Culture of Pakistan comprises numerous diverse cultures and ethnic groups: the Punjabis, Kashmir Dardic, Wakhiris, Sindhis in east, Muhajirs, Makrani in the south; Baloch and Pashto in the west; and the ancient, Baltistani and Burusho communities in the north. These Pakistani cultures have been greatly influenced by many of the surrounding countries’ cultures, such as theTurkic peoples, Persian, Arab, and South Asian ethnic groups the Subcontinent, Central and the Middle East. ————————————————-
Pakistani literature originates from when Pakistan gained its nationhood as a sovereign state in 1947. The common and shared tradition of Urdu literature and literature of South Asia was inherited by the new state. Over a period of time, a body of literature unique to Pakistan has emerged in nearly all major Pakistani languages, including Urdu, English, Punjabi, Pashto, Seraiki, Balochi, and Sindhi. ————————————————-
Poetry is a highly respected art and profession in Pakistan. The pre-eminent form of poetry in Pakistan almost always originates in Persian, due in part to the long standing affiliation the region had with the Persian Empire. The enthusiasm for poetry exists at a regional level as well, with nearly all of Pakistan’s provincial languages continuing the legacy. Since the independence of the country in 1947 and establishment of Urdu as the national language, poetry is written in that language as well.
The Urdu language has a rich tradition of poetry and includes the famous poets Dr. Allama Iqbal (national poet), Mirza Ghalib, Faiz Ahmad Faiz, Ahmad Faraz, Habib Jalib, Jazib Qureshi, and Ahmad Nadeem Qasimi. Apart from Urdu poetry, Pakistani poetry also has blends of other regional languages. Balochi, Sindhi, Punjabi, Seraiki, and Pashto poetry have all incorporated and influenced Pakistani poetry. Poetry in the form of “marsia salamand naath” is also very popular among many Pakistanis.
The variety of Pakistani music ranges from diverse provincial folk music and traditional styles such as Qawwali and Ghazal Gayaki to modern forms fusing traditional and western music, such as the synchronization of Qawwali and western music by the world renowned Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan. In addition Pakistan is home to many famous folk singers such as the late Alam Lohar, who is also well known in Indian Punjab. The arrival of Afghan refugees in the western provinces has rekindled Pasto and Persian music and established Peshawar as a hub for Afghani musicians and a distribution center for Afghani music abroad. M. Haseebullah Rajput also a best singer.
Kathak – classical dance developed in the Royal courts of the Mughals. Folk dances are still popular in Pakistan and vary according to region such as Punjab.
Folk dances of:
* Bhangra – Punjab
* Luddi – Punjab
* Sammi – Punjab
* Jhumar – Saraiki and Balochi folk dance
* Lewa – Baluch folk dance
* Chap – Baluch folk dance performed at weddings
* Jhumar – Saraiki and Balochi folk dance
* Attan – Folk dance of Pashtu’s tribes of Pakistan including the unique styles of Quetta and Waziristan
* Khattak Dance – Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa
* Chitrali Dance – Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa
* Dhammal – Performed at Sufi shrines/ dargahs in Punjab and Sindh * Ho Jamalo – Sindhi dance
Drama and theatre:
These are very similar to stage plays in theatres. They are performed by well-known actors and actresses in the Lollywood industry. The dramas and plays deal with many themes from life events, often with a humorous touch. Bollywood movies are also popular. ————————————————-
Abdul Rehman Chughtai, Sughra Rababi, Ustad Allah Baksh, Ajaz Anwar, Ismail Gulgee, Jamil Naqsh, and Sadequain are prominent painters of Pakistan. Pakistani vehicle art is a popular folk art.
One of the most important of the few examples of the Persian style of architecture is the tomb of the Shah Rukn-i-Alam in Multan. During the Mughal era, design elements of Islamic-Persian architecture were fused with, and often produced playful forms of, Hindustani art. Lahore, occasional residence of Mughal rulers, exhibits a multiplicity of important buildings from the empire, among them theBadshahi mosque, the fortress of Lahore with the famous Alamgiri Gate, the colourful, still strongly Persian seeming Wazir Khan Mosque as well as numerous other mosques and mausoleums. The Shahjahan Mosque of Thatta in Sindh also originates from the epoch of the Mughals, as does the Mohabbat Khan Mosque in Peshawar. ————————————————-
Recreation and sports
The official national sport of Pakistan is field hockey, but cricket and squash are the most popular sports. The Pakistan national field hockey team has won the Hockey World Cup a record four times. The Pakistan national field hockey team at the international level, Pakistan has competed many times at the Summer Olympics in field hockey, boxing, athletics, swimming, and shooting. Hockey is the sport in which Pakistan has been most successful at the Olympics, winning three gold medals (1960,1968, and 1984). Pakistan has also won the Hockey World Cup four times (1971, 1978, 1982, and 1994). Cricket team has won the Cricket World Cup once (in 1992) ————————————————-
Cuisine [ Method of making food ]
The Art in Pakistan comprises a mix of Middle Eastern, Iranian, Afghan, Indian, and Turkish influences that reflect the country’s history. Urban centres of the country offer an amalgamation (mixing) of recipes from all parts of the country, while food with specific local ingredients and tastes is available in rural (dehati) areas and villages. Besides the main dishes of salan, with or without meat and cooked with vegetables or lentils ( pulses of masoor ), there are a number of provincial specialties such as karahi, biryani, and tikka, in various forms and flavours, eaten alongside a variety of breads such as naan, chapati, and roti. There are also local forms of grilled meat or kebabs, desserts, and a variety of hot and cold drinks.
