This chapter contains the background to the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, scope of the study, conceptual framework, the significance of the study and the justification of the study. * 1.2 Background to the study:
The Institute for International Co-operation and development (C&D) is a non-profit making Italian organization founded in Piacenza by the late Father Vittorio Pastori in 1982. In 1983 it was recognized by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs as Non–Governmental Organization (NGO) specializing in the promotion and implementation of multisectorial projects of cooperation with Developing Countries. With its Head Office in Kampala, the Organization has a field base in Karamoja located in Moroto town, a large facility initially built as emergency relief centre during 1980 famine.
In more than twenty years of activity in the Region, C&D has built strong collaborative links with the local communities and attaches great importance to the delivery of much-needed services and resources to the most vulnerable, through participatory approaches. The Organization is experienced and committed to facilitating holistic development, based on non-discrimination and taking advantage of its strong outreach at grassroots level. It is strategically located within Karamoja Region. The wide availability of machineries and multipurpose structures, contribute to position the Institute for International Co-operation and Development among the most equipped NGOs in Karamoja in the sectors of water development, food security, child protection, drought preparedness, Gender Based Violence prevention, youth and women empowerment as well as emergency aid.
Armstrong (2000) recognizes that the actual or potential skills shortage can threaten the future prosperity of an organization if proper induction is not conducted for the staff to understand the organizations goals and be able to leave to its expectations and goals.
(Armstrong, 2000) Induction refers to all deliberate activities by an organization aimed at bringing a new staff to acceptable knowledge of the staff performance and potentials In this case the human resource department in every organization should make sure that every staff joining the organization goes for a proper induction which includes training to achieve more skills for the staff to understand his/her work hence better quality work and good staff performance. According to H.T Graham, it is the process of receiving the new employee when he/she begin work, introducing him to the company and to his colleagues and informing him of the activities, customs and tradition of the company. In order to achieve this, the organizations need high quality staff (Human Resource) in order to produce good quality work, hence good staff performance at the end and this cannot be satisfied unless they invest in developing their skills and competences.
This can be achieved through proper induction in the organization for the new entrants to understand, the goals and policies of the organization (Black, Duncan, 2001). Induction helps people make the transition into a new workplace, a new role or area of responsibility. It is considered to be a continuous process which generally starts with contact prior to taking up employment and proceeds through arrival, first days/weeks on the job and generally up to the third month of employment. Induction is the first step towards gaining an employees’ commitment, it is aimed at introducing the job and organization to the recruit and him or her to the organization. It involves orientation and training of the employee in the organizational culture, and showing how he or she is interconnected to (and interdependent on) everyone else in the organization. A good induction can determine how quickly your employee settles into the business and the speed at which they develop to reach their full potential. Giving the employee all they need to know in relation to their time at your business will further determine its effectiveness.
The importance of how long the induction should be has been stressed throughout the article. Take as long as you need until you believe (and has been acknowledged) that the new employee has been integrated completely into your business. Have a ‘follow up’ appraisal to sort out any queries that they (or yourself) may have. During Induction, ensure that you involve everyone that you feel essential to create good relations between the new employee and those that they will have connections with. Make the employee feel welcome and comfortable in all areas that will involve their presence. Generally, this research will be focusing at the Institute for International Co-operation and Development activities where all employees have been induced as a new policy to improve and achieve the goal of the Institute for International Co-operation and development (C&D). Induction is the aspect of socialization for most employees that want to know what is required for successful staff performance. In any organization defined new employees with general information about the staff and the organization; training provides the specific knowledge and skills necessary to perform the staff. * 1.3 Statement of the Problem:
Despite all the efforts by the Institute to achieve its goals, there seems to be persistent absenteeism, high labour turnover and late coming as well as leaving work before the official closing time. This has threatened the future prosperity of the organization without a clear answer. However, it appears induction training has not been handled properly for the staff to understand the organization’s goals hence poor performance. Therefore, the study intends to establish the effect of induction on staff performance in the Institute for International Co-operation and development. 1.4 General Objective:
The General objective of the study will be to investigate the effects of induction on staff performance of the Institute for International Co-operation and development. 1.4.1 Specific Objectives:
i. To identify the various types of induction used in the organization. ii. To determine the challenges faced by the organization during induction. iii. To identify the relationship between induction and employees performance in an organization. 1.5 Research Questions:
i. What are the various forms of induction used in the organization? ii. What are the challenges faced by the organization during induction? iii. What is the relationship between induction and employees performance an organization? 1.6 Scope of the Study.
