a) Classical Management approaches
In the classical management approaches, there are 3 different approaches into the management Scientific Management, Administrative Principles and Bureaucratic Organization. Scientific Management:-
Father of Scientific Management, Frederick W. Taylor, 1911, published The Principles of Scientific Management, which studies employee’s full potential work should be coupled with employer’s potential work to create. Taylor, noticed workers did their jobs in their own approach and an unclear goal of their achievements which makes inefficiency and low performance quality of work. To correct the problem, the company must manage and emphasizes a strict and careful selection of the right training of workers with constant supportive supervisors to have the best quality of job done in a short period of time. Administrative Principles:-
Identifies the rules or duties done for the management, in which are the four foundations – planning, organizing, leading and controlling the organization. It foresight the plans of action for the future so that the company can make changes so that they will not to waste time after the product is launched. Provide and mobilize the employee’s resources to implement the plan by giving commands to lead, select or evaluate workers working together as a team to share or solving problems so that there is control to plan and take necessary corrective action in the organization. Bureaucratic Organization:-
Often this day, organization fails to reach their performance potential because of the positions of authority. Not because of their job related capabilities but because of their social standing or “privileged” status in the market place. A bureaucracy is a rational and efficient form of organization founded on logic, order, and legitimate authority. The characteristics of a bureaucratic organization always have a clear vision of labor so that they can become highly skilled at performing at the jobs of the position of authority and responsibility but also the position needs to report to the higher-level one. Keeping employee’s historical records of their direct behavior and decisions in the organization for future references. Rules and procedures are impartially and uniformly applied, with no one receiving preferential treatment so that careful selecting of workers and can be promoted on ability, competency, and performance.
b) Behavioral Management approaches.
The behavioral approaches maintain that people are social and self-actualizing. People at work are assumed to seek satisfying social relationships, respond to group pressures, and search for personal fulfillment. It is the study of individuals and groups in an organization or organizations. The human factor includes, employee attitudes, interpersonal relation, and group dynamics are studied what they liked or disliked about their work environment in the organization. “Complex” or “Baffling” results led the researchers to conclude their work conditions or wages are the source of workers satisfaction or dissatisfaction in the organization. Managers holding the ‘Theory X’ are most likely that his or her employees generally dislike work, lack ambition, irresponsible, resistant to change, and prefer to be led than lead. ‘Theory Y’ most likely is willing to work, responsible and self-directed, imaginative and creative, and capable of self-direction. To correct the problem, ‘The Hawthorne Effect’ is the tendency of persons singled out for special attention to perform as expected and ‘The Human Relation Movement’ can suggest managers will use good human relations will achieve productivity in a short period of time given.