In this part of my work I will be talking about the ways which discrimination is within a health and social care setting. I will be describing the following ways which will be culture, disability, age, race, cognitive ability, social class, gender, sexuality, health status, and also the family structure and status. I will try to describe each one and give an example of how it happens within a health and social care situation.
Culture is something which customs arts, social institutions, and achievements of a particular nation, people, or other social groups. People may be discriminated against because of their culture this is because some cultures and religious groups. This may be because of them not learning about other cultures and religions as they were growing up or just for the simple fact of them not wanting to know about a different culture apart from their own. An example of this in a health and social care setting would be if a girl who is a Muslim they may want to wear a hijab whilst at school this then promotes their culture. Their school may discriminate against them by saying that they are not allowed to wear this as they are not in school uniform.
Although they are not allowed to promote their culture they may be discriminated against as they may see other children wearing the cross or other cultural pieces of clothing or other items which promotes their culture. This is an example of infringement of rights and also prejudice this is because not allowing the girl to wear the hijab makes them feel as if their rights are not being taken into account and that their culture is not being respected. This may also be prejudice as not many girls wear their hijab within a school and they may feel singled out and out of place as they are unable to wear their traditional cultural clothing this may be because other people may not feel comfortable around girls or women who wear them. P3- The effects of discrimination on the basis of culture.
Potential effects on the service user because of their culture would be disempowerment, restricted opportunities, and also marginalisation and lack of social cohesion. This would be an example of disempowerment as disempowerment is when a person feels powerless in a situation and feels deprived of their own individual opinions, the girl in the example would feel disempowered as she was unable to wear the hijab although that was her own choice and it went with her culture and religion, she would also have no power in which to say that she was able to wear the hijab as the people at the school had the power to say what the students were and weren’t allowed to wear. As she was disempowered this may lead to her feeling that she doesn’t fit in with the school and may feel like an outsider because of this and this may then lead to her being emotionally distressed. I also think that it’s an example of a restricted opportunity as everyone should have their own individual thoughts and be able to do things which occur within their culture, this is a restricted opportunity as they are restricting her from being able to wear her traditional cultures clothing and this is depriving her of her rights to do so to promote her culture.
As the girl was unable to promote her culture she may become more determined to do so, so by this she may rebel against the rules and wear it as she doesn’t understand why she’s unable to do so. I think that she may feel marginalised which means a person or group of people feeling that they are not part of society, she may feel marginalised as well as not many other people in her school are of the same culture so they do not have the same problem trying to promote their faith and also being told that she’s unable to do something may then lead her to do it anyway as she may think that its right for her to do so.
I also think that it’s a lack of social cohesion as the community within the school are not taking into account peoples different cultures or religion’s so this may then lead to people feeling left out or uncomfortable whilst they are at school, this is because other people may be able to promote their culture by wearing a specific item of clothing or jewellery which is not visible and that’s why it is acceptable, despite this it is still lack of social cohesion as there is a lack of knowledge about different cultures which there are within society nowadays. People may just dismiss these cultures as they have a lack of understanding and also do not want to know anything else about other cultures apart from their own.
Disabilities are physical or mental conditions which may limit a person’s movements, senses, or activities which they may decide to do. People may be discriminated against because of their disability if they have one, this is because of them not being able to do things which able bodied and able minded people would be able to do without a problem. This may lead someone to discriminate against them because of them not being able to do the ‘normal’ things which would be expected of a person. An example of this in a health and social care setting would be within a hospital and the woman patient was in a wheelchair and she had to go up onto the top floor for an appointment that she had booked, and there was no way in which she were able to get up onto that floor as the hospital had no way to get up there as there was no disabled access routes to get up there and the doctor refused to move from his office to then have the appointment in a different room in which the patient would be able to attend the appointment in. This could be seen as discrimination as the doctor would have known that the patient was disabled and would be unable to get to the room where they needed to be examined.