The study is about the effects of induction on employee performance in an organization. The study will be conducted to the employees of the Institute for International Co-operation and development (C&D) at the Head Office in Kampala located along Lugogo bay pass The study will cover a period of four Months from February 2013 up to May 2013. 1.6.1 The Significance of the Study.
a) It will enable the directors and the administrator of organizations to adopt strategies in planning for the organization to increase on the performance. For example, ensuring that there are good staffing, good induction, good motivation and the necessary facilities for staff in enhancing performance. b) The study will form a basis for further research on induction and organization performance. It will form a backbone of other research to be done along the same topic, it will provide literature review c) The results may be used by the management of Institute for International Co-operation and development (IC&D) as a basis for lesson learnt for improvement in induction practices. Such information may also be used by other organizations to introduce induction or improve on the existing induction practices.
1.7 Conceptual framework:
Independent variable Dependent variable Employees Performance
Types of induction
Level of out-put
Level of induction n
Achievement of goals
Nature of management
Level of motivation
Nature of training
Source: self adopted
* The conceptual framework above explains the relationship between variables under study. It describes the impact of induction (independent variable) on the employee performance (dependent variable) of an organization. This framework was built on the assumption that to achieve a better staff performance, management needs to recognize the value induction training. This calls for effective induction to be put in place. For organizations to be successful in achieving high staff performance there is a need to pay attention to the induction offered. induction level, types and plans are the cornerstone in employee performance and are reflected in the spirit to account.
This chapter will gives the aspects of induction in an organization, general factors for staff performance and literature related to the respective objectives. The study will concentrate on literature related to the effects of induction on staff performance in an organization as well as social factors and staff performance. * 2.1 Theoretical Review:
The level of performance in service provision or goods production will be a result of employees’ contribution. The effort of management should then be to activate this employee to contribute through the performance of a number of functions including without being limited to the Human resource functions. The external environments role should be determined by management to either enhance it or minimize it. Equally important will be transformation of the employee effort by management to include staff development as to increase employee performance. This will ultimately lead to improved employee performance and the organization as a whole. One could argue that even though lower employees in the organization are making many decisions, those organizations are programmed by management policies which indicate many decisions and indicate existence of a high degree of centralization (Robbins, 1983).
This theory stipulates that an organization receives inputs from the environment in form of resources which are transformed into the desired results through a process. This will enables an organization to get feedback on the effectiveness of the system. In connection to this study, it will theorized that effective induction methods will reduce staff anxiety, low turnover , high staff retention research and community service interact to produce a desired result namely, staff Performance. 2.2 Types of Induction
2.2.1 Formal induction
This is a planned attempt to introduce new employees to the organization, job and the working environment. This induction type may consume more time of the superiors to learn and deliver the new employees needs at the beginning. But this may create new employees less number of errors at the working period and good coordination among all the parties. At this type of program, new employee may get know, who are the most experienced person to have the solution of the particular problem new employee might has. At the very beginning new employees are having lots of questions as same as kids at small ages. That is full normal thing and common thing, because the new employee needs to get know all the things, he may actually needs or not. CEO, GM, Section/Department Heads, Senior Managers, and Line Managers may involve in to the formal induction program. (From top management to bottom line). This will deliver fundamental things that new employees need to know. Advantage of the formal induction program is organization will have the better chance to win the new employees’ loyalty at the very beginning. And also new employee will have the chance to carry his/her works clearly, with less numbers of errors. Also, new employee will fit to the organizational culture and the work group easily, and strongly.
2.2.2 Informal induction
This is not planned and is ad hock. New employees learn through trial and error method. They get familiar with the work and work environment by themselves. This induction type will make the stress on new employee at the very beginning, because of his/her not knowing things at the operations. So in that case, new employee may leave the organization at the beginning and then the organization may need to follow all the process of recruiting and new employee to the organization. Also this method will create a large number of errors making by new employee and then it may creates big losses to the organization. Those are the disadvantages of informal induction program. The advantage of informal induction is, if the new employee survived, then he/she may know the process by his/her experience, and the later on errors may minimize. But at the beginning the vice verse thing of above advantage may creates loses, if the new employee unable to survive at the organization. At the movements which employees couldn’t survive, there could be see they are leaving organization at the beginning they have joined to it. So this will creates high labor turn over too. 2.3 The Relationship between Anxiety and Performance:
Ivancevich (2001), induction is a process is what sociologists call socialization that occurs when the new employees learn the norms, values, work procedures and patterns of behavior and address to them what is expected in the organization. The relationship between staff anxiety and performances comes when new employees interacts with their co-workers and for example when they ask the employee like how many toys do you produce per week, and when the new recruit responds that he is lost. This kind of hazing means a lot of which it makes the recruit know he has a lot to learn and thus dependent on the others for his cost reaction. Therefore orientation will help the new entrant to hazing and hence reduction on anxiety.
