Cosmetology (from Greek κοσμητικός, kosmētikos, “beautifying”; and -λογία, -logia) is the study and application of beauty treatment. Branches of specialty including hairstyling, skin care, cosmetics, manicures/pedicures, and electrology. Hair stylist
A hair stylist is someone who cuts and styles hair. He or she can also offer other services such as coloring, extensions and straightening. A good hairstylist has a sense of fashion and the ability to know what style will look the best on a client. Hair stylists often do hair for weddings, proms, and other special events in addition to routine hairstyling. Also known as a licensed cosmetologist, their education hours vary by state. Hair Stylists are governed by their state cosmetology board.All specialties with in cosmetology except for estheticians and nail technicians must hold a valid cosmetology license before working on the public.State Cosmetology Boards Hair colorist
A colorist is a hair stylist that specializes in coloring hair. In the US, some colorists are “board certified” through the American Board of Certified Haircolorists. This designation is used to recognize colorists that have a greater level of competency in the industry. Shampoo technician
A shampoo technician shampoos and conditions a client’s hair in preparation for the hair stylist.This is generally an apprentice position and a first step for many just out of cosmetology school.
Estheticians are licensed professionals who are experts in maintaining and improving healthy skin . An esthetician’s general scope of practice is limited to the epidermis (the outer layer of skin). Estheticians work in many different environments such as salons, med spas, day spas, skin care clinics and private practice. Estheticians perform skin treatments that include hair removal (waxing, threading, tweezing, sugaring), facial massage, body treatments (wraps, exfoliation, hydrotherapy), skin care consultations, chemical exfoliation, eyelash and eyebrow tinting, eyelash extensions, aromatherapy, and make-up application. Estheticians may also specialize in machine treatments such as; microdermabrasion, microcurrent, also called non surgical “face lifts” , Electrotherapy treatments (glavanic current, high frequency), LED (light emitting diode), ultrasound/ultrasonic (low level) and mechanical massage (vacuum & g8 vibratory).
The esthetician may undergo special training for treatments such as laser hair removal, permanent make up, and electrolysis. Estheticians must be licensed in the state they are working in and are governed by the cosmetology board of that state. In order to become one they must complete a minimum 260 to 1500 hours of training and pass both a written and hands-on exam (State Board Requirements). Additional post graduate training may be required when specializing in areas such as medical esthetics (working in a doctors office) Estheticians work under a dermatologist’s supervision only when employed by the dermatologist’s practice. Estheticians treat a wide variety of skin issues as long as cosmetic in nature, such as mild acne, hyperpigmentation, and aging skin.Skin disease and disorders are referred to a dermatologist or other medical professional. Nail technician
A nail technician specializes in the art form and care of nails. This includes manicures, pedicures, acrylic nails, gel nails, nail wraps, artificial nails, hand and foot massage, etc. Although they are generally trained to recognize diseases of the skin and nail, they do not treat diseases and would typically refer a client to a physician. Nail Technicians can also be called manicurists and are regulated by their states cosmetology board.State Board Requirements Manicure
A manicure is a cosmetic treatment for the fingernails or hands. The word “manicure” derives from Latin: manus for hand, cura for care. When performed on the feet, such a treatment is a pedicure.Many manicures start by soaking the hands in a softening substance, followed by the application of lotion. A common type of manicure involves shaping the nails and applying nail polish. Some manicures can include the painting of pictures or designs on the nails, or applying small decals or imitation jewels. Makeup artist
A makeup artist is in a branch of cosmetology that specializes in the application of cosmetics to a persons face, by using such products as foundation or powder, blush, eye makeup, etc. Depending on where they are or how they are employed, their salary can vary. Make Up artists work in a variety of different scenarios: department store cosmetic counters, special events such as weddings/prom, salons/spas, theater and visual arts, photography studios, editorial fashion shoots, runway shows for designers/fashion schools, television and film, as well as freelancing of various degrees.They are not licensed by any state and will generally hold a cosmetology or esthetics license. Currently California is the only state that has a voluntary registration. Minimum education can vary depending on the specialty, for example media make up or special effect make up require intensive training. In order to work in the film industry union membership may be required. The exception is independent films. The two unions are Local 706 (Los Angeles)Local 706 and Local 786 (New York)Local 798 Electrologist
An electrologist offers hair removal services with the use of a machine. As opposed to the hair removal via waxing offered by an esthetician, hair removal via electrolysis is permanent. Electrologist is generally a separate license depending on the state.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team’s court under organized rules. It has been a part of the official program of the Summer Olympic Games since 1964.
The complete rules are extensive. But simply, play proceeds as follows: a player on one of the teams begins a ‘rally’ by serving the ball (tossing or releasing it and then hitting it with a hand or arm), from behind the back boundary line of the court, over the net, and into the receiving team’s court. The receiving team must not let the ball be grounded within their court. The team may touch the ball up to 3 times but individual players may not touch the ball twice consecutively. Typically, the first two touches are used to set up for an attack, an attempt to direct the ball back over the net in such a way that the serving team is unable to prevent it from being grounded in their court. The rally continues, with each team allowed as many as three consecutive touches, until either (1): a team makes a kill, grounding the ball on the opponent’s court and winning the rally; or (2): a team commits a fault and loses the rally. The team that wins the rally is awarded a point, and serves the ball to start the next rally. A few of the most common faults include: * causing the ball to touch the ground outside the opponents’ court or without first passing over the net; * catching and throwing the ball;
* double hit: two consecutive contacts with the ball made by the same player; * four consecutive contacts with the ball made by the same team. * net foul: touching the net during play. * foot fault: the foot crosses over the boundary line when serving The ball is usually played with the hands or arms, but players can legally strike or push (short contact) the ball with any part of the body. A number of consistent techniques have evolved in volleyball, including spiking and blocking (because these plays are made above the top of the net, the vertical jump is an athletic skill emphasized in the sport) as well as passing, setting, and specialized player positions and offensive and defensive structures. HISTORY
On February 9, 1895, in Holyoke, Massachusetts (USA), William G. Morgan, a YMCA physical education director, created a new game called Mintonette as a pastime to be played (preferably) indoors and by any number of players. The game took some of its characteristics from tennis and handball. Another indoor sport, basketball, was catching on in the area, having been invented just ten miles (sixteen kilometers) away in the city of Springfield, Massachusetts, only four years before. Mintonette was designed to be an indoor sport, less rough than basketball, for older members of the YMCA, while still requiring a bit of athletic effort.