This is a type of abuse of power, this is because the doctor has the power in the situation and they have chosen not to do what is right and move the examination to a different room so that the woman would feel more comfortable and also be able to get the appointment which they had made. It is also infringement of rights as the patient’s rights are not being met and they are being discriminated because of the place where their appointment was placed knowing that the patient would be able to get to the appointment. P3- The effects of discrimination on the basis of disabilities. Potential effects on the service user because of their disability would be disempowerment, low self-esteem and also low self-identity and also restricted opportunities. I think that the woman would feel disempowered due to the fact that she was unable to get to her appointment because the hospital did not create a way to get to the top floor, this made the woman feel disempowered as she had her power taken away from her as the doctor wouldn’t come down onto the level where she was to then get her examined despite the fact that she had made an appointment, this may have made the woman feel like the doctor had all the power and she had none at all.
The woman may have started to feel unimportant and also devalued as if she was valued then her appointment would have still gone ahead none the less it didn’t and this could cause her to have more problems than what she went in with just because the doctor wouldn’t go to see her. This may then result in the woman having low self-esteem as she wouldn’t feel good about herself as she would feel worthless and not valued by people who are supposed to support you. The woman also had restricted opportunities this is because she was meant to have an appointment with a doctor and because she was unable to get to the top floor so that she was unable to get that opportunity of receiving health care as the doctor didn’t give her another alternative. Age is the length of time that a person has lived or something has existed and how long their life was. A person may be discriminated because of their age as they may be held back in a job because the employers may think that they do not have enough experience or may think that they haven’t had enough life experience therefore they will not be suitable for the job. That is then discriminating against the individual because they may have some skills which make them suitable for the job.
An example of a person being discriminated against because of their age may be within a hospital this is because they have been smoking throughout their lives and the hospital may be put into a position where they may think that they shouldn’t treat them because of them putting themselves into the situation where they are making themselves ill. This may be because of the person smoking and the doctors may not think that it is fair to put them on a waiting list compared to a person who is young they may be discriminated against as the doctors may think that they are old so they don’t have much time left anyway so it doesn’t matter if they don’t get the treatment that they need. P3- The effects of discrimination on the basis of age
Potential effects on the service user because of their age would be restricted opportunities and also negative behaviour this is because they were unable to receive the treatment in which they needed to then sort their lives out, despite them smoking and making their health decrease everyone still has a right to be treated when they are ill and this is restricting opportunities which they should have to then improve their lifestyle choices. This is also negative behaviour because although they have done nothing physical to the patient they have refused her life threatening treatment and gave it to a person who has been waiting less time than her for treatment and it has only been refused for her because she had been a smoker, never the less this may then lead the woman to feel unvalued and have less self -confident because of this, this is because although the woman is elderly she still should have time to live and it is her right to receive treatment from the NHS no matter what the circumstances are and no matter how much money they end up paying as that’s paid for by taxes in which the woman also pays.
Race is major divisions of humankind, which have distinct physical characteristics, these people would share the same culture, history, or language. Some people may discriminate against someone because of their race as people are not always used to seeing certain races and may feel intimidated if there is a big group of people who are a certain race which may then lead to them discriminating. An example of a person being discriminated against in a health and social care setting because of their race because in a health centre a white receptionist refused to give treatment to an elderly Asian man because they had no appointments available but then gave an appointment to an elderly white man for the next day.
This is discrimination on the grounds of infringement of rights and prejudice and also abuse of power, this is because it is infringements of rights as the Asian man had a right to go to the health centre to get help with an illness which he may have been suffering from and as they wouldn’t give him an appointment his shows that his rights were gone against and he was unable to get the help in which he needed. This is also an example of prejudice as it was based on the colour of his skin as the white man was able to get an appointment but the Asian man was unable to. And it is also abuse of power as the receptionist had the power to give both men an appointment if they needed one, but despite this she only gave the white man an appointment. This was abuse of power as she was in the position of power and she abused that by refusing to give him the help in which he needed.
