What causes the Division of Labour? You can point to one very important cause, the society. Society creates class which leads to class-wars within individuals when there is labour is distributed. As we know when we think of modern industry we think of the capital and the division of labour as well as powerful machines and forces. Occupation is not only separated inside the factors but as mentioned in the text each product itself has a speciality dependent upon others. Agriculture was looked as an exception to this rule by Adam Smith and John Mill. Agriculture was seen as the last resort of small scale industry. “One is inclined to believe that collective conscience is the total social conscience” (106). Collective conscience is beliefs and morals that are shared within a society. A sentiment is found in all conscience with a certain degree of force and precision and every action which violated it is a crime (107). It is collectively conscience that things are judged based on society’s beliefs. For example crime is seen badly.
“An act is socially bad because society disproves of it” (107). There are two consciences. One in which it is “common to our group in its entirety which is common to our group in its entirety which consequently is not ourselves but society living and acting within us” and the second in which represents that in us which is personal and distinct that which makes us individual”(108). As mentioned early institution of class/caste leads to an organization of the division of labour. Civil wars arise because of which way labour is distributed to people of different class. But then again even the highest class believe in one thing that is superior then them. Any member from any class believes that god is superior to themselves and they depend on god. This then shows that the “fundamental categories of thought and consequently of science are religious origin” (105). “All the great social institutions have been born in religion” (151). This means that society is built on religion.
1.If society is based on religion, then why do class exit? Is one religion seen more superior then another religion? Then does that not mean even within religion superiority exits? 2.How can one have a conscience of its own if society has feed its morals and beliefs into its individual since birth? For example how male/females should dress, act since their young age?