The aim of this report is to identify the factors and elements that involved in the reality by applying the theories into own experiences in order to ﬁnd out the method that leads the organisation having better behavior. Firstly, several personal experiences will be brought out. Secondly, factors that involved will be identiﬁed. Then, related theories and models will be introduce and applied in to the reality. Finally, two out come will be summarized in the conclusion.The applicability of those theories, identiﬁed by comparing the different between the theories and real experience. The recommendation for organisation that helps to developing people and result in positive performance.
It was a three months internship in a watch factory in China during the summer brake from university. I was placed in a position that responsible for training new staff, giving IT supports and being HR administrator. During this period, several difﬁculties occurred while cooperate with other employees. Firstly, it is always difﬁcult to reach an agreement with either senior or new employees due to several reasons such as opinions from difference aspects. This part will be related to role and relationship within the organisation. Secondly, even though the decision has been made, the employee will not actually do what has been told. The power theory will be related. Thirdly, the decisions were alway made by the manager and employees show passive rather than motivated. It links to the level of decision making and participation in the meeting. Finally, young employees trying to avoid being involved in project due to the luck of conﬁdence. Categorized to the self-efﬁcacy theory.
Situation and Analysis
Directions are given by the manager. For instance, the new introduced system should work more effectively and provide a clear and correct report within the shortest time. And my responsibility to to reach the requirements.
Interviewing with new staffs or who would like to work for the organisation in order to ﬁnd out the right position for them. The responsibility is to make sure the new staffs are able to operate the system easily, effetely, and correctly. In order to reduce system calculating mistake in the following work.
I have to make sure that employees are all familiar with the operating the system. In order to avoid the overlaps and the gap among the positions within the organisation. The target is to clarify the duty of each worker in different position, therefore it prevents the operation of system stop due to the unclear responsibility.
The responsibility is to communicate with the engineer and trying to achieve the requirements from the manager. Also, pointing out the systemʼs errors that occurs during the operation and ask the company to ﬁx them as soon as possible. Sometimes, I found it difﬁcult to achieve the requirements from the manager. For instance, there are speciﬁc reports needed by the manager for seeing the production process and ﬁnancial situation. 3.
However, the way that system works is not as ﬂexible as way the manager though. In this case, I will be responsible to contact the system company to change the system program. Financial department
Most of things are related to the ﬁnancial aspect. For example, cost for introducing or updating system, wages for the employees. And it used to be part of consideration while making decisions.
The level of power
During the time working working for the organisation, sometimes, I found that the workers might not willing to do or follow the instructions that I made due to the luck of power. Apply to the power inﬂuence theory, ﬁve different types of power are reward, coercion, legitimacy, expertise and reference. (John R. P. and Bertram R., 1962) Although several power such as legitimacy and expertise might be hold by me, it is sometime not enough to motivate the workers. For the staffs who stay longer in the organisation may not willing to accept new things and prefer to do thing in normal ways as they think they have more experiences than me even though I have more understanding in system work.
The level of decision making
There are ﬁve different levels in decision making depends on the level of participating between the leader and other participants while making the decision. (J.T.Taylor) In my experience, although several meetings were hold during a week, decisions were made by the manager most of time. Apply to the theory, the level of making decision should be between level one and two in this organisation. I found that there are both positive and negative aspects when majority decisions were made by the leader. For the positive aspect, the manager may feel every thing is controlled. Secondly, the decision can be made efﬁciently. On the other hand, the amount of work increased because the manager has to deal with each single thing. Also, less opinion will be provided from the worker who might see the situation from different aspect. Moreover, staffs will be less motivated due to the luck of participation.
It said that employees are more motivated if they can be involved more in planning and decision making. However, it seems quite hard to do so in Asian world due to the involvement of culture effect on the both sides of leader and workers. Several elements could inﬂuence on decision making depends on different regions because of different culture, history or lifestyle. Such as statues of social, gender and seniority of the family.(Samir R. Chatterjee and Akan R. Nankervis, p. 50) From the cultural aspect, roles played by leader, male and family elderly (grandfather, father, or eldest son) have the higher authority on making decision. Same as in an Asian organisation, employees interactive less within decision making process. The decisions are always made by manager and the the workers are only required for implementation, progress and issue report.
The percentage that employees and manager involve in the decision making are not balance. In the process of making decision, less comment invitations were given. And I found that workers were hesitate to share their opinion and they tend to be just waiting for the instruction from the top.
There was a girl, about 17 years old, the task for her was to organize the paper work base on the product ﬂow among different departments. Familiarity with system work and clear understanding of operational process are required in this position. The girl doesnʼt have enough knowledge due to the early ﬁnish in education. And she was hired because the manager thought that she could be cultivated easily. However, the girl quitted the job after staying a couple of months because she felt less interest in this job and had less conﬁdent in this position and it cause low motivation in her position. In self-efﬁcacy theory, it says that higher self-efﬁcacy occurs when workers think that they are able and feel conﬁdent to perform well in the task. (Albert Bandura, 1977) Self-efﬁcacy is one of the elements that decide the level of motivation. Apply this theory to my experience, the higher motivation could be brought by several ways. First, increasing higher positive expectancy such as offering different welfares. Second, goal setting, which provides employees a clear direction in their work. Thirdly, the more positive experiences they have the higher conﬁdent will be gain. (Bandura, 1977)
Recommendation & Summary
The decisions should be made more by expertise. It can be considered to take or accept more advises from the workers who might have clear view that can not be see by manager. And it may motivates the workers more effectively as they have clearer direction and they feel being part of it.
There are no clear answer whether witch level is the best. In my opinion, different level of decision making depends on the size of the organisation. However, collecting different point of views from the staffs will be helpful to for making correct decisions.The manager is recommended to listen from the workers.
During this working period, identifying the differences between theories and reality situations makes me see the situation clearly. Although the theory might not hundred percent ﬁx perfectly in the reality, things can be done by different ways by clarifying involved factors.
Bloisi, W., Cook, C. W., Hunsaker, P. L., 2007. Management & Organisational behaviour. 2nd ed. London
John, R. S., 2010. Introduction to Management. 10th ed. London Perseus Samir, R. C., Alan, R. N., 2007. Asian management in transition : Emerging Themes. Palgrave Macmillan
Taylor, J.T., 2011.Making Effective Decisions: Five levels of decision making. [online] Available at:
[Accessed 30 December 2012]