This theory is also known as the Unfreeze-Change-Refreeze Model of Change. Kurt-Lewin proposed three simple steps to describe the “unfreeze-change-refreeze model. It basically means going from the State A into an unfrozen, change, and then reforming in a different pattern,1.The first step, unfreeze involves the process of letting go of certain restrictive attitudes during the initial stages through creating motivation and readiness to accept change. 2.The second step, “change” involves alteration of self-conceptions and ways of thinking through cognitive restructuring. 3.The third step, “refreeze” involves solidifying or crystallizing the changes into a new, permanent form for the individual/ organization by helping the client to integrate the new point of view into the existing corporate agenda . The practical example, validity and utility of the model:The models utility is in planned change, for example in a GE manufacturing plant we want to raise production at a particular level, we will conduct a systematic study to analyze what factors are helping towards achieving higher production level and what factors are pushing production down.
After that, a planned effort is made to attain the new level and then stabilize on those levels. Then same process is repeated again. The validity of the method is established because in every new situation equilibrium develops. In the manufacturing field, once a certain level of production level is achieved it stabilizes at that level. Therefore efforts are made in the system for planned change that can be flexible and validated (Edgar H. Schein, 2002) . II TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT:The Definition:”TQM is a set of systematic activities carried out by the entire organization to effectively and efficiently achieve company objectives so as to provide products and services with a level of quality that satisfies customers, at the appropriate time and price.” (John Stark, 1998)Total Quality Control (TQC)-driven environments are based on advancing continuous improvement at every level of the organization. To accomplish this improvement, there must be on becoming a learning organization, not only at the operational level, but also at a conceptual level, where mental models need to be altered as the organization’s deep-rooted assumptions and norms are challenged in order to reframe problems and generate radically different solutions.
Organizations will benefit from using the seven TQC tools (process mapping, flow-charting, force field analysis, brainstorming, Pareto chart, cause-and-effect diagram, stratification, check sheet, histogram, scatter diagram, and control charts) as analytical means of understanding and improving processes. These tools and techniques are used for identifying, measuring, prioritizing and improving processes, which are critical to quality. Again these ideas and methods are implemented through methodology of DRIVE (Define, Review, Identify, Verify, Execute) . HOW TQM IS A TOOL OF CHANGEFrom the above discussion it is clear that it is tool which needs to be incorporated at all levels of the organization which can meet the changing customer expectations. At all levels and cross level teams are formed to solve problems through above process. Team working skills have to be imparted in whole organization. Ownership and empowerment are achieved. Innovation and creativity are other products of system. In sum we can say that apart from being an effective process of improvement, it is also a powerful management tool for bringing change for all round improvement.
The practical example, validity and utility of the model:A wide variety of organizations have implemented the program under TQM, Six Sigma, rigorous implementation of ISO and using it as a management tool of continuous improvement. The famous examples are Japanese Auto and Electronics products manufacturing Cos., GE, Motorola and thousands of other companies across Globe. The utility of the system has been proved not only in Manufacturing but in Service sectors also. The implementation in true spirit has brought change and what better can prove validity than the Japanese Auto Companies who have captured a sizeable U.S. and other countrys markets (Burnes, B. (2004) Kurt Lewin). III. REAL-TIME STRATEGIC CHANGE (RTSC) AND SEARCH CONFERENCES:A method involving dozens, hundreds or even thousands of people in the planning of organizational change. The meetings usually require a single bloc of three days and two nights. The underlying theory is that people support changes that they help to plan. Processes such Future Search or Search Conference can be used by smaller groups (usually 15 to 65 people) to develop an initial plan.
A Future Search Conference is a 2 1/2-day planning meeting that: (1) helps large, diverse groups (organizations or communities) discover values, purposes, and projects they hold in common and (2) enables people to create a desired future together and act in pursuit of it (Holder, Robert J, 1994). Future Search or Search Conference:The Conference brings the “whole system” into the room to work on a task-focused agenda. The purpose is to find common goals and to develop actions to help meet those goals. It is meant to take stakeholders with different purposes and interests within an organization and bring them together to create a common vision of the future. The process can accommodate up to 64 participants per Conference, and several Conferences may run simultaneously. It features a series of structured tasks that help participants examine together the past, present, and future of their world, their community or organization, and their personal lives (Holder, Robert J, 1994). REAL-TIME STRATEGIC CHANGE (RTSC):RTSC can bring that plan to an entire company for refinement and implementation planning.
