MEDCs: The damage to MEDCs done by earthquakes can be enormous, not only for the state but for the people living/working there, but the thing is, is that the state can afford it, although it may costs billions they can still do it. For example in Kobe the damage amounted to several billions, but it was all sorted and paid for. All the roads were retard, buildings rebuilt, people re-housed. They had the money and technology to find people hidden under rubble. Hospitals were able to cope because of the size of the countries economic status.
LEDCs: For LEDCs it’s a different matter all together, LEDCs are poor and not as technologically developed to cope with the effects. Not only are the people living there are poor, but the state is worse off than they are, being billions of pounds in debt. That means that if or when a earthquake strikes, they wont be able to rebuild and buy the materials, and wont have the services, or rather not enough to cope with the injured, lost, homeless, like for example in India, not only were they expecting an earthquake never to occur there, they also didn’t have the means or money to get a quick rescue team out.
MEDCs: In an earthquake people may become homeless, but either they or the state will rebuild their old house or relocate, not many people are lost in an earthquake depending how built up it is (buildings collapsing and crushing, or gas and electrical fires may kill them) but generally if the earthquake hits somewhere not built up, like a village or a small town, then there will not be too much lose of life. The social effects of an earthquake can be a number of things like, the lose of a house, (or where they live) lose of friends or family, missing friends or family, injured friends or family, mainly to do with the people closest to them, and their earthly possessions.
LEDCs: Of course if people in LEDCs, if they lose their house they might not be able to rebuild it, and either could the state. How ever because in most LEDCs like the countries in Africa, there aren’t many built up areas, so the death count isn’t that high. Although the lose of their house is devastating, they wont lose many of their friends and family to the earthquake, although the people in built up areas, may friend it completely different, due to the buildings, but because of the lack of resources, most houses are made from mad, wood etc.
When earthquakes occur they can have many effects on the environment, like for example, the folding of earth, tsunami’s, surface disruption (for example roads crack or move) and destruction of plants and animals.
1) Iran lies on the or near the plate margin between the Arabian plate and the Eurasian plate, and so is subject to earthquakes, and the margin is a conservative margin, I assume.
2) a) The movement of the two plates caused friction resulting in the earthquake.
b) i) Because is was growing, this meant it was built up, and buildings would collapse.
ii) Gas pipes and Electrical lines would be broken and cause fires which would burn the houses etc.
* Tiltmeter and gravity meter is measuring the energy transfer, how the tremor given off by the earthquake.
* Creepmeter measures how much the plates have moved, either towards each other, away from each other or parallel with each other.
* Radon Gas Counter measures the amount of radon gas given off during an earthquake.
* Seismographs measure the Seismic waves of the earth quake, the energy transfer and how frequent the waves are.
b) There is point to it and there isn’t… firstly there is, because the earlier the warning that can be given, the more time people have to get to safety. And also we could earn more about earthquakes and more into how they work and where they will happen.
Secondly no because the research may only give them extra seconds, so the money should be spent on ways of surviving the earthquake, more research into keeping buildings up and safe from earthquakes, rather that that people running for their lives in panic, its just too dangerous.
* anti-shocks which absorb the energy of a wave instead of it passing through the building and pulling it apart.
* Reinforced structural integrity, i.e. adding extra support in the foundations of a building.
b) The birdcage interlocking steel will reinforce the foundations and stop them from giving in, and collapsing the building, or toppling it.
c) Marble, glass etc, is dangerous because it will smash, and through out shards of sharp pieces that could kill or injure anyone near to them, therefore by covering them and securing them, the threat of a piece of flying glass sticking into a person, or marble fragments imbedding themselves into a person’s eye or into the body is greatly reduced, if not eradicated.
d) These methods are use to secure bridges against earthquakes.
* Steel cables: restrict the movement of the bridge therefore reducing the chance of falling apart
* Concrete walls: also stop the movement of the structure, stopping it sway from side to side.
* Concrete pillars: theses are encased in a steel jacket and therefore gives strength and the concrete wont crumble and keep the bridge stable.
All these techniques are to stop the bridge moving about, therefore causing the bridge not to crumble.