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Crystallization, Sugar, and Fudge Lab Essay Sample

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Crystallization, Sugar, and Fudge Lab Essay Sample

Controlled crystal formation is important to acquire a certain texture in crystalline candy. Crystalline candies are smooth, creamy, and easily chewed with a definite structure of small crystals that resemble tiny snowflakes. Examples of crystalline candies are fondant, fudge, and penuche. When a concentration of sugar is higher than 121 degrees Celsius, it is an amorphous or non-crystalline candy, these are candies formed from a sugar solution that does not crystallize such as peanut brittle, and caramel. The purpose of this lab is to understand how temperature influences the texture, and firmness of fondant, and fudge. Materials and Methods:

The ingredients that were used for the fondant recipe were 200 grams of sucrose or better known as table sugar, and 118 mL of water. The 118 mL of water and 200 grams of sucrose was placed in a one quart saucepan on an induction stove top on the highest heat setting of 8, and a thermometer was placed in the pot while stirring the sugar and water with a wooden spoon. We kept an eye on the thermometer to make sure that it was immersed into the solution, but not touching the bottom of the pot. We reduced the heat to about 6 after the temperature reached around 100 degrees Celsius. We did this because we didn’t want the sugar solution to go above desired temperature of 113 degrees Celsius. After reaching 113, we removed the saucepan from the stove put it on a hot plate. We kept the thermometer in the solution and waited about 45 minutes until it reached the cooling temperature of 40 degrees Celsius.

The ingredients that were used for the basic fudge recipe, our grouped had to double the recipe. We used 400 grams of sucrose 56 grams of pure chocolate, 28 grams of butter, and in replace of cream we used 236 mLs of water. We placed the sugar, water, and chocolate in a one quart heavy sauce pan on the induction stove on a low setting until all the chocolate had melted. We kept the thermometer in the solution with the bulb immersed in the fudge without touching the bottom to make sure we had the correct temperature. We increased the heat setting on the stove top to the highest setting to boil the mixture rapidly. We boiled the mixture until it reached 114 degrees Celsius. We removed the fudge and immediately added the butter without stirring and let the mixture cool to 40 degrees Celsius. After it reached to 40 degrees we then tried stirring the fudge but the ingredients formed an amorphous consistence and it was not possible to stir in the butter. Results and Discussion:

The results of our fondant was slightly yellow in color with very large crystals, and after waiting for it to reach 40 degrees Celsius it was very hard to the touch and not able to even be taken out of the pot. What I did try from the fondant we made it had a gritty like consistence slightly resembling sand, very hard to chew, and suck to our teeth. It was extremely molar impacting. The reason for the yellow glossy color and large crystals was because we over cooked the fondant. It was more like a rock candy then a fondant. The reason why we believed it turned into an amorphous candy was because the thermometers we were using for both recipes was off by two degrees Celsius. This made it very difficult to tell if it was done or if it was undercooked. Also this was the first time using an induction stove, and that was also difficult to control the temperature because it was boiling faster than the other groups. The basic fudge recipe turned out very dark brown almost black, stuck to the saucepan, and very overcooked. What I tasted was burnt, gritty, tooth impacting chocolate. Because the results for both the fondant and the fudge were so similar in consistence, texture, and firmness we believed that if we had a calibrated thermometer and knew more about the temperature difference in induction stove tops I believe we could have produced two better products. Conclusion:

After performing the lab, we noticed how difficult controlled crystallization was to achieve. Even though fudge is more forgiving then fondant it is extremely important to have a well calibrated thermometer. If the temperature is even one degree off it can go from a crystalline candy to an amorphous candy in an instant. This lab was helpful in understanding how to cook candies, and the importance of consistency when it comes to fondants and fudges. We learned what over and under cooking does to the sucrose (table sugar), and how adding ingredients like interfering agents such as acids can help change molecules of hydrolyze sugars into monosaccharides. This lab helped in seeing how sugar and water can act together and how critical temperature is in making types of candy.

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