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“46 (21 in the intervention group and 25 in the comparison group) completed the study.” (Costanzo, et al., 2006 p.790) “The intervention group received five (weeks 1,3,5,7, and 9) 30 minute individual BS sessions, and comparison group received one 30 minute individual BS session at week 1. The approximate time required by women was 2 hours for data collection and a counseling session, 30 minutes at Weeks 3,5,7, and 9, and 1.5 hours at Week 12 for data collection only.” (Costanzo, et al., 2006 p.791)

The data collection process is a Practical research method which used direct interview during the behavior counseling sessions.(Costanzo, 2006) (Helen)

“The focus group interviews used a semistructured design. Each focus group lasted 90-120 minutes, and participants were asked to commit to confidentiality.” (Kalisch, 2006, p.307)

Data collection methods is Practical research method that involved direct interviews with the nursing staff that consist of RN’s, LVN’s and CNA’s. (Kalisch,2006) (Helen) Data collection instruments

“The participants were recruited through an advertisement on the university’s intranet site, distribution of flyers throughout the community, and word-of-mouth. Also, the participants contacted the principal investigator (PI) by phone or e-mail to express interest in the study. Each potential participant was provided information on the study and completed a preliminary screening to establish eligibility.” (Costanzo, et al., 2006 p.790) 1.Hannah

The researchers interviewed indexed RN, LPN, and NA from both hospitals. All interviews were tape-recorded fully transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo by QRS International. Accuracy and reliability of instruments used

Yes, it is because” the researchers found that no significant differences were found between groups for age, body mass index, blood pressure, resting heart rate, or perceived exertion levels. Also the intervention group had 38.1% overweight and 40 % obese, and the comparison group had 33.3% both in the overweight and obese category.” (Costanzo, et al., 2006 p.790-791) 1. Hannah.

Yes, the instrument was reliable and accurate because the researchers grouped interviewers differently and tested twice, and the results were consistent. Statistical or analytic methods

“RM-ANOVA was used to assess and determine differences in the effectiveness of the interventions as reflected in change in the behavioral and biomarkers for physical activity outcomes from baseline to 12 weeks.” (Costanzo, et al., 2006 p.794) 1.Hannah

Grounded theory
Statistical values reported
Yes, it is. “The sample size for the study was calculated on the basis of a power analysis using data from a smaller preliminary study for total number of minutes of moderate-or greater-intensity physical activity((2=.225,alpha=.05, and power of .08)” (Costanzo, et al., 2006 p.790) 1.Hannah


Costanzo, C., Walker, S., Yates, B., McCabe, B., & Berg, K. (2006). Physical activity counseling for older women. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 28(7), 786. Kalisch, B. J. (2006). Missed nursing care: A qualitative study. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 21(4), 306-315.

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