Rationale: This assignment is designed to encourage you to read and understand educational research and the academic resources available in the field of educational management (e.g., evaluation studies, policy research, curriculum, systems, classroom management, institutional studies, administration and supervision skills, etc.)
I) You are to research and gather a minimum of ten (10) of the prominent published and unpublished research studies – in a research study of your choice in educational management.
II) Prepare an outline of the published/unpublished work following the suggested outline below:
1. Name of Author/Date Published
2. Introduction with Thesis Statement/Purpose
3. Major Field Definition/Description
4. Major Field Periodicals
a. Academic Journals
b. Scientific Journals
c. Internet resources
5. Methodologies Used
6. Summary of Findings
Deadline: The paper is due on December 9, 2012
Credit: This paper will count for 10% towards your final grade in the course.
ASSIGNMENT 2: Problem Identification
ASSIGNMENT 3: Published Thesis
Assignment: A thesis graduate level research study related to your approved title.
As a library /Internet research paper, you will involve yourself in an already published research results; you will not be doing original research in this assignment.
The paper should be outlined using the format below;
1. Thesis Title
3. The Problem Statement
4. Significance of the Problem
5. Definition of Terms
6. Literature Review
7. Hypotheses of the Study
8. The Methods Used to Collect Data
9. The Statistical Measures Used for the Analysis of the Data
10. The Summary section which includes findings, conclusions and recommendations.
Paper Length: This paper will contain no less than 10 pages and no more than 15.
Deadline: This paper will be due on _______________________.
Credit: This paper will count for 15% of the final grade for this course.
ASSIGNMENT 4: Thesis Proposal
This is a concept paper to be written following the steps of an outline specified in Assignment #4. Proposals are to be orally presented on the last scheduled meeting on March 17, 2013.
Credit:The concept paper is worth 40% to the student’s final grade.
There will be two written in-class examinations on the course lectures and reports. One is a mid-term, the other is the final examination. The two examinations together will account for 10% of the student’s final grade in the course.
A1. Major Field of Periodicals, Methodologies, Abstracts 15%
A2. Research Proposal (Published/Unpublished)15%
A3. Research Proposal (Concept Paper40%
A4. Mid Term and Final Examination10%
A5. Participation, Attendance, Punctuality, Report,
Discussion, Group Relations, etc., 20%
SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES:
• Orientation, Syllabus, Guidelines
• Assignment 1, due on December 9, 2012
• Assignment 2, Title Defense, to be rendered on January 13, 2013 • Assignment #3, due on January 23, 2013, to be submitted online • Reports and Discussions, February 3 and February 24, 2013 • Assignment #4, Proposal Defense, Submission of Written Report and Thesis Proposal, March 17, 2013
Dr. VICTORIA C. NAVAL
Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Sta. Mesa, Manila
RSH 631 – Research Seminar 2 (Seminar in Thesis Writing)
To conceptualize research problems related to the area of educational management To identify relevant research problems that can be possibly undertaken
2. GUIDE QUESTIONS
What are the research problems that are needed at present in the area of educational management that would have national significance? What research problems can possibly investigated?
The introduction of a research paper is a discussion of the rationale of the study. It should present current situation, legal laws, circulars, memoranda and justification for the choice of the problem
Background of the Study
This is a historical account on the development of the problem specific to the characteristics of the respondents from the bigger perspective either internationally or nationally. It should enumerate observed problems, issues and variables and end up with paragraph on why the researcher chooses to investigate the problem.
The theoretical framework is a systematic discussion of the definitions, concepts or constructs and the propositions which are related to the research problem. It actually serves as the basis of the conceptual framework of the study and research problems.
It reflects the researcher’s own conception of a problem after all the readings on related literature and studies which have bearings on the problem under investigation. It explains theories. Consult psychological and educational theories which would give directions to the conceptual framework on the topic or problem being investigated.
The conceptual framework is a schema of the research paradigm presented in the form of a diagram. It should show the variables and their relationship. The paradigm should explain the variables very well and how they interact, correlate and become the basis for the output.
Kerlinger (Sevilla, 1992) describes the variable as the constructs or properties being studied. It is a characteristic that has two or more mutually exclusive values or properties. A construct that has only one value or property cannot be called a variable. It is called a constant.
There are two types of variable, namely: the dependent and independent variable. In a cause and effect study, the effect is the dependent or criterion variable. The independent variable or variate is the property or characteristic that makes the outcome or result vary. An independent variable can either be manipulative or non-manipulative. Non-manipulative are those which cannot be altered or change, as; age, aptitude, race, etc. Manipulative variables can be changed and are therefore called active variables. Examples are; method, reinforcement, practices, etc. A variable that is dependent in one study may be independent in another.
