Tourism is used for countries as a source of revenue generation to boost their economy and also used to satisfy human needs such as relaxation, entertainment and recreation purposes. It is often also showcase their countries’ cultural items, cultural performances, scenery, and food. However, it would not be possible without the presence of an appropriate climate with Climate being an essential element to make tourism possible. It is especially for destination famous for their scenic beauties such as the beaches, nature and winter sports tourism segments. This would significantly impact the comfort of the tourists and their travel decisions which may ultimately do harm to tourism related business in host communities resulting affecting the preservation of local culture handicrafts (World Tourism Organization Network, n.d.). http://sdt.unwto.org/en/content/climate-change-tourism
Since the past century, the changed in climate has become a phenomenon that affect the tourism and various destinations. At the same time, the tourism sector also contributes to the emission of greenhouse gases mainly through the transportation of tourists (World Tourism Organization Network, n.d.). http://sdt.unwto.org/en/content/climate-change-tourism
Some forms climate change is inevitable due to the past emission of the greenhouse gases. Therefore, in order to cope with the change of climate other than sustainability methods, adaptation can also be done with the anticipated climate change. Singapore as a county being an island is more prone to impacts such as the rising sea levels. Some regional impact of the South East Asia includes the increased temperature with increased annual rainfall, which means the decrease in the tendency of extreme dryness (Cambridge University, 2007). Climate change impacts which interrelated to the rising sea level includes the changed frequency and the intensity of the storm and more intense rainfalls
According to the National Climate Change Strategy 2008, the potential impacts of climate change on Singapore’s water sector includes increased ﬂooding, coastal land loss and water resources scarcity (MEWR, 2008, p. 7). Flooding can occur as rainwater cannot be drained into the sea causing inland flooding during storms (MEWR, 2008).
Adaptation Initiatives in Singapore
Adaptive capacity refers to the ‘ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes), to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences’ (IPCC, 2007). In the short term, PUB has undertaken actions to reduce of chance of inland flooding happening which since 1991, ground level has been built to platform level to the height of 125cm. The rise of sea levels could also led to the loss of mangrove areas and eventually coastal erosion. Policy makers have realised the importance of the presence of the mangrove as effective natural adaptation measure. National Parks (NParks) is developing strategies for effective management of mangrove erosion at some coastal areas (MEWR, 2008) http://0-onlinelibrary.wiley.com.prospero.murdoch.edu.au/doi/10.1002/sd.1546/epdf. the existing infrastructure is expected to provide an adequate buffer against the projected sea level rise (MEWR, 2010b). The Strategy identiﬁes several measures that have been undertaken by PUB in order to reduce the possibility of increased inland ﬂooding.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report, Fourth Assessment Report. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Cambridge University. (2007). Observation: Changes in Snow, Ice and Frozen Grounds. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (pp. 337 – 349). Australia: Cambridge University Press . Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report, Fourth Assessment Report. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. MEWR (Ministry of Environment
(Ludwig and Moench, 2009). https://books.google.com.sg/books?hl=en&lr=&id=QLoeBAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Climate+Change+Adaptation+in+the+Water+Sector&ots=o-UegUZACX&sig=G-07Q00rYqtuQCiAWiDkkMJm7NE&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Climate%20Change%20Adaptation%20in%20the%20Water%20Sector&f=false