As a district manager, many responsibilities come with the job. District management is responsible for virtually all the operations in the company with respect to the business goals that have been set out in the company plan. This is especially the case when the district assigned is a group of new area start-ups. District managers are responsible for the allocation of resources, hiring, training and managing teams. The roles of a district manager starting new Dunkin’ Donuts locations are no different yet they include the responsibility for a smooth start. These added responsibilities include job design, organizational design, staffing functions such as recruiting and selection, as well as the implementation of a training and performance appraisal processes. Job Design
Job design aims to reduce job dissatisfaction and employee alienation by means of repetitive and mechanistic tasks. Organizations attempt to increase productivity levels, satisfaction and motivation to employees through job design. Job analysis, job description, and job specification are the three standard approaches to job design (Baack, Reilly, & Minnick, 2014). Job Analysis
Job Analysis is a process, which is followed right after position identification and position building in an organization chart. It is the first step in the process of hiring a candidate as it outlines the particular task required for each position created. Two approaches to job analysis best suited for our organization would be through comparison and experimentation. By using the comparison model, positions could be defined and staffed quickly due to being developed according to currently established and satisfactory standards in our organization, as well as other industry players. The experimentation method process includes taking examples from industry for defining points of interaction of any given position. The experimentation process will help continuously to answer the questions: what is the amount of value that a position will bring to the organization and how can the job be done more efficiently and effectively? Job Analysis further helps in making “Job Description” and “Job Specification” as it is used as point of reference. Job Description
Once we understand requirements for the position, then next step is to define ways of meeting those needs. It includes the amount of resources and authority the position provides to fulfill the business need. A job description can be as simple as a list of tasks required by the individual holding the position. Formal job descriptions will include level of responsibility, expected outcome, including reporting line and other interactions. Once expectations, and means of attaining expectations are documented, then sketching ideal candidate will become easier. Job Specification
Job specifications “identify the eligibility requirements or qualifications needed to perform a job” (Baack, et al., 2014, Ch. 4.4). In other words, job specification is a sort of sketch of an ideal candidate. Job specification highlights required levels of education, experience, physical and technical abilities, as well as desired social skills. Job specification is used to screen job application of candidates, and job description will be of help during interviews. Candidates should be educated about the job description, it is also advised to provide a detailed explanation about challenges of the position and build ownership of candidate right from the interview.
In my opinion, the organizational design of a functional structure with decentralized, organic tendency are best suited for our new operating locations. Henry Mintzberg stated that functional structure allows for top-level control with expertise maintained in the individual departments (as cited in Baack, et al., 2014). As a whole, a functional organization is best suited as a producer of standardized goods and services at large volume and low cost (Miles & Snow, 1992). The Dunkin’ Donuts mission statement, “Dunkin Donuts will strive to be the dominant retailer of high quality donuts, bakery products and beverages in each metropolitan market in which we choose to compete” is best facilitated by functional structure standardization. A functional structure will ensure that customers experience the same high quality product and service no matter which location they visit.
The organizing of specialization will lead to operational efficiency where employees become specialists within their own realm of expertise. In a decentralized, organic structure, daily operations and decision-making responsibilities are delegated to middle and lower-level managers within the organization. This structuring allows employees to utilize their knowledge and expertise for more efficient decision-making, also allowing for fewer links in the chain of command. This type of moderate autonomy is critical in a franchise-based enterprise whereas each location is owned and operated by individuals rather than a single entity. Recruiting and Selection
The key tasks of Job design, through analysis, description and specification, and organization design are instrumental in determining what tasks are to be performed and how they will be managed. Once the “what” is determined, it is time to determine the “who” through human resource management. One of the important functions of Human Resource Management is Recruitment and Selection of the best-qualified employees. Recruiting
The primary purpose of recruiting is “to ensure that there is an adequate pool of applicants available at the appropriate time” (Caruth, Caruth, & Pane, 2009). “Systematic recruiting consists of both internal and external sourcing” (Baack, et al., 2014). Opening new locations requires staffing in all positions. Internal sourcing will be used to fill key positions, such as team leaders and trainers, from a pool of well-experienced individuals from other already established locations. This process is two-fold: it facilitates the promote-from-within model as well as allowing deserving, qualified employees the opportunity to further their career within the organization. The remainder entry-level positions will be filled by the standard advertisement and unsolicited application External sources. Selection
Choosing the applicant best qualified for a particular position is the goal of selection (Caruth, et al.,2009) and involves selecting the candidate that has the qualifications best suited for placement in the position. Referees and interviews are used most commonly used for selection. The interviewing process, factors such as first impressions, job misunderstanding, and personal characteristics can all be assessed to determine if an applicant is the “best fit” for the position. Other selection methods such as skill performance work samples, personality tests, as well as physical evaluations depending on the particular requirements of the job. Training and Performance Appraisals
Organizations can increase their performance and productivity by providing their staff with appropriate skills through training and continuous development. If suitable training and proper care is given to the development of employees, they can prove beneficial by working more effectively and efficiently. Although the terms training and development are often linked, these address slightly different needs. Training focuses on learning the necessary skills and acquiring the knowledge required to perform the job while Employee development is a process of preparing employees for future job responsibilities. Training and development take place utilizing both on-the-job and off-the-job methods. Training methods include observing, questioning, interpreting, reviewing, e-learning, workshops, and classes while developmental techniques are geared more toward coaching, induction, job-shadowing, and mentoring. Performance appraisals can determine both training and developmental needs. Performance Appraisals
Performance appraisals are traditionally based on several rationales such as promotion selection decisions; basis for a salary increases, providing feedback between managers and employees, and to facilitate employee development. Modern appraisal approaches include management-by-objectives (MBO), work planning and review, 360° appraisals, peer review, etc. (Margulies & Murphy, 2004, Baack, et al., 2014). I prefer the MBO approach. “In an MBO appraisal system, the employee and his/her supervisor mutually set goals that the employee will achieve during the next evaluation period. These objectives then become the standards by which the employee’s performance will be measured” (Caruth, et al., 2009, p.243). Regardless of the type, a performance appraisal system should include a review mechanism.
This means that the next higher level of management, usually the evaluator’s immediate supervisor, should automatically review each evaluation of an employee. The purpose of this review is to audit the assessment for fairness, consistency, accuracy, as well as to ensure the evaluator has made a genuinely objective assessment. Providing a solid framework in the form of comprehensive and accurate job design as well as organization design will be critical in opening new locations. We will build upon that framework by recruiting and staffing the most qualified candidates from both internal and external sources. Furthermore, by ensuring continuous employee training and development, along with consistent and accurate performance appraisals, we will maintain the most efficient and effective organizational operation possible.
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