1) Thesis of the article #1 Nearly all drug use begins in the preadolescent or adolescent years. 2) Summary The focus of this article is on theories such as the gateway, psychological & sociological theories that cause drug abuse in youth. These theories demonstrate why drugs were used and under the circumstances in which they were most frequently consumed. The social theory of Parson’s structural functionalism explains how drug use is a symptom of the underlying social problems (Jacobs, 1977; Lukoff, 1980) indicating that drugs can also isolate a youth from the segments of society that might influence them in a positive behavior.
Psychological theories perceive drugs as the acquisition of a personal need or compensating for an individuals predicament. The article further goes on to indicate that drugs are also consumed as a means of coping with any of the following issues such as problems with friends, work or spousal relationships and domestic troubles to such an extent where no other coping method can be effective compared to drugs. Specific actions of the drug fill a very important void in a person’s development or life (Gold, 1980; Khantzian, 1980; Spotts and Scontz, 1980, 1984a, 1984b). This statement is indicative that individuals, who no longer have the will to persevere or have in essence given up on life, unfortunately resort to satisfying the emptiness they feel within themselves and in their lives by using drugs.
3) Evaluation of the article
The authors, E.R Oetting and Fred Beauvais, have presented a concise thesis statement using clear vocabulary providing a crisp image of their findings. Oetting and Beauvais have elucidated the social and psychological theories in detail using coherent examples allowing the reader to understand the article easily. The authors have affirmed their research methods by consistently providing references throughout the article. Moreover, several of the sources that the author has used are academic such as “The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse” and “The International Journal of Addictions.”
1) Thesis of article #2: Drug use has a long history. Drug use is becoming a major issue all over the world, following the introduction of heroin and related substances. 2) Summary: This article focuses more on the social level of drug abuse as well as how the abuser may have been influenced in consuming drugs. Drugs are used mainly to forget about social economic problems or any other social concern. Drug abuse is a response to pressures generated by social change (M.K Possi, 1996). An example of this can be drug abuse in lower class youths is a result of failure to set ahead in life. Not enough influence of the family over the abusers actions and lack of parental guidance is another reason why the individual may partake in such actions.
An example of that can be family disruptions or disfunctioning. Consuming drugs or even alcohol alters ones feelings which can cause the abuser to be involved in fighting which is seen as a crime or the individual may even steal money to buy his/her drugs. 3) Evaluation of Article: The author, M.K Possi has been very clear and understanding with the article he has written. With the thesis that Possi has utilized, it clearly states what the article is going to discuss. M.K Possi has gone through each point in great detail and used his sources correctly.
1) Thesis of article #3: None
2) Summary: The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University had conducted a study and came to a conclusion that 90% of American students have friends or know other students who consume drugs during school hours. One of the main causes for drug abuse to increase is social media. The study had showed that many students (75%) had seen pictures on facebook and other social networking sites; this made students want to try such substances because it seemed “cool,” and “fun”.
One of the places where students get easy access to drugs is school, which some say can be a dangerous place for students. “…the high school years are the most dangerous times children face, and the high schools are a dangerous place to send kids,” commented by Joseph A. Califano, JR., founder and chairman of Emeritus of CASA Columbia (Ho, 2012). In conclusion, this article shows us that drug abuse in youth is spreading rapidly year by year. 3) Evaluation of Article: The author, Connie K. Ho, has used excellent vocabulary and made it very clear to understand this article. However, Connie K. Ho has not used a thesis statement in her article but had stated what the article was going to be informing the reader about with proper facts and relevant terminology.
This assignment was not difficult for me to complete, but it did require research, which did take some time, however, the job did get done. Looking for a newspaper/popular magazine article pertaining to my chosen topic took me longer than finding two academic journals about drug abuse in youth and looking at the sociological and psychological effects towards the abuser. In search for these articles, my interest in this topic increased as I wrote these summaries, this gave me the extra motivation to search for more articles, which will help me in my future paper for this course.
Some of the articles that I had found did give me a hard time in figuring out whether the article was an academic article and whether or not sources were given by the author. Finding the thesis statement for the 1st two articles were fairly easy, but when reading the last article, finding the thesis was slightly more difficult resulting in not finding a thesis at all. All in all, this assignment went well and the issues that I had confronted were dealt with.
1) Oetting, E.R. & Beauvais, Fred. 1988. Common Elements in Youth Drug Abuse: Peer Clusters and other Psychosocial Factors. Visions of Addiction., 141-143. http://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=XFz3d24h9CsC&oi=fnd&pg=PA141&dq=academic+journal+on+psychological+effect+of+drug+abuse+in+youth&ots=PtGU6nRN1D&sig=RFDFdkNoqrhiatcHOmQi5sTG–A#v=onepage&q=academic%20journal%20on%20psychological%20effect%20of%20drug%20abuse%20in%20youth&f=false
2) Possi, M.K. 1996. Effects of Drug Abuse on Cognitive and Social Behaviours: A Potential Problem Among Youth In Tanzania. Vol. 3 No.1, 1996: 111-128 http://archive.lib.msu.edu/DMC/African%20Journals/pdfs/Utafiti/vol3no1NS/aejp003001NS006.pdf
3) Ho, K. Connie (2012, August 23). Illicit Drug Use By Teenagers On The Rise In US Schools. Retrieved from
Other references used
Brook, J.S., I.F Lukoff, and M. Whiteman. 1977. Correlates of Marijuana Use as Related to Age, Sex, and Ethnicity. Yale Journal of Biological Medicine 50: 383-390
Gold, S.R. 1980. The CAP control theory of Drug Abuse. In D.J. Lettieri, M. Sayers, and H.W. Pearson, eds., Theories on Drug Abuse: Selceted Contemporary Perspectives. NIDA Research Monograph. 30. Rockville MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Jacobs, P.E. 1977. Epidemiology Abuse: Epidemiological and Psychosocial Models. In J. Fishman, ed., The Bases of Addiction. Berlin: Bernhard, Danlen, Konferenzen.
Khanzian, E.J. 1980. An Ego/Self Theory of Substance Dependance: A Contemporary Psychoanalytic Perspective. In D.J. Lettieri, M. Sayers, and H.W. Pearson, eds.
Possi, M.K. 1993. Critique on ‘The Shadow of Children: Preparing for the Arrival of Crack Babies in schools’. Mimeo.