Wayne, et al (1999), they explain that induction as a guided adjustment of new employees to the company, the job and the work group. They further explain that socialization does reduce on anxiety that new employees may experience and attempts which are made to integrate the person into informed organization under the socialization process, this proves to be more significantly on all measures that the turnover rate for those who had under the process.
In this case it will be realized that at least because of induction that the organization emphasized on, this helped in the reduction of high turnover and hence high performance which leads to high productivity. Therefore the relation between socialization and performance will be that there is interaction between the co-workers and the new entrants joining of which the soon they get used to each other the better for the new entrants may understand how the organization operates through policies, rules and understanding the philosophy of the organization.
It makes the recruit know he or she has a lot to learn and thus will be depending on the others for his costly reaction. Therefore, for this case you find that orientation helps the new person to hazing and reduce anxiety. Once employees gets in mind that they are ineffective, unwanted, or unneeded, they may react to these feelings by quitting. Turnover is high during the break-period, and effective orientation on the cost of reactions. Another important factor will be continuous performance monitoring.
Zondo (2001), when induction is conducted in a participatory manner and involves key internal and external stakeholders of the organization, it can contribute to organizational learning and capacity enhancement.
These are necessary and sufficient ingredients for organizational performance. Identifying individual staff’s’ strength and weaknesses through evaluation is fundamental for organizations performance. This is because, when appraisal is done and weak areas of the affected staff are identified, some measures are always taken, such as; further training and induction.
Armstrong 2006), explains that orientation creates and initial favourable impression of the organization and its work. This will helps to form a good relationship, good initial impression of the company. In so doing this will help in the improvement of retention capability of the organization.
Weiss (2002), has argued that staff satisfaction as an attitude but points out that researchers should clearly distinguish the objects of cognitive evaluation which affect (emotion), beliefs and behaviors. This definition suggests that we form attitudes towards our staff by taking into account our feelings, our beliefs, and our behaviors. Staff satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her staff.
Staff satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organizations. The most common way of measurement is the use of rating scales where staffs report their reactions to their staff. Questions relate to rate of pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional opportunities, the work itself and co-workers. Staff satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s staff; an affective reaction to one’s staff; and an attitude towards one’s staff. It is the basis of Staff satisfaction which acts as one of the factors that leads towards better performance of staffs in the organizations. A pay structure provides a framework within which an organization defines the different levels of pay for staff or groups of staff.
Daley (2002), orientation begins immediately with an employee’s acceptance of the job offer. Employees will wonder if they have made the right decision; a proactive effort at welcoming them even before their first day which helps them alleviates this anxiety. This is also very useful for providing detailed information on benefits and other complicated start-up, enrolled decisions.
Induction too reduces on employees anxiety associated with starting a new job. On the side of the organization, orientation enhances productivity in that it establishes performance expectations early and helps employees rapidly develop the appropriate job skills. Ideally this helps also the individual to be provided with strategic perspective. In some organization each new employee is assigned with an advisor, mentor, to assist in answering questions that may be asked, orientation welcomes individuals to the team and provide them with other aids to ease their workforce.
The relationship between this is that as a new individual is given a mentor and may head of department to help in guiding the new individual this helps them to fight anxiety hence reduction of mistakes, errors, fear that is fought during this exercise. So by the time an individual starts working are able to do what s required and know how the organization operates. On the other hand, as both Koontz et al (1990) says orientation helps the new employees to be able to meet new values, new personal relationships, and new models of behaviour. Koontz et al Anxiety also comes when the new recruits have nobody they know in the organization to ask for any advice, not knowing how the organization works and even fear of being un successful on the new job. This causes uncertainties that make a great deal of anxiety to the new employee. When such situations happen then the new entrants will always make sure they work hard in order to win the hearts of their supervisors and co-workers hence high productivity.