Statement of the Problem
The statement of the problem should start with a general statement of the main problem. (consistent with the title) then, broken-up into sub problems in the form of specific questions. Usually, the general problem is a restatement of the title of the study. The number of specific sub problems or questions that calls for a test of differences and/or relationships will also depend on the scope of the investigation. Descriptive questions need no predictions or hypotheses.
Hypotheses of the Study
A good hypothesis should be able to give a reasonable explanation of the relationship of the variables in the study. A good hypothesis must also be testable. If a hypothesis cannot be statistically tested, it should not be written at all.
In a scientific research, predictions of the outcomes of the study are as important as the statement of problems or questions. Thus, the hypothesis has the following functions:
1. The hypothesis reflects the researcher’s concept of his study right at the start of his research. 2. The hypothesis sets the procedures or the stages of the study. This usually serves as your guide in the selection of a good instrument to measure your variables. 3. The hypotheses can help you organize your presentation, analysis and interpretation of the data in your study.
Scope and Delimitations/Limitations of the Study
The scope and delimitations of the study discusses the setting and the locale of the study, its subjects and time frame. It sets and establishes the parameters of the study. On the other hand, there may be some aspects during the investigation which may adversely affect the result but which the researcher has no control. This should be honestly stipulated under the term limitation.
Significance and Importance of the Study
The importance of the study is expressed in terms of the benefits that a particular individual, groups of individuals and/or other entities would derive from the results of your study. It answers who and how these benefits would accrue to a particular individual(s) and/or entitiy(ies). The significance of the study also explains the contribution of a particular study to the solution of an existing problem, the improvement to unsatisfactory conditions and/or to the fund of knowledge. It may also discuss the rationale and relevance of the study and its possible implications.
Definition of Terms
Terms and concepts that are important in the study have to be defined, in order for the reader to understand the study as it was intended by the investigator. There are two ways of defining a term according to Kerlinger (Sevilla, et. al., 1992). These are the conceptual and the operational levels. Conceptual definition is that which is found in dictionaries whose meaning is academic or universal, and which is often abstract and more formal. This is the meaning understood by most people. The operational or functional definition is either measured or experimental. The measured operational definition states the way the concept is measured in the study, while in the experimental operational definition, the researcher describes the details of the manipulation of the variable.
An effective way that can lead a researcher to past theories is by way of reviewing related literature and studies. According to Gay (1976), the review of related literature involves the systematic identification, location and analysis of documents containing information related to the research problem under study. Functions of the review of related literature and studies are the following (Sevilla, 1992)
1. It provides the conceptual or theoretical framework of the planned research 2. It provides the information about past researches, related to the study. Unintentional duplication of past studies may occur since you will have in your hand all constructs related to your study. 3. it
gives an information about the research methods used, the population and sampling considered, the instruments used in gathering the data and the statistical treatment of data. 4. It provides findings and conclusions of past investigations which you may relate to your own. Related literature can either be conceptual or research literature. Conceptual literatures are more readily available than research literature and usually more comprehensive than the other. Good sources of these types of readings are encyclopedias, books, yearbooks and indexes to literatures of books and periodicals, as they provide the content and pages of books and the abstracts help the researchers in their search for research literature. The abstracts give a bird’s eye view of the entire thesis or dissertation and saves the researcher’s time and effort in reading the whole manuscript. These are called related studies.
Sources of materials can either be primary or secondary. Primary sources are the basic materials with little or no annotation or editorial alteration, such as manuscripts, diaries, interviews, and laboratory reports. Secondary sources are derived from primary materials such as; analysis, interpretation and commentary on primary materials. Examples are book reviews, etc.
In choosing a material as a source, the qualification of the author and objectivity of the material should be a primary concern. By objectivity
Methods of Research Used
There are five methods of research namely; descriptive, experimental, historical, ex post facto and participatory. In educational settings however, the descriptive and experimental researches are the most commonly
Whatever method of research is used, it must be described properly. It must include the procedure to be undertaken, and the appropriateness of the method to the particular study. Some advantages should also be thoroughly discussed.
Population and Sampling/Sampling Design
This section discusses the population of the study and how this was determined. Among other things, it includes the identification of the population, determination of the required sample size, and selection of the sample.
A sample is a small group taken from an identified population. It involves taking a part of a population, making observations on this representative group and then generalizing the findings to the bigger population (Ary, 1981).
Sampling Strategies are of two types:
A. Random Sampling. It is the process of selecting a sample size from a bigger population such that each member of the population has an equal chance to be selected.
