fears about separation
Learn to use “self-talk” to calm themselves
Increased periods of separation from the parents
Parents may be taught to model nonanxious reactions to separations and to reinforce nonanxious behavior in their children.

•Cause and Treatment for Disorders of Cognitive, Motor, and Communication Skills oGenetic factors
oAbnormalities in brain structure and functioning
oEnvironmental factors
Lead poisoning
Birth defects
Sensory deprivation
Low socioeconomic status
oTreatment of these disorders usually involves therapies designed to build missing skills

•Biological Cause of Mental Retardation
oGenetic contributions
oBrain damage during gestation and early life
oPrenatal environment
Drugs and alcohol
oSevere head trauma
oSocial factors
Low socioeconomic status

•Treatments for Mental Retardation
oBehavioral strategies
Involvement of parents and caregivers, behavioral modeling, integrated approach oDrug therapy
Neuroleptic medications, atypical antipsychotics to reduce aggression, antidepressants to reduce depression oSocial programs
Early intervention, mainstreaming, institutionalization when necessary, group homes that provide comprehensive care

•Diagnostic Controversy and DSM-V
oDistinctions between pervasive developmental disorders, particularly between autism and Asperger’s Disorder have been controversial. oThese disorders co-occur in the same families and there is no clear evidence that they have different causes. oChildhood disintegrative disorder and Rett’s Disorder are very rare, and the validity of these diagnoses has been questioned. oIn the DSM-V, all the pervasive developmental disorders are likely to be subsumed under the new category autism spectrum disorder.

•Contributors to Autism
oBiological factors
Genetics
Neurological factors

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