Department of Communication Science Essay Sample
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Department of Communication Science Essay Sample
To discover and label by means of content breakdown eight diverse creative concepts and their features applied in eight (different) designated advertisements found in two dissimilar publications, newspapers and magazines (University of South Africa 2004:20).
A content breakdown (action) of creative fundamentals found in advertisements in magazines and newspapers (issue) with a qualitative and a quantative element (nature of design). The method used to attain the qualitative data includes capturing and analysing the data by doing a proportional analysis of the outcome. This assessment can show the researcher differences or similarities between the eight advertisements and creative concepts. The qualitative method is more flexible as opposed to the quantitative method. Qualitative methods focus on explaining why particular things are viewed or portrayed as they are, giving the researcher reasons as to how they came about certain observations. The time dimension is cross-sectional because the research is conducted over a short period of time from 28 July 2014 when research commenced until it ended on 11 August 2014 when findings was submitted.
The research criteria is relevant to the field of communication science since it adheres to the following benchmarks (Du Plooy, 2013:53):
The main research topic meets the creative ideas which are studied since the advertisements found in South African magazines and newspapers are directly relating to marketing and are therefore considered mass media messages. Additionally these advertisements are relevant to society, specifically the various cultures that are prevalent in the country.
The research is researchable since qualitative and quantative scientific data relating to the main issue (eight creative concepts) can be collected from the advertisements published in the selected magazines and newspapers. It can then be describe and explored by means of a cross-sectional content analysis.
The research is feasible because a great number of South African magazines and newspapers contain advertisements which make use of the eight selected creative concepts. The researcher is therefore able to conduct the research study without being inhibited by cost, time or lack of accessible evidence.
There are four main acceptable norms in the scientific community that encompass ethical acceptability: voluntary and knowledgeable consensus, protection of privacy, principle of do no harm and deterrence of exposing research subjects to physical or emotional risk. Since these are only standards, social conscience should play an important role.
Thereby one can indicate that the research criteria is ethical since no persons are involved and it only deals with the eight advertisements from two publications, namely magazines and newspapers.
Eight creative concepts will be identified by the researcher by making use of eight selected advertisements from two different publications found in the geographical area of South Africa (for magazines) and KwaZulu-Natal (for newspapers). Eight various creative concepts will be identified, explored and described by the researcher in conjunction with the eight selected advertisements, four from each publication (Du Plooy:54-55).
The advertisements were selected on the basis of the creative concepts that they represent (from both publications) and as such it can be clearly stated that no intentional or unintentional harm was done in the process. The advertisements were also selected since they met the minimum conditions for research criteria and it is therefore possible to do a cross-sectional analysis.
The research was commenced from Monday, 28 July 2014 till Monday, 11 August 2014 to adhere to the required time frame as stipulated for any type of research.
Due to the research criteria benchmarked (as indicated under point 2) and the fact that any true scientist must try not to compromise the research findings, it must be noted that the target population might not always be available. Therefore, when representing a test sample a clear distinction between the target population and the accessible population needs to be drawn.
In this case the issue can be resolved by agreeing upon the precision with which the decided model sample will be drawn, the level of confidence and the amount of sampling error that will be tolerated (Du Plooy:109).
4.1Target and accessible populations
The criteria for this assignment is stipulated as having “nothing to do with people, readers, consumers, products or differences between publications. It only has to do with identifying eight creative concepts…” (University of South Africa 2004:20).
The target population can therefore be defined as all possible publications and advertisements in the geographical area of South Africa.
The accessible population is the two required publications (magazines and newspapers) and the eight selected advertisements as applied in those advertisements.
4.2Four population characteristics
There need to be four distinct population parameters shared in order to get a realistic representation and in order to be safely able to generalise the end conclusions:
•The two publications and eight selected advertisements needs to be available at a set period.
•The period needs to be fixed to a specific time, namely daily, weekly, weekends, once a month et cetera.
•Since the geographical limitation was set to South African publication it is very important that the advertisements be local in nature.
•Since a time limitation was set on the research it is necessary that the publications and advertisements appear during the period of 28 July 2014 to 11 August 2014.
4.3Units of analysis
In the chosen research the units of analysis, which will be explained in more details later on, can be defined as the eight creative concepts as applicable to the selected eight (dissimilar) advertisements (Du Plooy 2001:158-159):
•Advertisements that provide assurance of a prevailing or renewed value.
•Advertisements that incite interest.
•Advertisements that present statements and evidence to support it.
•Advertisements that provide motivation for a type of action to be take.
•Advertisements that have a brand name which is repeated visually.
•Advertisements that encompass appeals.
•Advertisements that contain a specific slogan.
•Advertisements that follow a factual and honest tactic.
