• An opinion
• Theories are subjects based of the interested opinions of social groups and individuals
• Individualistic – explaining situations through a personal point of view
• Naturalistic – offers a biological explanations, therefore ignoring the role of socialisation.
• An objective that is knowledge which attempts to be free of predjudice
• Theories based on sociological research
• Challenges taken fro granted assumptions
Describe two differences between common sense and sociological explanations of human society.4 KU marks
One difference between sociological and common sense explanations of human society y is that common sense explanations tend to be individualistic meaning that they are created on the basis of a personal point of view. Whereas in contrast, sociological explanations are theories based on research. An example which is relevant to both theories is the rise in divorce rates. A common sense approach would suggest that couples are falling out of love and growing apart. However sociologists would look at wider society to find a sociological explanation. They would look at the changing role of women in the last few decade which has created a generation of independent women who excel in the workforce , therefore able to live an independent life without the support of a partner.
Furthermore, common sense is ultimately an opinion, but the sociological explanation is an objective that is knowledge which attempts to be free of prejudice. For example the most people have the opinion that everyone should marry someone they love due to tradition. However sociologists would argue that it is society which has deemed marriage a right of passage and if an individual does not marry then they are felt to be doing something wrong.
Structural Theories ; consensus and conflict
• Theories that focus on social order that underpins and maintains societies
• What makes us behave in a certain way
• Primary socialisation – first interactions shape our behaviour (e.g. family)
• Secondary Socialisation – the education system, where what is supposedly right and wrong is drilled in.
• Functionalism – Emilee Durkheim and Talcott Parsons are most noted advocates of this perspective. Societies differ in particular cultural rules that underpins these shared items but the relative stability of any society.
Consensus – a general agreement
Functionalism – a sociological perspective that focuses on understanding how the different parts of society work together to keep it running smooth.
Identity – the way we feel about our selves.
Social institution – a part of society such as education and family.
Social order – patterns of shared and predictable behaviour
Social solidarity – a sense of community
Social integration – a sense of belonging to society
Structuralist Theory – a theory that believes that human behaviour is influenced by an organisation of society
Value or moral consensus – an agreement among a majority of members of society that something is good and worthwhile.