Cognitive Developments Birth to 19 Years Essay Sample

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Birth to 3 months
Most new-born babies can focus on and will follow a moving object with their eyes. Infants are exploring their world through sucking, grasping, gazing, etc. At 3 months old a baby can recognise faces, copy facial expressions and respond to sounds.

6 to 9 months.
At 6 months a baby can imitate sounds. They realize that they can pick up an object when it is dropped. They can recognise their own name when called. At 9 months a baby can understand simple words like yes or no. They will start to test parent’s reactions to behaviour, such as throwing food on the floor.

1 year to 18 months.
Babies at 1 year old can speak 2 to 4 simple words, for example mum and dad. They will mimic animal noises and develop attachments to objects like a toy or a blanket. At 18 months infants can understand 10 to 50 words and identify body parts.

2 Years.
A 2 year old child will mirror another person’s behaviour after it has occurred. The control the child has can give him/her self-esteem. They start to gain more independence and understand discipline and inappropriate behaviour. They can understand words like please and thank you. They begin to add around 10 new words every day and understand aspects of everyday life, for example going shopping, telling the time and bed time.

3 to 4 years.
At 3 they become curious about people, models adults, and become aware of gender differences. They will start to use their imagination and memory skills in play by pretending an object is something else. They can match an object with a picture in a book and may know numbers and count to that number.

5 to 6 years.
Takes on new responsibilities and learns new skills. Can count to 10 or more and can name 4 or 5 colours correctly. Will recognise things that are used in every day occurrence.

7 to 9 Years
At this age children will focus on one part of an object at a time. Begins school and learns important skills and gains status among classmates. Their thought becomes more organized. Can put items in a particular order, for example: arranges toys according to height.

9 to 11 Years.
They can understand that something can have the same properties, even if it looks differently, for example: an equal amount of water is poured into a tall, skinny glass and a short, wide glass. The glasses look very different, but they still hold the same amount of water and can reverse the steps he/she has taken, for example: 5 + 2 = 7 and 7 – 2 = 5

11 to 13 years.
At 11 years of age they are concerned with appearance and development of a personal identity. They are capable of identifying a problem and coming up with several suggestions, and testing them.

13 to 19 Years
They think about the future (goals, occupation, a partner, etc.) They can use planning to think ahead for tasks. The adolescent can put together all the possible outcomes before beginning the problem.

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