Effective induction and anxiety helps in the reduction of anxiety of new employees, information in the job environment and on supervisors is provided, co-workers are introduced and questions by new employees are encouraged such that where they do not understand they are able to ask without fear. Therefore, the problem worrying about how well they will perform in the job, feeling inadequate compared to more experiences employees and looking at how based they will go along to intensified anxiety which interfered with their training process of which there was also high turnover of new employees was caused primary by anxiety and were even reluctant to discuss their problems with their supervisors. 2.3.1 Indentification of the relationship between staff retention and performance The New Vision (Sunday, 23rd May, 2010) an article about staff retention strategies was produced by Paula Kyabaggu Mukama who explained that staff retention strategies are not costly compared to losing a staff that is talented.
However, they require thought effort and the time. He explained that it is relatively easy to justify staff retention program when the losses are incurred through staff turnover. Kyabaggu (2010) tries to show how painful to would be it lose a potential staff, well committed because of poor motivation. He cites out how the cost is likely to be low putting into consideration the return on investment that you may have lost out of this very personnel. Therefore, every organization should look for strategies to retain its staff because it is an economically – sensible approach. Factor that affect staff retention are simple in a way that they can have a solution. In this case strategic organization should have effective leadership which is absolutely necessary to create a stable workforce. It is the single most important factor in determining staff turnover.
On the case of retention of staff Kyabaggu (2010), in the same article gives views that would help an organization to be able to retain their employees, for example have sense of involvement of new employees, recognition which acknowledges a job-well-done and specific information of why performance deserves special attention. She further, points out that comprehensive induction would improve on the performance of the organization.
Ivancevich (2009), orientation is not only taking new tasks on the job but also new interpersonal relationships. This can be an on-going social system that has involved a unique set of values, ideas, conflicts and friendship.
Ivancevich (2009) further says their orientation helps on staff retention rate of new employees which brings an understanding that high performance is expected and rewarded, equally. Retention also helps employees beset by off-the- conflicts which brings in counseling and that scheduled an adjust work assignments for those with particular difficult conflicts at work. Since such attitude shall have been fought from the workers right from the beginning then this would also improve on the performance of the organization.
Employee retention is something that has to be taken seriously and that’s why in this case induction is very important It is critical in developing a good relationship between the new employees and the company. This has a significant impact in their ability to deliver value to the company and to maximize their potential over their time as an employee.
It’s very important for an organization to utilize the induction period which removes new recruits uncertainties about what happens next. For the recruit and their manager, it clearly defines what the new recruits is supposed to do, how the line manager how can explain to new employee in regard to the department that will be joined, highlighting decision points and milestones so that there are no surprises like ‘I was not told about this’. But once the line manager has prepared him/herself on what he wants from the new recruit, and then it becomes easy to define information for them to understand well in the period of orientation.
Employee retention helps in define on defining career opportunities in a company which is very important to staff and management. Once this is defined, then there will be reduction on staff turnover since they will be aware of their opportunities in the organization.
Motivation of staff is an important aspect to retain staff in an organization .In this case there should be some measures to be followed on how employees can be motivated by managers in order to avoid high turnover from the organization and lose potential people. The following aspects can be looked at as some key areas where an organization can avoid high turnover thus; through giving out benefits like increased work satisfactions levels, reduced staff turnover, prevention of talent loss to key competitors and giving maximum staff performance.
Another way of improving on staff retention would be about understanding the prevailing culture of an organization, including its dominant system of beliefs and practices. The organization too should be able to identify cultural perceptions of the organization across staff groups, business unit time and location which is particularly crucial when embarking on the organizational change to reduce turnover and increase staff retention. These are areas that must be taken seriously since competition is high and once neglected, and then the organization can end up losing potential people.
Retention is a strategy used by management to preserve or maintain employees who are excellent and best at the organization. This means that for the organization to maintain its employees some strategies must be looked at. For example, training must be offered to employees as a motivating factor. This may result into bonding of staff that has been given opportunity and at least be able to stay for more two to three years. On the other hand retaining of employees could also be done through competitive benefits for example, giving them holiday trips, school fees schemes, housing loans/land and car loans. Sometimes, it’s better to give some offers as a compliment to their salaries like recognizing the best performers, giving out social loans and promotions. Most employees run out of the organization when they find out that however much they may work provision of promotion may not be possible. Therefore you find out that instead for them staying they starting searching for new jobs where they can find opportunity of promotion. Once this is built in the organization then most likely the rate of turnover may reduce hence maintaining employees in the organization.
