The framers of the Constitution established a representative democracy. Political scientists have developed at least three theories of American democracy — pluralism, elitism, and hyper pluralism.
A.) Pluralist: Pluralism is the theory that a multitude of groups, not the people as a whole, govern the United States Elitism: elite theory is a theory of the state which seeks to describe and explain the power relationships in contemporary society Hyper pluralism: Hyper pluralism is the same as the pluralism theory with different perspective. While people who believe in pluralism is optimistic, hyper pluralism is a pessimistic and extreme.
B.) In the Pluralist theory citizens play an important role in politics. They can form groups and promote their interests (interests groups). In Elitism theories, citizens have a limited participation because of the unequal share of power, in the sense that others are favored more and those citizens in this are limited of expression.
C.) The Elitism theory is a theory that accepts group’s concerns and grievances but the power is given more to the elite (superior). This theory promotes democracy by letting individuals form groups based on common interests, but it limits them because elite’s opinions and concerns matter the most and that which is an unbalanced share of democracy. Though the participation is evident, the representation is unfair, going against ideal democracy which is for the people of the people by the people.
The Constitution has been amended over time to reflect changes in the American political system. No issue has received more attention among these amendments than that of voting rights.
A.)The 15th amendment gave all American citizens, no matter their race or wealth, the right to vote while the 19th amendment gave women the right to vote after hundreds of years of being cut off from society and their natural rights. The 26th amendment also had an impact on voting rights by it changed the voting age of 21 to 18 years of age, now younger Americans are able to have their voice heard in politics. B.)
The 15th amendment has changed the nature of the electorate because it allowed slave’s form being forbidden to vote. The 19th amendment allowed women to vote fixed the gap between the two sexes; women were now opened too much success through this one important change. The 26th amendment changed the voting age form 21 to 18 because those drafted to war stated that if they were old enough to fight they were old enough to vote. Through all these changes caused a increase in the voting population and more beneficial elections.
The Federalist system in the United States was intended to divide power between the federal government and state governments. Since the creation of the federal system, however, power has tended to gravitate from the states to the federal government. A.)McCullough v. Maryland
“Maryland passed legislation to impose taxes on the bank. James W. McCulloch, the cashier of the Baltimore branch of the bank, refused to pay the tax.” “The Court held that Congress had the power to incorporate the bank and that Maryland could not tax instruments of the national government employed in the execution of constitutional powers” This gave the state government a sense of what type of role they play in crucial decisions. The higher end of the government opinions matters most unlike the lower ends, similar to the elitism’s theory. B.) Federal grants to states: “federal grants are economic aid issued by the United States government out of the general federal revenue” This shows which government is like the big brother and can do much more of a job when it comes to help and aid. This again goes back to the Elitism Theory, because the federal government is more superior to the states government.