The recurrent delay in shipboard training embarkation of second class cadets of MAAP contributes a decline in the number of returning enrolees for the final academic year. This subsequently decreases the total strength of the supposed graduating class; a drawback in the academy’s vision of producing competent seafarers who will respond to the growing demand for maritime officers and engineers. It affects mainly the growth and development in the training and education of the cadets involved. This paper seeks for the contributing factors that cause the delay in the embarkation of MAAP cadets of class 2010-2013.
It describes which events and situations are common to the majority of reported cases. It discusses the grounds for the occurrence of these factors and the effects of shipboard embarkation delay in the cadets’ training both onboard and in readmission to MAAP. Records from the Department of Shipboard Training of the concerned classes, firsthand information gathered from the affected midshipmen were analyzed to determine the common causes of the delay in shipboard training embarkation. The information assessed was used to find out the effects in the students training and subsequently provide recommendations in preventing recurrence of the observed event. Determinants of the Delayed Shipboard Embarkation
of MAAP Class 2010 -2013 Cadets
In the maritime profession, it is imperative that one must gain the required competency and skill to be able to navigate the open oceans. As for the education and training of the maritime students, The Standard of Training and Certification and Watchkeeping (STCW) 1978, as amended, specified the competencies in both knowledge and skills to perform their duties efficiently.
The Maritime Academy of Asia and the Pacific (MAAP), as a leading institution in maritime education, provides its cadets with three years of theoretical and practical studies and one year cadetship training aboard international merchant vessels. MAAP follows a 2-1-1 system wherein the students take academic instructions for the first two years in the academy, overseas shipboard training for the third year, and another academic year to complete the required three-year Bachelor of Science degree.
Shipboard training is a mandatory requirement and component of the Bachelor of Science in Marine Transportation (BSMT) and the Bachelor of Science in Marine Engineering (BSMarE) programs that pertains to the required seagoing service as provided under Regulation II/1 and Regulation III/1 of the STCW Convention. It is an essential part of a deck or engineer cadet’s training for it gives them the opportunity to attain experience and apply the knowledge provided in college and covers the required training and experience for an officer in charge of a watch. Here, a cadet is required to board an international merchant vessel for at least 12 months and perform as many training tasks in his Training Record Book which will be used for his assessment.
Also, a cadet’s shipboard embarkation is an integral part of the curriculum for a Bachelor of Science degree and thus the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) requires of at least 12 months sea service for OIC deck candidates and at least 12 months sea service for OIC engine candidates for licensure examinations. (CHED Memorandum Order (CMO) no. 2, 2012) For International Mariners Management Association of Japan (IMMAJ) sponsored cadets, they complete a three–month inter-island shipboard familiarization and training aboard the Training Ship Kapitan Felix Oca before spending the remaining nine months onboard their respective shipping and manning agencies’ vessels. Meanwhile, International Maritime Employers’ Council (IMEC) sponsored cadets spend all 12 months in international trading vessels. Since the class of 2010, it has been reported that second class cadets (third year students) of MAAP incur delay prior to embarkation for shipboard training and now for the class of 2013, it has been observed that more cadets encounter difficulties and delay in embarking international vessels for shipboard training. According to Maragtas S.V. Amante’s interviews and surveys with the seafarers (Philippine Global Seafarer, 2004), it shows common problem regarding their employment in the global labour market. Below is the list of common problems: • Age limit as a form of employment discrimination • Watchlisting (or blacklisting) of seafarer
• Increased costs for identity documents of seafarer, i.e. Visa requirements in U.S. ports. • Onerous requirements for medical examinations and certifications. • Inadequate food and accommodation aboard.
Since failure to accomplish 280 days of sea service forfeits a student for enrollment, he is deferred to the next school year. This directly affects the number of midshipman returning to MAAP for enrollment for the final academic year. Thus, candidates for graduation are fewer compared to the total strength of the original class. With the growing demand for Deck and Engineer officers, these events pose a drawback to the schools mission of producing competent seafarers and the country’s position as number one global source of mariners. This study seeks for the contributing factors that cause the delay in the embarkation of MAAP cadets of class 2010-2013. It describes which events and situations are common to the majority of reported cases. It discusses the grounds for the occurrence of these factors and the effects of shipboard embarkation delay in the cadets’ training both onboard and in readmission to MAAP.