Ivancevich (2009), induction is not only taking new tasks on the job but also new interpersonal relationships. This can be an on-going social system that has involved a unique set of values, ideas, conflicts and friendship.
Ivancevich (2009) further says their induction helps on staff retention rate of new employees which brings an understanding that high performance is expected and rewarded equally. Retention also helps employees beset by off-the- conflicts which brings in counseling and that scheduled an adjust work assignments for those with particular difficult conflicts at work. Since such attitude shall have been fought from the workers right from the beginning then this would also improve on the performance of the organization. Employee retention is something that has to be taken seriously and that’s why in this case induction is very important. It is critical in developing a good relationship between the new employees and the company. This has a significant impact in their ability to deliver value to the company and to maximize their potential over their time as an employee.
It’s very important for an organization to utilize the induction period which removes new recruits uncertainties about what happens next. For the recruit and their manager, it clearly defines what the new recruits is supposed to do, how the line manager how can explain to new employee in regard to the department that will be joined, highlighting decision points and milestones so that there are no surprises like ‘I was not told about this’. But once the line manager has prepared him/herself on what he wants from the new recruit, and then it becomes easy to define information for them to understand well in the period of induction. Employee retention helps in define on defining career opportunities in a company which is very important to staff and management. Once this is defined, then there will be reduction on staff turnover since they will be aware of their opportunities in the organization.
In this case you are able to retain these employees since they feel being part of the organization of which high performance is obtained.
In the article of New Vision, (Monday, August 8th 2001, 35) Career Building News, Job Mart Heading with Ways organizations can improve employee retention or reduce turnover Cisco CEO John Chamber’s quarts that: “Most organizations are being faced with the problem of high turnover, but we realize that organizations which have emphasized on the orientation have tried to reduce on this problem hence retaining their competitive staff. For any organization to retain its employees then hire the best and avoid the rest. Cisco CEO John Chambers once said: “ A world-class engineer with five peers can out-produce 200 regular engineers.” That some firms would rather leave a position open than hire the wrong person. Instead of waiting for people to apply for jobs, top organizations spend time looking to hire caliber people whether they have a job opening or not.
Peter et al (2000), effective induction/orientation is very vital because it helps in the reduction of turn over hence maintaining the staff at the job that can help in the improvement of performance. When the organization is orienting staff, it’s always better to make sure it’s effective enough in order to get better results. This means that as you undergo the exercise it is better to make a selection of who should do the exercise in order to get fruitful results. This can include the management of relocation, handling the new employee’s domestic difficulties and the provision of information that will help the new entrants to benefit. Induction must be handled systematically to enable the new employee to ‘fit’ into his or her job and the organization as soon as possible.
The role of orientation is to make sure that people work and are able to be communicated to; the working environment is good the job including career and training plans and the organizations’ culture, structure and systems are well stipulated.
Peter again says that redesigning your orientation program for new employees would be better. He emphasizes that “the old saying, you don’t get a second chance to make a good first impression” is true in the case. So make the first critical days stand out as a positive experience. This becomes a great opportunity to make new recruits feel proud to have chosen your organization. 2.3.2 The relationship between realistic expectations and staff performance Mejla et al (2002), induction helps new employees to learn more about the organization, what is expected of them on the job and how it can help them on reducing the initial anxiety at work.
Ivancevich (1992), another role of induction is developing realistic staff expectations, positive attitudes toward the employer and staff satisfaction. This explains how society has built up a set of attitudes and behaviors that are considered proper for these staff. Worldwide, work however, is not done for free. It’s understood that new staff must learn realistically what the organizations expect of them, and their own expectations of the staff must be neither too low nor too high. Each worker in this case must incorporate the staff and its work values into his or her self-image, hence increase of high staff performance for the organization.
Once an organization understands the use of orientation then there is peer interaction, managers and senior co-workers being actively involved in helping each other for employees to adjust to the work group thus team work is emphasized and this kind of relationship helps in staff performance because of team work. On the other hand, because employees get off to a good start in their new job, this helps each employee’s manager receive a to-do list of things that need to be done before the new employees come for example setting up a work plan. Orientation helps in development of new realistic expectations.
