China: Nationalism and Communist Revolution CHRONOLOGY Section II of course 1895-98 Looting of China. Division into “spheres of influence” of foreign powers. 1898 The Hundred Days of Reform. 1900 Boxer Rebellion. 1905 SUN YAT-SEN creates the Nationalist Party TONGMENGHUI (later became the GUOMINDANG). 1911-12 Revolution overthrows Manchu dynasty and establishes the Chinese Republic. 1913 The warlord YUAN SHIKAI comes to power, outlawing the Guomindang. 1916-c.1927 Politics in China dominated by various regional WARLORDS. 1919 May 4th student demonstration protesting against the Versailles Conference. Also indicative of a new cultural movement among sections of the Chinese intelligentsia. Section III of course 1921 Formation of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The Communist International (COMINTERN) plays important role. 1924-1927 First United Front between the Guomindang, (headed by CHIANG KAI-SHEK after 1926) and the CCP.
1927-1934 Exile and valuable practical experience for Chinese communists such as Mao Zedong in rural areas, for example with the formation of the JIANGXI Soviet . 1934-35 LONG MARCH and a new base in North-West China, in YANAN. 1937-46 Second United Front between the CCP and the Guomindang. Jockeying for position between the two even as they “cooperate” against the Japanese invasion. 1946-49 Civil War and Communist victory. 1949 Formation of the People’s Republic of China. THEMES Section II of course Nationalism in China: Anti-Manchu nationalism: the result of Manchu oppression of other nationalities. Manchu state-sponsored nationalism: self-strengthening, modern government systems, encouragement of Chinese industry. Popular nationalism: Boxers opposed foreign domination resulting in unemployment, increased financial and social demands of government in crisis Presence of predatory foreign powers: western as well as Japanese oppression contribute to growth of nationalism.
Cultural nationalism: May 4th Movement, revising Confucianism as reformist, writer’s movement. Elite nationalism: the Tongmenghui, later transformed into the Guomindang, the Nationalist Party. Failure of elite nationalism: political struggles and the descent into warlordism. Section III of course Differences between “nationalism” and “Nationalism” and between “socialism” and “Socialism” How is it that Socialists become better nationalists than the Nationalists? I. Rise of Communism General Causes: * Socio-economic conditions of the Chinese people. * Foreign domination. * Failure of the Guomindang under Chiang Kai Shek’s leadership to act as an effective nationalist force in China. * The effectiveness of the CCP in dealing with socio-economic as well as political problems confronting China in the first half of the twentieth century. II. NATURE OF CHINESE COMMUNISM: * The Comintern-CCP problems, ideological and pragmatic considerations. * Re-evaluation of traditional Marxism in light of the Chinese reality by the CCP. Ideology and Praxis. * Communism as nationalism in China? Maoism as national independence?