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Criminology Case Essay Sample

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Criminology Case Essay Sample

Question 1) Three main types of VAT fraud. Briefly, describe each (150 words)

Answer:  The main types of frauds are

  1. Acquisition Fraud
  2. Carousel Fraud
  3. “double–dip” Fraud

Acquisition Fraud

The fraud of acquisition is when the goods are imported out of the EU in UK by a tradesman who then misses to pay a declaration of return of VAT. The trader absent, `thus has a free supply of VAT goods, and he do not carry out any payment of VAT due on the goods. He sells the goods to a purchaser within UK, and the goods are available on the interior market for consumption. (Smith, 2007)
Carousel Fraud

The fraud of carrousel is similar to the fraud of acquisition to some extent; however, the goods are not sold for consumption in the interior market. On the other hand, they are sold by a series of re-exported companies in UK and then, with another member state, consequently, the goods move in a model or a circular carousel.

“Double–Dip” Fraud

They are such swindles where victims are aimed more than once. Double-Dip arrangements often start with a phone call, requested and persuasive voices adapted to attract people with false investment interesting.

Question 2) Why do you think people are gullible enough to become involved in the 419 frauds? (150 words)


Spam is one of the major tools of companies that are involve in carry out fraud activities around the globe in an effective manner. Spam facility enabled these organizations to their fraud proposals by harvesting email addresses. In 419 frauds, organizations have used personalized software to spam and fraud in a professional manner by sending spam and fraud messages separately by name, address, or telephone number. (Smith, 2007) It is the nature of humans to get attracted to money, and such organizations and individuals utilize that nature of humans by using result of lotteries and gifts in these frauds that incline users to involve in the 419 frauds.

Some victims believe the scammers and send their personal details to them. Even when people know that they did buy any lottery ticket or they never take part in such an activity, still, attraction of the money affects their thoughts, and they send their personal information to these scammers and fraudsters. In the result, they lose their own money without obtaining more. Some of the major reasons that make people gullible enough to become involved in the 419 frauds were discussed in this answer.

Question 3) Why is Belgium considered the main struggling point for hand rolled tobacco? (150 words)


Unfortunately, in Belgium, people have created a perception that the nicotinic of the hand-rolled cigarettes is a healthier choice. They are not aware of the fact that usage of hand-rolled cigarettes is more harmful, as compared with regular cigarettes. It is noted that a number of factors incline native people of Belgium to smoke the hand-rolled tobacco that has been indicated below:

Price: A pocket of tobacco bearing cigarette papers is much cheaper than the regular cigarettes available in Belgium.

A Choice of More Normal Nicotinic: People often think that the nicotinic of the hand-rolled cigarettes is healthier choice, an attitude that is encouraged in tobacco society in Belgium. While the hand-rolled cigarettes do not contain the chemical compounds of regular cigarettes, people have considered them as an effective alternative to regular cigarettes in the country. However, they are unaware of the fact that absence of filter in hand-rolled tobacco means that smoker inhales more tar than the regular cigarettes.

To smoke less: Since the nicotinic of a hand-rolled cigarette implies to roll it initially, the smokers tend to light less often than the traditional filtered cigarettes.

Question 4) Are you aware of any specific type for foreign fraud, which affect people in the UK? Write a 500-essay on your feelings as to why this would happen and the psychological effects this could have on a person subject to a fraudulent act. (500 words)


            A number of such frauds have been carried out in the UK, and so, the answer will focus on some of the major examples of foreign frauds that will allow the reader to understand them in an effective manner.

  1. Impersonation/Identity Fraud:

The fraud of personification occurs when somebody assumes your identity to carry out a fraud or any other criminal act. The criminals can obtain the information after which, they must assume your identity through a series of sources, such as using information of credit card or bank account. They can approach you at the person, by telephone, or on the Internet and ask you information. The information sources related to you are so numerous that you cannot prevent the flight of your identity. (Smith, 2007)

Psychology Effect:

The subject will feel very upset and stressed that an unknown person knows this much about personal life. Thus, it will result in countless hours of anxiety.

  1. Telemarketing Fraud:

When you send money to unknown people whom you do not know personally, you increase possibilities of becoming a victim of fraud of telemarketing.  Panels of warning — which visitor or unknown individuals can say to you:

  • You must act now or winnings you gained will not be available later.
  • You have gained free gift, the holidays, or the price. However, you must pay stamping and handling charges.
  • You must send the money, give details of the credit card or bank account, or may take a control by the courier. You can hear this before you were likely to consider the offer carefully.

If you hear similar lines from telephone sales representatives, just hang up the telephone while saying no thank you that will save you from telemarketing fraud.

Psychology Effect: The subject will be confused completely in each one of such calls. Usually, victims listen to each call, and later, get involved in false calls and proposals during such fraud. Such fraud results in disappointment in individuals, and may cause serious problems, if victims were already in need of money or opportunities.

  1. Foreign Exchange Currency Fraud:

The swindles of forex attract customers with offers of sophisticate-repercussion placed in advertisements of newspapers, promotions on radio and Internet sites. The instigators often delude the investors with the concept of the power. A first payment representing only one fraction of all the cost is shown in the beginning. In addition, forecasts about the supposedly inevitable increases in the prices of currency, it is usually stated that these contracts offer enormous returns after a short duration with little or no risk of falling off the course. (Smith, 2007) In a typical case, investors undoubtedly harvest thousands of dollars to get enormous returns in few weeks. Often, funds of the investors never are really invested on the market by a legitimate retailer, but simply diverted – stolen — for the personal advantage of artists of the swindle.

Psychology Effect:

People will not be able to trust legitimate investment that will be a problematic issue for genuine investments. Moreover, studies have indicated even cases of suicides after investors lost their savings in such frauds.

  1. Advance Fee Scheme:

An anticipated arrangement of fees occurs when the victim pays the money on somebody in preparation for receiving something of a greater value, such as a loan, contract, investment, or gift, and then receives little or nothing in exchange. The variety of anticipated arrangements of fees is limited only to the imagination of artists of swindle who offer them various offers. It can imply sale of the products or services, offer investments, profits of lottery, money or much of similar things. Intelligent Artistes of swindle will offer to find arrangements of financing for their customers. They ask their customers to sign the contracts in which they agree to pay the fees when they are presented to the funding source. The victims often learn later that they are ineligible to finance after they paid discoverer.

Psychology Effect:

The subjects will not take part in such kinds of arrangements in the future because the last fraud makes them doubtful about each one of the services offered by legal companies.


            Smith, Stephen. (2007). VAT Fraud and Evasion. International Monetary Fund.

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