The first rules, written down by William G Morgan, called for a net 6 ft 6 in (1.98 m) high, a 25×50 ft (7.6×15.2 m) court, and any number of players. A match was composed of nine innings with three serves for each team in each inning, and no limit to the number of ball contacts for each team before sending the ball to the opponents’ court. In case of a serving error, a second try was allowed. Hitting the ball into the net was considered a foul (with loss of the point or a side-out)—except in the case of the first-try serve. After an observer, Alfred Halstead, noticed the volleying nature of the game at its first exhibition match in 1896, played at the International YMCA Training School (now called Springfield College), the game quickly became known as volleyball (it was originally spelled as two words: “volley ball”). Volleyball rules were slightly modified by the International YMCA Training School and the game spread around the country to various YMCAs.
Refinements and later developments
The first official ball used in volleyball is disputed; some sources say that Spalding created the first official ball in 1896, while others claim it was created in 1900. The rules evolved over time: in the Philippines by 1916, the skill and power of the set and spike had been introduced, and four years later a “three hits” rule and a rule against hitting from the back row were established. In 1917, the game was changed from 21 to 15 points. In 1919, about 16,000 volleyballs were distributed by the American Expeditionary Forces to their troops and allies, which sparked the growth of volleyball in new countries. The first country outside the United States to adopt volleyball was Canada in 1900. An international federation, the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB), was founded in 1947, and the first World Championships were held in 1949 for men and 1952 for women.
The sport is now popular in Brazil, in Europe (where especially Italy, the Netherlands, and countries from Eastern Europe have been major forces since the late 1980s), in Russia, and in other countries including China and the rest of Asia, as well as in the United States. Beach volleyball, a variation of the game played on sand and with only two players per team, became a FIVB-endorsed variation in 1987 and was added to the Olympic program at the 1996 Summer Olympics. Volleyball is also a sport at the Paralympics managed by the World Organization Volleyball for Disabled. Volleyball in the Olympics
Main article: Volleyball at the Summer Olympics
The history of Olympic volleyball traces back to the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris, where volleyball was played as part of an American sports demonstration event. After the foundation of FIVB and some continental confederations, it began to be considered for official inclusion. In 1957, a special tournament was held at the 53rd IOC session in Sofia, Bulgaria to support such request. The competition was a success, and the sport was officially included in the program for the 1964 Summer Olympics. The Olympic volleyball tournament was originally a simple competition: all teams played against each other team and then were ranked by wins, set average, and point average. One disadvantage of this round-robin system is that medal winners could be determined before the end of the games, making the audience lose interest in the outcome of the remaining matches. To cope with this situation, the competition was split into two phases with the addition of a “final round” elimination tournament consisting of quarterfinals, semifinals, and finals matches in 1972. The number of teams involved in the Olympic tournament has grown steadily since 1964.
Since 1996, both men’s and women’s events count twelve participant nations. Each of the five continental volleyball confederations has at least one affiliated national federation involved in the Olympic Games. The U.S.S.R. won men’s gold in both 1964 and 1968. After taking bronze in 1964 and silver in 1968, Japan finally won the gold for men’s volleyball in 1972. Women’s gold went to Japan in 1964 and again in 1976. That year, the introduction of a new offensive skill, the backrow attack, allowed Poland to win the men’s competition over the Soviets in a very tight five-set match. Since the strongest teams in men’s volleyball at the time belonged to the Eastern Bloc, the American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics did not have as great an effect on these events as it had on the women’s. The U.S.S.R. collected their third Olympic Gold Medal in men’s volleyball with a 3–1 victory over Bulgaria (the Soviet women won that year as well, their third gold as well). With the U.S.S.R. boycotting the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles, the U.S. was able to sweep Brazil in the finals to win the men’s gold medal. Italy won its first medal (bronze in the men’s competition) in 1984, foreshadowing a rise in prominence for their volleyball teams. The 1984 women’s tournament was also won by a rising force, China.
At the 1988 Games, Karch Kiraly and Steve Timmons led the U.S. men’s team to a second straight gold medal, and the Soviets won the fourth gold in the women’s tournament. In 1992, underrated Brazil upset favourites C.I.S., Netherlands, and Italy in the men’s competition for the country’s first volleyball Olympic gold medal. Runner-up Netherlands, men’s silver medalist in 1992, came back under team leaders Ron Zwerver and Olof van der Meulen in the 1996 Games for a five-set win over Italy. A men’s bronze medalist in 1996, Serbia and Montenegro (playing in 1996 and 2000 as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) beat Russia in the gold medal match in 2000, winning their first gold medal ever. In all three games the strong Cuban female team lead byRegla Torres and Mireya Luis won the Gold medal. In 2004, Brazil won its second men’s volleyball gold medal beating Italy in the finals, while China beat Russia for its second women’s title. In the 2008 Games, the USA beat Brazil in the men’s volleyball final. Brazil was runner-up again at the 2012 Summer Olympics, this time losing to Russia after losing two match points in the third set. In both games Brazil’s women team beat the United States for the gold medal.