Review of Related Literature
Shipboard Training is a mandatory requirement and component of the BSMT and the BSMarE programs that pertains to the required seagoing service as provided under Regulation II/1 and Regulation III/1 of the STCW Convention. This requirement aims to ensure that every BSMT and BSMarE student shall have the opportunity to, for BSMT cadet students, a) undergo an approved seagoing service not less than 12 months which includes onboard training that meets the requirements of Section A-II/1 of the STCW Code documented in an approved training record book (TRB), or otherwise an approved seagoing service of not less than 36 months; and, b) perform, during the required seagoing service, bridge watchkeeping duties under the supervision of the master or a qualified officer for a period of not less than six (6) months; and for BSMarE cadet students, a) undergo a combined workshop skills training and an approved seagoing service of not less than 12 months which includes onboard training that meets the requirements of Section A-III/1 of the STCW Code documented in an approved TRB, or otherwise a combined workshop skills training and an approved seagoing service of not les than 36 months of which not less than 30 months shall be seagoing service in the engine department; and, b) perform during the required seagoing service, an engine-room watchkeeping duties under the supervision of the chef engineer officer or a qualified engineer officer for a period of not less than six (6) months. (Section 2 of CHED Memorandum Order No. 02, Series of 2012)
Every officer in charge of an engineering watch in a manned engine-room or designated duty engineer officer in a periodically unmanned engine-room on a seagoing ship powered by main propulsion machinery of 750 kW propulsion power or more shall hold an appropriate certificate. Every candidate for certification shall: 1)be not less than 18 years of age; 2) have completed not less than six months seagoing service in the engine department in accordance with section A-IlIIl of the STCW Code; and 3) have completed approved education and training of at least 30 months which includes on-board training documented in an approved training record book and meet the standards o fcompetence specified in section AIlI/l of the STCW Code. (Regulation III/I of STCW 1978 as Amended)
Philippine maritime education consists of four to five year college degree programmes for officers (marine deck and engineers). College admission means that the student has completed six years of elementary and four years of secondary (high school) education, or a total of ten years compulsory precollegiate education. Many of the maritime schools offer a ladder-type program – after completing two to three year schooling, students are given an “associate in nautical or marine engineering degree” prior to cadetship, whose graduates find employment as ratings. After shipboard work experience, some go back to finish the college program, take the licensure examinations, and qualify as officers. As of June 2002, there were 76 accredited universities and colleges which offer maritime courses — 68 of these offers a Bachelor of Science in Maritime Transport (BSMT) program for deck officers and 59 offers a Bachelor of Science in Marine Engineering (BSMarE), for engineering officers. Many schools offer both programs, as well as “associate degree” (non graduate tertiary level) courses.
The IMO website (www.imo.org) however lists the Philippines as having the world’s largest number (n=98) of MET institutions. Most maritime schools offer short-term training upgrading courses for seafarers alongside the regular degree programs. Of the 76 schools, seven are government owned. Most Philippine maritime schools adopt the “3 – 1” model (three years of classroom schooling plus one year shipboard cadetship training). Variations of the curriculum are used by some maritime schools for various groups of students, such as: “2 – 1 – 1” model: two years of classroom schooling plus one year shipboard training (cadetship) plus one year additional classroom schooling. “1 – 1 – 2” model: one year classroom schooling plus one year shipboard training (cadetship) plus two years additional classroom schooling. (Amante, 2004)
The research requires gathering relevant data from the specified documents provided by the MAAP Department of Shipboard Training and surveys in order to analyze the problems at a more complete understanding about the causes of delay in shipboard embarkation of MAAP cadets. The following questions will be answered through the research: 1.) What are the causes of the delay in the shipboard training embarkation of 2010 – 2013 cadets? 2.) What is common among the causes? 3.) What factors contribute to the occurrence of these causes? 4.) How does the delay affect the cadets training and education?
The statistical data gathered from the department of shipboard training shows the (INCREASE or DECREASE or CONSTANT) of midshipman incurring delay in boarding international vessels. It can be noted that most delays are caused by (__________) and (_____________).
A. Onerous Requirements, Training Certificates and Identity Documents Some shipping companies and manning agencies require their cadets to be certified in trainings which may not yet be taken considering that these trainings are only mandatory for ratings. This practice may be an advantage for the cadet but some of these trainings and seminars take weeks and even months to accomplish. Considering the time frame to complete nine to 12 months of international shipboard training, a MAAP cadet has about only three months allowance to complete requirements prior shipboard, and still be able to return on time for enrollment. With this, it can be said that taking these trainings may not be practical, except for cadets boarding tanker vessels which require General Tanker Familiarization and Advanced Fire Fighting trainings. Also, it is mandatory that one must have legitimate and complete identity documents to be able to leave the country. With this, some encounter difficulty of obtaining records like having discrepancies in birth certificates, a “hit” in the NBI clearance, and being held up in the hectic visa scheduling.