Types of random sampling include:
1. Lottery sampling/fishbowl technique
This is done by writing assigned numbers to participants in small pieces of paper, rolled, then put in a container. As in a lottery, you pick desired number of participants from the container after shaking.
2. Systematic sampling
This is done by numbering the participants accordingly. If you decide to take every tenth participant, add 10 to the first number you have picked. Example: If your first picked number is 3, add 10 and your second number is 13, your third is 23 and so on, until you have completed all the population size.
3. Stratified sampling
To do this is to first divide the population into groups, each belonging to the same stratum to avoid getting samples from another stratum. Participants in each stratum should be selected in random.
4. Cluster sampling
It is a sampling in which groups, not individuals are randomly selected. It is sometimes referred to as area sampling because it is usually applied in a geographical basis. Supposedly, all members of the cluster should be included, but if the population is so large, randomization may be resorted to for as long as approximation of the population is normal.
B. Non-Random Sampling. Not all participants have equal chances to be selected as a sample, since certain parts in the total population are deliberately no included. This technique is also called judgment sampling as it is dependent on the judgment of the researcher as to what items to be put into the subgroup. Non-random sampling is classified into: 1. Purposive or deliberate sampling. This is sampling with a purpose. Samples are taken only from a specific group or strata.
2. Quota sampling. The technique is to identify a set of important characteristics of a population and then select samples in a non-random way until a quota is reached.
3. Convenience sampling. it is based on the convenience of the researcher.
To determine the sample size of the population, the Slovin formula is
usually employed. Minimum acceptable sizes of samples would depend upon the type of research undertaken.
1. Descriptive research – 10 percent of the population. For smaller population, 20 percent should be taken. 2. Correlational research – 30 respondents
3. Experimental research – 15 respondents per group. Some require 30 respondents per group as minimum.
(discuss here the instrument/questionnaire to be used)
Data Gathering Procedure
(discuss here the methods to be used in data collection)
The goal of every researcher is to collect meaningful data according to his purpose in his study. The quality of the data collected would largely depend on the measuring instrument used in the process. Many a research paper were wasted because of defective instruments. Criteria for judging the quality of research instrument are the following (Sevilla, 1992):
1. Reliability. It is defined as the degree of consistency and precision or accuracy that a measuring instrument demonstrates. Other terms used interchangeably with reliability are dependability, stability and predictability. A good way to determine the reliability of an instrument is its variability. The wider the variability attributed to errors of measurement, the less reliable is the instrument.
2. Validity. The degree to which a test measures what is really purports to measure is called validity. Validity deals with the relationship of the data obtained to the nature of the variables being studied. In a research study, validation of an instrument is usually done through pretesting or pilot testing.
Statistical Treatment of Data
Statistical treatment of data is determined by the nature of the problem and the nature of the data gathered. Statistical computation of data used to be a most tedious process in a research report, usually lasting for days and weeks. With the advent of computers however, computations could be had in the shortest time possible.
Most common statistical treatment employed include:
1. frequency and percentages
2. mean and standard deviation
3. analysis of variance (F-test)
5. Pearson product-moment Correlation (Pearson r)
6. Chi-Square Test
1. What is a RESEARCH PROBLEM?
1. A question raised to be considered, discussed or solved.
2. A gap in or deviation from a performance standard to actual performance
3. An issue systematically researched on and which followed scientific method in reaching a conclusion
1. What can be used as easy criteria for selecting a PROBLEM?
1. Where lies your interest?
2. Size – magnitude
4. Your research capability in the field
SUGGESTED RESEARCHABLE PROBLEMS
Researchable Problems may be developed from/to any of the following:
2. Type of Research
1. Evaluation Studies
o Quality Assessment
o Review of Educational Management Innovations/Reforms o Leader’s Priorities in Improving the Educational Systems in All Levels o Graduate Careers in Educational Management
o Global Education and Challenges (International Education Trends) o Educational Issues with Industrial Partners (OJT, Research, etc.) o Traditional and Non-Traditional Studies
o Modalities in Educational Management
o Relevance and Responsiveness of Curricula
o Women Leaders Potential
o Project Evaluation
o Cost-Benefit Educational Analysis
o Utilization Research in Education
o Program Monitoring
o Curricular Review
o Human Resources (training, career path)
o Developments in Basic Education
o Impacts of Faculty Development
o Models for Development
• Research Science and Technology Cooperation
• University-Industry Tie-Ups
• Community –Academic Learning Process
• Educational Production Function and Resource Allocation
2. Impact Studies
o The Impact of Learning Education
o Cost Benefit Analysis of Training in Education
o Impact of Qualifications on Careers in the Educational Management o Evaluating Social Impacts of Institution
o Economic Impacts of Educational Institution
o Factors Affecting