5.ASSUMPTIONS AND SUB-ISSUES
Accordingly to Merriam-Webster inductive reasoning is where the researcher seek to supply strong evidence for the truth of the conclusion. Therefore probability instead of absolutely true is allowed.
Deductive reasoning is where the researcher seeks to supply a locally and certain conclusion. Therefore only the rules of deductive logic are allowed.
Inductive and deductive methods of reasoning are utilised in the research. Inductive reasoning analyse the creative concepts as they are applied in the accessible population in order to sanction theoretical assumptions and draw mutual conclusions. Deductive reasoning confirm assumptions by studying the accessible population.
An assumption is an unconfirmed conviction that is neither true nor false (Prof Terblanché, EJ:11):
•All advertisements include a brand name.
•Most advertisements will have a slogan.
•Advertisements should provide an assurance of a prevailing or renewed value.
•Advertisements should provide motivation for a type of action to be taken.
A sub-issue is a questions on the formulated assumption (Prof Terblanché, EJ:11):
•Will there be branding in all the advertisements?
•Will there be a slogan in all the advertisements?
•Will the advertisements make a promise of a prevailing or renewed value?
•Will the advertisement provide motivation for a type of action to be taken?
6.GOAL AND OBJECTIVES
The researcher’s goal is to explicitly define and explore the eight various creative concepts within eight different advertisements of the two (dissimilar) publications.
The goal is applied communication research because we want to investigate a practical issue. The practical issue in this research is to determine the characteristics of the eight creative concepts in the selected advertisements from the two publications (Du Plooy:50).
The two objectives in this particular research will cover exploratory and descriptive objectives. Objectives are exploratory because we want to explore the eight different creative concepts. The objectives are descriptive because we want to describe how these creative concepts are used in each advertisement.
As indicated before and as per section 2.4 of Du Plooy (69-84) both inductive and deductive methods of reasoning are used in this research. The before-mentioned goal, objectives, four assumptions and sub-issues are guided by the theory of deduction because research definitions are formulated and researched with the intention to verify them and eventually the main issue.
Inductive reasoning is applied to the examination of the creative concepts to confirm the hypothetical conventions that in turn will lead to acceptable collective deductions.
Research questions are based on aforesaid and the acceptance or rejection of the assumptions made. Additionally the specific regularity with which each creative concept is measured.
The following research questions will be observed for this research:
•Which advertisements contain the creative concept of branding and how many?
•Which advertisements will have a slogan?
•How many advertisements keep their promises of a prevailing or renewed value?
•How many advertisements provide motivation for a type of action to be taken?
These research questions are related to the goals and objectives, assumptions and sub-issues of the main research issue.
Content analysis is a research tool that focus on the qualitative and quantitative content utilised to determine how eight creative concepts can be applied to the eight selected advertisements and form the basis of the research (Du Plooy:58).
The eight creative concepts which will be analysed are as follows (Du Plooy:261):
This concept provide assurance or a prevailing or renewed value or benefit.
Figure 1 (2014:19)
These creative concepts can be seen by in the advertisement found in the Vrouekeur of 08 August 2014 with the sentence “help vir fyn plooie, gloeiende vel en om porieé minder sigbaar te maak. Boonop versterk die serum ook jou normal dagroom se doeltreffendheid”. Translated it stated that the product helps with fine wrinkles, assist in a glowing skin and help to make pore smaller. Additionally the serum also makes ones day cream more sufficient.
This concept provoke interest and arouse curiosity. One should be left with a question in mind and a desire to have it answered.
Figure 2 (2014:68)
An example of how this concept is applied can be found in the advertisement of Vrouekeur of 08 August 2014 with the statement “Verslank nou and Betaal Later”. Translated it indicates that the consumer is able to lose weight now and only need to pay later and it carries on to indicate it is a first in South Africa.
This concept present statement and evidence (proof) to support it. These advertisements use the credibility of the source (ethos) or emotional appeal (pathos) and/or other logical arguments in support of their claims. Evidence can also take the form of guarantees.
Figure 3 (2014:27)
This concept can be found in Idees of 2014 where Lifebuoy claims that it offers the consumer the following: “Verwyder 99.9% kieme in net 10 sekondes”. It repeats in the small print that standard tests were done and it promise removal of 99.9% viruses in just ten seconds.
Where this concept is applied, encouragement is given for some sort of action to be taken. This includes not only actions to purchase something but sometimes also an invitation to contact the organisation at specific contact details provided in order to follow a certain action. In order for this end on an energetic note the details are mostly found at the end of the advertisement.
Figure 4 (2014:5)
In this advertisement for Dermastine pregnant woman is invited to purchase Dermastine for stretch marks over the body. Additional the organisation’s full details are provided which will allow the consumer to start interacting and know where to get hold of the product if not available locally.
