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Computer Generation And The Classifications Information Technology Essay Sample

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Computer Generation And The Classifications Information Technology Essay Sample

1 Classification of computer generations.

To classify computers we can use many different types of methods. The main method will be computer generations. Under computer generations, we can see five generations classified under technical terms that use on the computers.
1) 1st Generation (1940-1956) – Used vacuum tubes.
2) 2nd Generation (1956-1963) – Used transistors.
3) 3rd Generation (1964-1971) – Used integrated circuits(IC).
4) 4th Generation (1972-2010) – Used microchip or central processing unit (CPU).
5) 5th Generation (2010 and Beyond) – Artificial intelligence (AI).

1) 1st Generation (1940-1956).

The first generation of computers began with using vacuum tubes as the basic components for memory and hardware, and was regularly huge, taking up whole rooms. These computers were extremely costly to work and notwithstanding using a lot of power, the main computers produced a considerable measure of heat, which was frequently the reason for breakdowns. These original computers depended on \”machine language\”. These computers were restricted to taking care of one issue at any given moment. It would take operators days or even a long time to set-up another issue. Input depended on punched cards and paper tape, Output was shown on printouts. The two eminent machines of this period were the UNIVAC and ENIAC machines. The UNIVAC was the first business computer, it conveyed to a business customer, the U.S. Statistics Bureau in 1951. The ENIAC was produced by Army Ordnance to process World War II ballistic terminating tables. It measured 30 tons and used 200 kilowatts of electric power.

UNIVAC computer at the Census Bureau
 Advantages
• Vacuum tubes were the only electronic component available this period.

 Disadvantages
• The size of computers was very large.
• Computers depended on only machine language.
• The computers heated very soon.
2) 2nd Generation (1956-1963).
This generation using the transistors for replacing vacuum tubes, the transistors initially created in 1947 at Bell Labs. Transistors weren\’t used altogether in PCs until the point that the finish of the 1950s.In any case, they were superior to anything the vacuum tubes, making PCs smaller, quicker, less expensive and less substantial on power use. More dependable and more vitality effective, than original forerunners, the language evolved from cryptic binary language to symbolic (Assembly) languages. Regardless they depended on punched cards for input and printouts for output.

 Advantages
• Smaller than first generation computers.
• Accuracy improved.
• Computers were more reliable.

 Disadvantages
• Still using punch cards for input.
• The cooling system was required.
• Can be used for only specific purposes.

3) 3rd Generation (1964-1971).

The third generation of computers created by the integrated circuits, a single integrated circuit has numerous transistors, resistors, and capacitors alongside the related circuitry. By this stage, transistors were currently being scaled down and set on silicon chips, called semiconductors. This generation huge expanded the speed and productivity of these computers. These were the main computers where clients, collaborated using keyboards and screens that interfaced with an operating system, a critical jump up from the punch cards and printouts. Because of these advances, third generation PCs ended up noticeably less expensive and smaller than their ancestors.
 Advantages
• Smaller in size as compared two previous generations.
• More reliable than previous generations.

• Less expensive.
• Used mouse and keyboard for input.

 Disadvantages
• Air conditioning was required.
• The exceedingly modern technology required for the assembling of IC chips.

4) 4th Generation (1972-2010)

The fourth generation computers began with the innovation of microchip, as thousands of integrated circuits were constructed onto a solitary silicon chip. Ted Hoff created the main chip in 1971 for Intel. It was known as Intel 4004.The year 1981 IBM Company was designed the first PC for home use.1984 saw the Macintosh presented by Apple. Cases for the fourth generation computers are Apple Macintosh and IBM computers. The span of most recent Microprocessors is generally one square inch. It can contain a large number of electronic circuits. Most recent Microprocessors manufacturing companies are Intel, AMD, and Apple.
 Advantages
• More powerful and reliable than all previous generations.
• General purpose.
• No air conditioning required.

• Smaller in size as compared all previous generations.

 Disadvantages
• The exceedingly modern technology required for the assembling of Microprocessor.

5) 5th Generation (2010 and Beyond)

Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, still researchers are working hard on it. The utilization of parallel preparing and superconductors is making artificial intelligence a reality. They are endeavoring to make a computer with genuine IQ with the assistance of cutting-edge programming and innovations. IBM Watson computer is one case for that. The objective of fifth-generation figuring is to create devices that react to natural language input and are fit for learning and self-association. The progression in present day advancements will revolutionize the PC in future.
The computers that we use present days belonged to the 4th generation computers. We can classify these computers following types.
1. Minicomputers
2. Microcomputers
3. Mainframe Computers
4. Super Computers

3.1 Types of computers.
3.1.1 Minicomputers
Minicomputers are used by businesses and firms. Microcomputers also named as \”Midrange Computers\” These are little machines and can be sited on a plate with not as preparing and information stockpiling capacity as supercomputers and a centralized server. These computers are not intended for a solitary client. Individual department of a large company or organizations uses minicomputers for particular purposes. Ex: a creation office can use minicomputers for observing certain generation procedure.

3.1.2 Microcomputers
The microcomputers are widely used and the fastest growing computers. These computers are the cheapest among other types of computers. Microcomputers are specially designed for general usage like entertainment, education and work purpose.
Microcomputers manufacturers are,
• Samsung
• Apple
• HP
• Dell
• Toshiba

Microcomputers types are,
• Personal computers
• Laptops
• Personal digital assistant(PDA)
• Tablets
• Smartphones

3.1.3 Mainframe Computers
Although not as powerful as supercomputers, mainframe computers are big, powerful and expensive computers used in the background of most large organizations. Mainframes can also process and store large amounts of data. The power of the mainframe can be distributed among many people accessing the mainframe via their own computer or workstation. Large insurance companies and banks would use the mainframe to keep track of their policyholders and accountholders.

3.1.4 Super Computers
The most intense computers in terms performance and data processing are the supercomputers. These are the speediest PCs with large data storage limit. Supercomputers are exceptionally costly and expansive in measure. It can be suited in vast aerated and cooled rooms; can even possess a whole building. Supercomputers are particular and errand particular computers utilized by vast associations. These computers are utilized for research and space investigations, atomic research reason; in like manner NASA utilizes supercomputers for propelling space transports, controlling them and for space investigation reason. Some different uses are climate anticipating, seismic tremor thinks about and atomic weapons testing.

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