Ford Motor Company’s Mustang division used a version of RTSC to introduce total quality management in the 1980s, responding to the challenge of Japanese automobiles. Generally speaking, RTSC involves the “whole system” – everyone who is involved in the development of a product or service as well as the customers who buy it. Suppliers and customers can provide information on how the company stacks up compared with competitors, often by using a panel discussion format. Industry experts may also provide information on key trends. Work is done in a combination of large and small group settings. In the large-group sessions, people are assigned to sit at round tables of eight to ten people. These are “max-mix” groups representing different departments or organizations. Following various presentations, the groups are asked to discuss what happened and formulate a brief response. This helps keep the meetings lively and creative. In the classic RTSC format, senior managers present an overview of their proposed plan to the entire group. After small group discussions, people use post-its to write what they agree with, what they disagree with, and what questions they have.
The managers have a full night to review this feedback. They return the next day to answer the questions, reinforce areas of agreement, and respond to areas of disagreement. This can be a lively event! People then move into implementation groups to write more detailed action plans to help kick-start the change process. The large groups generate a great deal of energy, an important factor in successful change (Paton, R. and Mc Calman, J. 2000). The practical example, how change happens, validity and utility of the model:The above process is in various forms like Getting the whole system in the room, The utility is for both purposes, one it can be used to find a remedial situation in present crisis situation faced by organization and second to develop future course to stay ahead in competition. One of the basic purposes of all the above exercises is involving everybody to find solution and seek their commitment in implementing solution. The very process brings change in whole organization. People feel more involved, committed, find challenges in their work, and also take ownership of their work (Holder, Robert J, 1994). IV. THE SOCIOTECHNICAL SYSTEMS AND QUALITY WORK LIFE SYSTEMSThe STS systems must jointly optimize the relationship between social and technical parts.
The implementation of STS is seen as highly participative process involving all employees, engineers, staff experts, and managers. Similarly QWL is an attempt to restructure multiple dimensions of organization. In QWL too there is participation by employees in shop floor decisions and in regard to all decisions relating to production (Meredith, J. R. and Shafer, S. M. 2006). THE SOCIOTECHNICAL SYSTEMS:It should be clear that these principles do not constitute a ‘recipe’ or method for designing effective work teams. They are guides to critical evaluation of design alternatives making clear some of the differences between the socio-technical systems approach and traditional job design. The need for principles is demonstrated by an issue that has emerged among work design practitioners in recent years. Principles and DesignPrinciples do not constitute a design process. Design as a craft involves exploration, experiment, elaboration and elimination, trial and error, all with the intention of making the most coherent and expressive use of an opportunity framed by a set of outcome goals and constraints. Principles give direction to the process, suggest innovative premises and provide an anchor for what is necessarily a creative sense making process.
A design team enacts the organization-to-be as a vision of the future, an initial set of reasonable organizational prescriptions and specifications for a technical system to be built. The principles of socio-technical systems design are intended to provide an intelligible basis for such a process of workplace innovation. Validity and utility of the model and how change happens:Utility is its complete relevance to address complex issues of work life balance, appropriate design of work and having an employee friendly and productive work place design. Making the whole process as an exercise in which both the organizations goals and its people concern are taken care, lead to a productive work place. A culture of participation and joint problem solving is developed. The whole process is an effective change management tool (Mitcham. Greenwich, 1998). V SURVEY-FEEDBACK AND APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY:SURVEY-FEEDBACKThis is a very powerful way of introducing changes involving very large numbers of people in diagnosing situations that need attention within the organization and to plan and implement improvements.
The method usually requires developing reliable, valid questionnaires, collecting data from all personnel, analyzing it for trends, and feeding the results back to everyone for action planning. Focus of the Appreciative InquiryIt is a survey feedback process that would engage all employees in a positive way. Using appreciative inquiry, reaffirmed successes and positive attributes contributes to success. It also allows meaningful and productive conversations that result in rewarding results. It helps to know any existing deficiencies in the management process, which employees might not disclose during formal working conditions. Planning and Design:The design process begins by discussing vision and values of an organization, an outline of Appreciative Inquiry and potential ways of using AI to achieve organizations objectives (Jacobs, R. W. 1997). Validity and utility of the model and how change happens:The primary goal is to increase engagement and commitment at all levels of the organization. To evolve a work environment that fosters commitment, dedication, employee engagement, generates highest levels of customer and employee satisfaction, allowing all employees to share the rewards of the System’s success and encourages all employees to reach their potential as individuals.