Branding is very powerful, because it distinguish rival brands, namely the name, term, symbol or anything else which makes it identifiable. It is a requirement for any type of advertising and usually indicated verbally or visually.
Figure 5 (2014:1)
In this brand advertisement of 10 August 2014, the newspaper Rapport is identifiable by the fact that it is hugely displayed on the first page and has big white letters against a red background. Additional the brand, Rapport is repeated on each page in small red letters. This way all readers interested in Afrikaans newspapers are clearly able to identify the newspaper.
The concept of appeals demand that it clearly state what audience it has in mind and that the selected audience be clearly identifiable.
Figure 7 (2014:5)
In the Beeld advertisement of 10 August 2014, this concept is applied by making an appeal is made to a specific audience, namely home users with limited budget to apply for a Telkom special that will change their house into a wireless hotspot.
Slogans are not a necessity but are highly recommended. It is used repeatedly in order to boost the identity of the organisation that is providing a product, service et cetera. Slogans are normally short and can be a motto, catchword or phrase or jingle that are normally used on a mostly permanent basis.
Figure 7 (2014:10)
In a local KwaZulu-Natal community newspaper of 01 August 2014, Public Eye the words “Low Prices” or “Low Price” are repeated constantly for an advertisement for Checkers Hypermarket. This phrase can also be found in other medias hence it being considered a slogan of the organisation.
8.8 Factional and emotional approach
Factual approach uses rational communication which is logical, descriptive or scientific. It makes strong claims and uses demonstrations to make a conviction that they are scientifically proven. The emotional approach uses expressions and excites feelings. It creates feelings, images, meanings and beliefs.
Figure 8 (2014:2)
In this advertisement of a local KwaZulu-Natal community newspaper of 01 August 2014, Public Eye one can found a mixture of factual and emotional
The factual is in the qualifications and place of study of the dentist and the emotional approach is in the words “Bring confidence to your smile”.
The research design contains both quantitative and qualitative methods (Du Plooy:38).
The approach used to collect quantitative data will be in the form of a score table. The table will add the regularity of creative concepts that are visible in the eight selected advertisements from the two publications. Quantitative research is based on reasoning that is deductive. It begins with a broad hypothesis and develops a conclusion based upon it. The research designs objectives include the quantitative content analysis which in turn includes the depiction, calculation and clarification of quantities by adding up the number of creative concepts within the eight advertisements.
The process used to get the qualitative data include capturing and studying the data by doing a proportional examination of the results. This can show the researcher changes or likenesses between the eight advertisements and creative concepts. The qualitative method is more flexible as opposed to the quantitative method. Qualitative methods concentrate on clarifying why specific issues are regarded or depicted the way they are. This will provide the researcher explanations as to how they came about certain interpretations.
The creative concepts from the eight advertisements (from newspapers and magazines) are not mutually exclusive because an advertisement can fall into more than one creative concept category. The categories are exhaustive because it is possible to place each and every advertisement into a category of creative concepts.
SELF ASSESSMENT AND SELF-REFLECTION
1.What have you learnt (what knowledge have you gained) by doing the portfolio task
By doing the assignment knowledge was gained in how to explore advertisements from magazines and newspapers that are related to the South African society.
2.What skills, abilities and orientation attitudes and values) have you accomplished?
It is now possible to explore various creative concepts from selected advertisements and understand how they relate to each other and how readers perceive them.
3.Which strengths could you apply in your future life and work environment?
The researcher gained a much deeper insight into the world of research which can be applied to future life and work environment.
4.Which shortcoming do you need to address in future?
How to improve in analysing creative concepts and how they apply to advertisements and how to link the research criteria that goes with it.
5.To what extent have you achieved the learning outcomes formulated for each study unit (List the learning outcomes which you have achieved. No marked are awarded if these are not listed).
The differences between qualitative and quantitative research design as well as inductive and deductive reasoning and how it applies to creative concepts and advertisements are the biggest learning outcome achieve.
University of South Africa. Department of Communication Science. 2014. Communication Research: Tutorial Letter 101/3/2014 for COM3706. Pretoria.
University of South Africa. Department of Communication Science. 2014. Communication Research: Tutorial Letter 102/3/2014 for COM3706. Pretoria.
University of South Africa. Department of Communication Science. 2014. Important guidelines and information regarding your studies: Tutorial letter 301/4/2014. Pretoria.
Du Plooy, T. 2001. Communication research. Only study guide for COM3706. Pretoria: University of South Africa.
Du Plooy. 2013. Communication research: techniques, methods and applications. 2nd Edition. JUTA. VitalBook electronic file.
Inductive. [O]. Available:
Accessed on 2014/08/10
Deductive. [O]. Available:
Accessed on 2014/08/10
Prof Terblanché, EJ. 2014. Communication research.
Discussion class on assignment 01: Task 5.10.