P3- The effects of discrimination on the basis of race
Potential effects on the service user because of their race would be disempowerment, restricted opportunities and also negative behaviour. This is because the person would be disempowered because they would have no chance to stand up for themselves and this may then lead the patient to feel unvalued and that it doesn’t matter about what is wrong with him despite it could be serious. He would also be disempowered as it was his right to go for medical treatment he was deprived of this due to the receptionist saying there were no appointments when she gave a person who was a different race an appointment straight after the Asian man had gone. This is also restricted opportunities as he was restricted from making an appointment and he had to wait longer for an appointment as they had no appointments, despite this people of a different race were still coming in to book appointments. This also restricted his right to health care and also an opportunity to make it better as he may not of known what was wrong with him and if anything serious was wrong then that could have been treated instead of it being dismissed and then getting worse.
This is also an example of negative behaviour as he was discriminated on the basis of his race and in health and social care that shouldn’t happen because in health specialists eyes everyone should be equal no matter what the colour of their skin is and they should have been trained not to discriminate against someone because of this. Cognitive ability is the process of thought, this is how people become aware of their surroundings and process learning, memory, imagination, and also language. A person may be discriminated against because of their cognitive ability because due to them maybe having a difference and not being able to think as everyone else does and they may be discriminated against because of their differences. An example of a person being discriminated against because of their cognitive ability in a health and social care setting by a care worker who has been looking after them.
This is because there have been many instances where a person has been discriminated against by a care worker or even worse abused and called names such as ‘dumb’, this is because as their cognitive ability would be looking at life from a different perspective from the care workers and they may not take that into consideration and may decide that the only way that they are able to control the person would be to physically harm them. This is an example of abuse as the care worker has chosen to physically harm a patient instead of going by the book and trying to resolve the situation in a different way. The care worker is also labelling the patient as dumb because they may not understand what is going on because of an accident which they may have been in which has caused their lack of cognitive ability. P3- The effects of discrimination on the basis of cognitive ability Potential effects on the service user because of their cognitive ability would be negative behaviour and also disempowerment, and low self-esteem and low self-confidence. This would be negative behaviour because the care worker physically hurt the patient which they shouldn’t do even if they were trying to restrain them, also calling a person with a low cognitive ability ‘dumb’ is also not acceptable behaviour as it is not their fault that they are the way that they are and they should be treated with as much respect as what a person with a high cognitive ability would be treated.
This would also be disempowerment as the person would have none of their own power to make their own decisions as if they tried to the care worker would say that they are the person in control and in charge so the patient would have to listen to them and the care worker make the decisions for them, this is disempowerment as the person would feel useless and unable to make their own choices and decisions, nether the less even if a person is unable to make difficult decisions themselves the care worker should try to work out what they want to do instead of just doing what they think the person wants to do. The patient may have low self esteem and low self confidence as they are being called dumb and being violently hurt because the care worker could take the patients actions the wrong way and then abuse the patient, this would cause low self esteem and confidence because the person may feel restricted to do anything themselves as they have started to learn that everything they do is ‘wrong’ because the care worker has said that to them.
Social class is the economic or cultural arrangements of groups in society, this is classed on the social, economic, or educational status. A person may be discriminated against because of their social class standings as people who are rich may look down on the people who are less fortunate than themselves. They would discriminate against a person who is poorer than them because they may think they haven’t worked as hard as they have to get to where they are now and in the future. An example of a person being discriminated because of their social class within a health and social care setting could be as the person had been on a waiting list for a transplant and they have been predicted that they will be on there for a long time whereas somebody who has money will not have to wait as long this is due to them paying extra money to get private health care. This is discrimination because they are getting a better service just because they are able to pay extra money to get themselves higher up the waiting list.
This is an example of infringements of rights and also labelling and also prejudice. This is an example of infringements of rights because their rights are being infringed due to the fact that they are not receiving the same amount of care from the hospitals as what the richer people are receiving, this is an infringement of rights due to the fact that just because the person does not have as much money as the other person they will not receive the transplant in which the person needs on the basis that they don’t have money to get themselves the transplant which they have been waiting a long time for. This may also be labelling as they have labelled the person as poorer and this would be labelled because of them being poorer so that may lead to them feeling bad about themselves as they are unable to pay for private health care. P3- The effects of discrimination on the basis of social class Potential effects on the service user because of their social class would be disempowerment, restricted opportunities, and may also be unemployment.