Improperly oriented employees must still get the job done, and to do so they need help. In this case we find that the co-workers and supervisors who have been used to breaking the new employees may not break again. Orientation to some extent helps in development of new realistic expectations. New employees must learn realistically what the organizations expect from them. Each worker in this case must incorporate the job and its work values into his /her self-image.
Wright et al (2008), also say that orientation reduces on employee turn-over and contributes to early success programs. Early success programs provide comfortable environment, a support network and a series of classes where new hires learn product knowledge and customer service skills.
Another role of orientation is that during this time there are challenging assignments given the new employees putting them into an open job. For example if more than one job is available, slot the new employee into the most demanding one. Therefore, the new recruit will perform well in a tough assignment especially if the supervisor is available to provide help and support when needed.
Orientation too gives a realistic job preview which provides the new employee with realistic expectations during the recruiting process. During this period new employees are given first hand information of what is expected of them, which will establish the ongoing relationship that brings mutual benefits to the organization.
Another role is that orientation helps the organization to identify initial experience in an enterprise which can be imported for future management behavior; therefore the first contact of trainees should be with the best supervisors in the enterprise, people who can serve as role models for the organization.
Another role of orientation is that it provides job enrichment by providing a measure of it. On the other hand, more responsibility to the job, gives the new employee increased authority, and let the new person deal directly with clients or customers. If the new employees are doing special projects and making recommendations to the supervisor, let them follow through and implement.
Gerhart (2008), also says that orientation reduces on employee turn-over and contributes to early success programs. Early success programs provide comfortable environment, a support network, and a series of classes where new hires learn product knowledge and customer service skills.
Another role of orientation is that during this time there challenging assignments given the new employees putting them into an open job. For example if more than one job is available, slot the new employee into the most demanding one. This eliminates the possibility of failure, but prevents the employee from achieving psychological success, the exhilarating sense of accomplishment that results from achieving a task that entails a reasonable probability of failure. Therefore, the new recruit will perform well in a tough assignment especially if the supervisor is available to provide help and support when needed.
Orientation too gives a realistic job preview which provides the new employee with realistic expectations during the recruiting process. During this period new employees are given first hand information of what is expected of them, which will establish the ongoing relationship that brings mutual benefits to the organization.
Schein ( 1989), points out that one of the biggest problems recruits and management face during the entry stage involves obtaining accurate information. Giving candidates realistic previews of what to expect once they begin working on the job can avert surprise, disappointment and improve the employee’s performance.
Greenberg metal (1993), explain that, when new employees actually arrive on the job and find that their expectations are not met, disappointment and dissatisfaction contribute to high turnover, organizations commitment in turn contributes to high rates of turn over hence leading to poor performance. However, useful techniques for doing so is realistic job previews by providing job applicants with accurate descriptions of the job they will perform in the organization they enter. It has been evidenced that higher satisfaction and low turnover has been reduced. Realistic job previews designed to counter over optimistic expectations tend to produce more satisfied employees where employees in this case are likely not to quit the organization.
Gomez et al (2002), orientation helps new employees to learn more about the company and about what is expected of them in the job and it may help them in reducing the initial anxiety of a transition. Orientation also helps new employees be able to interact with their co-workers which provide them an opportunity to systematically learn more about work rules, personnel policies, benefits, equipment, location of the organization and this kind of expectations makes the new employees able to feel that really they are part of the organization.
Orientation develops clear job and organizational expectations whereby duties and job expectations are clear. However, in some jobs this is not the case as explained because there are some jobs which have no clear-cut lists of desirable behaviours, outcomes and job attitudes.
New employees would love to be informed about what it takes to survive and get ahead in the organization. Therefore, effective orientation process is absolutely necessary because this helps employees to be able to know what is expected of them. This can improve on job performance once establishment of good relationship with the organization, their colleagues and supervisors tend to be more productive. Whenever there is good orientation this improves the probability that new employees feels that really they belong to the organization, creating strong commitment to the organization hence getting strong obligation to live up to performance expectations.
Also employees can attain acceptable job performance levels that are faster. This helps on the standards at the beginning which eliminates uncertainty about what is expected on the job.