The holiest month of the Islamic Calendar, which is a month of fasting from sunrise to sunset and self-discipline, it is widely observed in Pakistan. ————————————————-
Chand Raat occurs the night before Eid day celebrations commence, marking the end of the month of Ramadan. People buy gifts and sweets that will be given to friends and families who come over to celebrate the end of Ramadan. The streets, major buildings and landmarks, even outside of malls and plazas, put on displays of elaborate decorations and colourful light shows. There are large crowds in the city center to celebrate the beginning of Eid, and it is usually a boom time for business. ————————————————-
The two Eids, Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha, commemorate the passing of the month of fasting, Ramadan, and the willingness of Ibrahim (A.S) to sacrifice his son Ishmael for God. On these days, there are national holidays and many festival events that take place to celebrate Eid. As Pakistan is a Muslim state, there are three days on Eid ul-Fitr, money is given for charity and as gifts to young children. On Eid ul-Adha, people may also distribute meat to relatives and neighbours and donate food for charity. ————————————————-
Milaad un Nabi is a known religious festival which is celebrated in many parts of Pakistan. The Milaad is the celebration for the birthday of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. ————————————————-
Muharram is not a festival, it is the first month of the Islamic calendar. Muharram is also a sacred month, fighting is forbidden during this month. Shi’a Muslims mourn on the tenth day of Muharram (Asura), while some fast during this month. ————————————————-
Jashn-e-Baharan sometimes referred to as Basant, is a pre-Islamic Punjabi festival that marks the coming of spring. Celebrations in Pakistan are centered in Lahore, and people from all over the country and abroad come to the city for the annual festivities. Kite flyingcompetitions take place all over the city’s rooftops during Basant (now prohibited). The arrival of spring was an important event for all farmers and was welcomed with a celebration, hence the name Jashn (celebration) Baharan (spring). ————————————————-
Christmas is usually celebrated by Pakistani Christians who account more than 3 percent of Pakistan and mostly reside in Punjab of Pakistan. ————————————————-
Holi is celebrated by Pakistani Hindus.
This festival is like Nowruz of Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia. In Northern Pakistan (Chitral, Gilgit, Baltistan), and NortIt is also celebrated with much fervour in Balochistan, and in almost all of Pakistan’s major urban centres The day coincides with the Spring Equinox on 21 March, but the celebration continues for weeks. In Baltistan, the main features of Nowruz are the giving of coloured eggs to friends and polo matches. In Balochistan, the festival is marked with outdoor feasts, and the traditional jumping over a fire to wash away sins and usher in a fresh start. The origins of this festival are pre-Islamic and date back to when Pakistan was part of] the Achaemenid and Sassanid Persian empires.hern Punjab, Nowruz is celebrated as a socio-religious festival. ————————————————-
Pakistani young girls in colorful dresses on the occasion of Pakistan Day ————————————————-
Defense Day Parade:
September 6 is another patriotic day, when the Army of Pakistan is put on display for the general public to show Pakistan arms. All Government officials attend the ceremony and recognitions are awarded to special people for their work. In March 2007, the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) put on display the new joint manufactured Chinese-Pakistani aircraft called the JF-17 Thunder. ————————————————-
Traditionally, the government-owned Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) has been the dominant media player in Pakistan. The PTV channels are controlled by the government and opposition views are not given much time. The past decade has seen the emergence of several private TV channels showing news and entertainment, such as GEO TV, AAJ TV, ARY Digital, HUM, MTV Pakistan, and others. Traditionally the bulk of TV shows have been plays or soap operas, some of them critically acclaimed. Various American, European, Asian TV channels, and movies are available to a majority of the population via Cable TV. Television accounted for almost half of the advertising expenditure in Pakistan in 2002. ————————————————-
The Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) was formed on 14 August 1947, the day of Pakistani independence. It was a direct descendant of the Indian Broadcasting Company, which later became All India Radio. At independence, Pakistan had radio stations inDhaka, Lahore, and Peshawar. A major programme of expansion saw new stations open at Karachi and Rawalpindi in 1948, and a new broadcasting house at Karachi in 1950. This was followed by new radio stations at Hyderabad (1951), Quetta (1956), a second station at Rawalpindi (1960), and a receiving centre at Peshawar (1960). During the 1980s and 1990s, the corporation expanded its network to many cities and towns of Pakistan to provide greater service to the local people. Today, there are over a hundred radio stations due to more liberal media regulations. ————————————————-
An indigenous movie industry exists in Pakistan and is known as “Lollywood”, as it is based in Lahore, producing over forty feature-length films a year. ————————————————-
The national dress is Shalwar Qameez for both men and women. It consists of a long, loose fitting tunic with very baggy trousers.