The person would feel disempowered as they would feel that they are not wealthy enough so they are unable to get the transplant as quick as a person who is wealthy, this is because a person who is wealthy is able to get private medical care where they are able to receive quicker and sometimes better treatment than what the NHS is able to provide. This is also restricted opportunities as the person’s opportunity to have a transplant has been taken away from her because someone who was wealthier was able to pay for the organ whereas she was unable to because she was less well off than the other patient. This is also a restricted opportunity as the patient who is less well off may then discover her health gets worse as she did not get the help in which she needed, also she may not be able to look after herself as well as what the wealthy woman does, such as buy fresh fruit and vegetables to then keep their health up. This may also be down to unemployment due to the fact that she is only less well off as she may have had less opportunities in the past and may be currently unemployed which is why she may not be able to pay a bit of money a month into private health care where she would get a better service.
Gender is the characteristics that are seen these distinguish the differences between male and female. People are classified into the two groups male and female. People may be discriminated because of their gender as traditional people may think that men and women should have specific roles to play in a family life. For example the man would work and the woman would look after the children and also cook. And in most jobs a woman is not usually higher than a man because most companies don’t think that it is right. An example of a person being discriminated on the grounds of gender within a health and social care environment, because a patient wanted to see a doctor they expected a man to come along and give them the assistance which they needed, but a woman doctor came to their assistance and the patient said “where’s the doctor?.”
This is discrimination against the doctor as they have been labelled and stereotyped as a male although the doctor is a woman. It is labelling because the patients automatically thought that the doctor was going to be a man and then by saying where’s the doctor may have made the woman doctor feel uncomfortable like she wasn’t meant to be there trying to help the patient. This was also stereotyping as the patient automatically assumed that the doctor was going to be a man without actually knowing who was going to be her doctor and making the assumption that it was going to be a man was automatically thinking that all doctors should be men and that women should be nurses. P3- The effects of discrimination on the basis of gender.
Potential effects on the service user because of their gender would be disempowerment, low self-esteem and self-confidence. This may make the doctor feel disempowered as she may feel downgraded and that she shouldn’t be doing the job and should be a nurse and not a doctor. This would make her feel disempowered as she may feel that she is not taken seriously, this is because the man asked her where the doctor was. This may give the woman low self esteem and self confidence because she may then think about her job again or may become more determined to make it normal for more women to be doctors and not being just men doctors, this then make her self confidence go up but in this situation her self confidence is lowered as the patient put her down as that she is not good enough to be a doctor. Sexuality is the capacity for sexual feelings towards someone and their sexual preference whether that’s for male or females or both.
People may be discriminated against because of their sexuality because many people think that it is wrong to have a same sex relationship this is because many people have the thought that two people should be able to create babies and the same sex relationships are unable to do this as it is not biologically right and not morally right because of their religion. An example of a person being discriminated against because of their sexuality in a health and social care setting by a male member of staff within a hospital not wanting to treat a person who was homosexual because they thought that the man would fancy him when in actual fact that was irrelevant and just because a person is homosexual doesn’t mean that they will fancy a man. This is a type of labelling, stereotyping and also prejudice. This is because he was labelled as homosexual and stereotyped by the member of staff as they automatically assumed that the patient would have thoughts about him and it was prejudice because the staff member refused to offer him help.
P3- The effects of discrimination on the basis of sexuality. Potential effects on the service user because of their sexuality would be low self-esteem and also self-confidence, and negative behaviour and also lack of social cohesion. This may lead the patient to have a low self esteem and confidence because they may feel bad about themselves and a doctor not wanting to treat them would make them feel worse about themselves, this may because the man may not feel comfortable within his body already and by someone not wanting to treat him because of his sexuality may decrease his self confidence more. This is negative behaviour because people are different and not all homosexual people should be made out to fancy everybody they come across. The doctor should have treated the patient no matter what because he came in for a service and not to just be passed around to different people just because they were not able to understand the differences in people’s sexuality.