* CHAPTER THREE
This chapter will includes the design, Area of the Study, Study Population, Sampling size and selection, Data collection methods, Data analysis, Research procedure and Anticipated limitations and delimitations to the Study. 3.1 Research Design:
The study will basically exploit the descriptive case study design in which both qualitative and quantitative techniques will be utilized. It is Quantitative in the sense that it will be based on methodological principles of description, and use of statistical measurements as expected by the researcher. Qualitative data will be presented on graphs, pie charts and tables during research presentation. 3.2 Population of the study:
The target population will be the Directors and Staff of the Institute for International Co-operation and development (C&D). This is because the study will be conducted at the Headquarters of the institute which will be convenient in terms of accessibility because it is located in Kampala city/Lugogo Bay pass.
3.2.1 Sampling technique and sample size
Purposive sampling technique will be used because not all population will be involved. According to Louis et al (2000), purposive sampling is the technique where the researcher hand picks the cases to be included in the sample on the basis of their own judgment. This method does not represent a wider population, it is selective and biased although the researcher controls the sampling and knows the objective of the study. 3.3 Data Collection:
The study will utilize both primary and secondary data. Primary data will be collected from the Director and the administration of the organization. Secondary data will be collected from review of organization records concerning induction. 3.4 3.8 Data collection methods and instruments
Self administered questionnaires will be designed and be sent out to respondents for completion and thereafter they will be collected by the researcher for analysis. This method will yield primary data. 3.8.2 Interview
Under this, the researcher will prepare interview guide where employees will be asked about how activities are done and management will be asked about the company operations as far as motivation and employees’ performance is concerned and this will be a basis for primary data. 3.8.3 Observation
The researcher will observe physically things or activities being done at the company premises where the researcher will visit various departments to see how workers perform their tasks, the level of their morale and performance . And this will be a basis for collection of primary data * 3.6 Data Processing and Analysis:
After collecting data from the field, it will be edited to check accuracy and consistency to the study objective to ease analysis. Quantitative analysis which involves use of appropriate descriptive statistical measures such as frequency and percentages. The data will be put in tables for easy interpretation in relation to the objectives. All this will be done with aid of specialised computer package known as SPSS Version 17.
The results will be discussed and after conclusions will be drawn and represented accordingly. * 3.7 Ethical Considerations:
The researcher will ensure anonymity of the respondents by not asking for the names, such that they can freely express themselves, the researcher will obtain the consent to participate in the study from all the respondents. Before collecting data, the residents will be assured of the confidentiality of the data given and guaranteed that it will be used only for academic purposes. The researcher will observed confidentiality while handling the responses. The researcher also will use the letter of authority from the University to authenticate the research process.
3.8 Limitations of study:
i. The study will be restricted to one organization, so the competitive scenario cannot be studied. ii. All the answers given by the respondents will be assumed true. iii. The researcher may face a problem of getting information on time if the organization does not release it. Because some organizations do not allow outsiders to know what they are practicing therefore this can b difficult for the researcher to access information. iv. The co-operation of the respondents largely will be depending on their individual perceptions and meaning attached to the research intentions. This may limited the information that will be extracted. v. Not all the respondents will returned the questionnaires so it may have some implications on the sample size consideration although a check measures will be put in place to issue out more questionnaires than the required number of the sample size. This also may have cost implications and consumed the researcher’s time. *
Armstrong, M. (2000). A Handbook of Human Resources Management Practice. London: Kogan UK. Bateman Snell( 2002), Management –competing in the new era 5th edition pg 324 Gower, Barry, 1990. “Stove on inductive scepticism,” Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 68/1: 109–112. Habbard, R. (2001). “Societal Leadership and good Government: Strengthening learning, values and consent” In International Review of Administrative Sciences, Vol. 67, No2 Indurkhya, Bipin, 1990. “Some Remarks on the Rationality of Induction,” Synthese, 85/1: 95–114. Oso, W. Y. & Onen, O. (2005). A general guide to writing research proposal and report: A handbook for beginning researchers. Kisumu: Option Press. Pettinger, (1994)“Fixing a Hole in the Ground of Induction,” Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 79/4: Slowik, Edward, 2005. “Natural laws, universals and the induction problem,” Philosophia, 32/1–4: 241–251. White, F.C., 1988. “Armstrong, Rationality and Induction,” Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 66/4: 533–537. Yavuz, N. (2004). The use of non-monetary induction as a motivational tool: a survey study in a public organization in Turkey. A thesis submitted to the graduate school of social sciences of Middle East Technical University