Net result is also increased productivity. As with all the above Change intervention, it is critical to establish a measurement of success. The measure of success for this project would be improvement in the next employee survey results, increased quality of the action plans, and documented successes (Mitcham. Greenwich, 1998). THE HUMAN IMPLICATIONS OF MAJOR ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE, FOCUSING IN PARTICULAR ON CHANGES THAT RESULT FROM THE IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW TECHNOLOGY AND THE CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS FOR ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF MANAGING PEOPLE. The implementation of a major organization change primarily resulting from implementation of new technology has its own share of human implication. Like any change there will be resistance because of fear of the unknown. It is basically about whether they will be able to cope and fear that new persons who are more familiar with new technology might supercede them. Then they are anxious about 1.Organizations own future and its capabilities to change. 2. What change organization is planning about their job responsibilities and roles? 3. Chances of success of technology 4. Change in work environment and their familiar setting and working relation with people 5. Change in Management Personnel 6.What top Management is thinking about future change in organization.
The success of the above is depended upon Management to address all the above and other issues related to implementation of new technology. Basically Management has to communicate to people the need of change, its urgency, how it plans to implement it. It has to address all issues in detail and also formulate action plan to implement it. A team is formed to implement the change, where all members have full faith in change. It has to create a vision, plans and strategy and communicate across organization and convince people through talking to them and addressing their above anxieties, training people to face change and convincing people change will be good for them and organization (Carnall C, 2007). THE HUMAN IMPLICATIONS OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES PROPOSED IN THIS PAPER. The implication for employees is same as discussed above, the management too has their share of anxiety about whether the Company will
1. Successfully cope up with the new technology 2.Satisfy and gear entire team to implement the project as per plans 3.Improve its competitive edge in market 4. Make aware customer about the changes and have the whole process in such away that customer accepts new technologys advantage and successfully derive benefit out of them. The Company establishes a lead in market 5. Train and prepare the entire team to bring necessary changes so that Organization has leverage in market place. Five models or theories that are identified could be used to address the human implicationsI KURT-LEWIN THEORY OF CHANGE: Whole process has to be thought in terms of facilitating and hindering factors and bring change. With this process company will be able to meet human anxieties and create new equilibrium supporting change. II TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT: The problems and necessary preparations to be made will be identified for bringing change, various teams will be formed.
Processes, tool techniques as discussed under the topic will be used so that entire organization is involved and change is smooth and better for Organization. III REAL-TIME STRATEGIC CHANGE (RTSC) AND SEARCH CONFERENCES:In this all people concerned will jointly meet on Management Agenda and all implication, new vision, processes, work flow will be evolved through joint meeting. Commitment of all people and involvement of all for the cause of change will be assured through the process. The above detailed procedure under the head will be followed. IV THE SOCIOTECHNICAL SYSTEMS AND QUALITY WORK LIFE SYSTEMS:The utility of the above system is to evolve work practices, work flow, processes through involvement of all concerned which suits the change and addresses to all concerns. The issues of training, improvement of skills, competencies of persons all will be better addressed if they are thought in terms of employees concerns. With the effective solution to concerns, we can convert the whole situation as opportunity rather than problem for Organization. V SURVEY-FEEDBACK AND APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY:Utility of this can be putting the whole thing in positive and true perspective and getting feedback from all concerned employees about how to deal with situation. This will ensure their involvement from beginning and the whole process can turn out to be positive for the organization. Process discussed under the head has to be followed.
Edgar H. Schein, 2002, KURT-LEWIN THEORY OF CHANGE, Retrieved on 9th January 2009http://www.a2zpsychology.com/articles/kurt_lewin’s_change_theory.htmJoh… Stark, 1998, A Few Words About TQM, Retrieved on 9th January 2009http://www.johnstark.com/fwtqm.htmlHolder & Robert J, 1994, Real Time Strategic Change – How to Involve an Entire Organization in Fast and Far-Reaching Change, Retrieved on 9th Janouary 2009http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3616/is_/ai_n87312071998b. “Technological Enlightenment as Continuation of Modern Thinking.” In Research in Philosophy and Technology , vol. 17, ed. C. Mitcham. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Retrieved on 10th January 2009Carnall, C. (2007) Managing Change in Organizations, Fifth Edtion, Prentice Hall / Financial Times, 240 pages 10th January 2009 . Paton, R. and Mc Calman, J. (2000) Change Management: A Guide to Effective Implementation, Sage publications, Retrieved on 11th January 2009. Burnes, B. (2004) Kurt Lewin and the Planned Approach to Change: A Re-appraisal, Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 41,