This may also be lack of social cohesion because the community within where they live may not have many homosexual people and that’s why they act differently towards different sexual orientations and also because the doctor didn’t accept the homosexual man and labelled him as something that he wouldn’t, this may then impact on the patient and he may then become distressed. Health status is how healthy a person is. This could also be assessed by an individual person or group or population. This would be judged on their ability to carry out everyday activities. Someone may be discriminated against because of their health status because some people may say that they got themselves into the health state which they are in so they won’t help them as it was their own fault. An example of a person being discriminated against within a health and social care setting because of their health status because a woman may smoke and they have discovered that she had lung cancer but the doctors have already been treated for it once before and she still made the decision to still smoke so she hasn’t helped herself out, and there was also a man who was suffering from lung cancer but he hadn’t put any strain on his health by smoking.
A nurse told the woman that she was unable to undergo the treatment again unless they actually stopped smoking to then prevent this from happening again, whereas they were going to put the male patient before the woman although he was admitted to the hospital later than her. This is infringements of rights as the woman patient had the right to receive treatment no matter what even if she did chose to smoke and she should have been put in first priority as she was there before the male. This would be discrimination because as the woman smoked she was unable to get the treatment and was put second priority compared to the man. P3- The effects of discrimination on the basis of health status Potential effects on the service user because of their health status would be disempowerment, restricted opportunities, and also low self-esteem and self-confidence. The person would feel disempowered as they were told to stop smoking or they wouldn’t give the woman the treatment in which she needed, this was giving her an ultimatum which is unacceptable within a health and social care environment as all the patients should be treated equally and their wishes and actions should be taken into account as the woman may smoke for a specific reason.
This may also give the woman low self esteem as she may feel that she is doing something very wrong as she has already had cancer and that she is a bad person because the hospital are refusing to help her because of her smoking. This may also give the woman low self confidence because she may smoke because she is stressed and that helps relieve her stress and then she may feel that if she stops she will go back to the way which she was and then may become emotionally distressed. Family structure and status is the way a person’s family is built up and also the number of people that it covers e.g. single or couple or family. People may discriminate against a family structure by thinking that families can only be brought up in on specific way. With a certain family structure. For example a male and a male having a child which is not always biologically theirs or a woman and a woman. There are different types of family structure but some still are not accepted in modern day life. An example of a person being discriminated because of their family structure in a health and social because a girl named Lucy goes to school and all the children are making father’s day cards and she has asked to make two because she has been brought up by a homosexual couple and the child wanted to make 2 cards one for each of her dads and the teachers told her that she weren’t allowed to because that can’t happen.
This was discriminating against Lucy because she was unable to make 2 cards because of prejudice and also stereotyping. This is stereotyping because the teacher automatically thought of the traditional families in which we have in modern day life and didn’t think about the different types there are nowadays. It was also prejudice because the teacher should have thought about how Lucy would feel about being told that she was unable to make two cards for her daddies, this would then make Lucy feel as if one of the men were not her parents although she had been brought up with both of them there. P3- The effects of discrimination on the basis of family structure. Potential effects on the service user because of their family structure would be negative behaviour, disempowerment, restricted opportunities, lack of social cohesion, and also low self-esteem. This may Lucy feel disempowered as she has been told she is unable to make two different cards for father’s day due to the teacher not thinking about the different family structures which there are in modern day society.
This is also a restricted opportunity as she didn’t get the opportunity to make both her dads a cards which she thinks is normal because that is how she had been brought up. By restricting her opportunities she may then start to question why she has two dads and then may become upset as she was unable to give both dads a card. This is also lack of social cohesion as the teacher didn’t acknowledge that families are made up of different structures and each one of them should be treated in an equal manner and by not doing this it is a lack of social cohesion as they haven’t accepted that in communities there are homosexual parents as well as the traditional parents which are mothers and fathers. This may lead her to have low self esteem as she may become upset because of her not being able to make both cards and she may then think that she is wrong in thinking about both of her parents and also do they both love her as the rest of the class have more traditional families.