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Effectiveness of the School Facilities Essay Sample

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Effectiveness of the School Facilities Essay Sample

School is one of the important elements that every person needs in order for him to gain knowledge and achievements in life. It has a big role in providing the students’ better quality of education through the use of school facilities.

School facilities are very important in the school. Its atmosphere greatly affects the student’s learning because it sometimes sets the student’s disposition in learning. The said equipment scaffolds assisting the lessons and activities done by the academician. It is very relevant especially now that the world is undergoing innovation of teaching strategies and change in the educational system. An effective school facility is responsible for the programs that the school delivers educationally. Its environment must be comfortable, safe, secure, accessible, well ventilated and pleasing.

The management of a classroom includes control of its physical conditions as well as of the materials of instruction. Some factors, though, that fall under physical conditions are not within the teacher’s control. The teacher cannot change the location of the windows or the chalkboards, but he can do something to improve the lighting of the room. The physical design of a classroom has been found to affect the choices children make among activities. The design of the room should accommodate the organization and strategies of the teaching that goes on there. Programs that nourish early literacy require a literacy-rich environment, an interdisciplinary approach to the development of literacy, and recognition of individual differences and levels of development.

The physical appearance of a classroom can stimulate pleasant feelings, attitudes, thoughts, ideas, and appreciations essential to learning. One author said that a pleasant atmosphere generates good thoughts and ideas, while unpleasant surroundings evoke dirty and ugly thoughts. Pupils tend to work better and longer if conditions are favorable. Learning also becomes more effective. The teacher should strive as much as possible for pleasant conditions in his classrooms.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This study aimed to know the Effectiveness of the School Facilities to the Learning Achievement of the Selected Fourth Year Students of Liceo De San Pedro A.Y. 2012-2013.

Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions:

1. What is the relevance of the school facilities in the student’s learning?

2. What are the problems in the school facilities of Liceo De San Pedro?

3. How does the school facility affect the students’ performance?

SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The main concern of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the school facilities to the learning achievement of the selected fourth year students of Liceo De San Pedro A.Y. 2012-2013 with the total of 71 respondents.

Respondents were taken from the seven sections of the Fourth year students of the said school. Among the 284 students in these sections, the top ten students of every section in the second grading period of the school year 2012-2013 were determined as the respondents of the study.

IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY

The study is important to the various sectors of the academe and the society.

To the Academe – the academe tends to contribute more knowledge for them to have more intelligent students.

To the Administrators – the school administrators are responsible for the improvement of the school facilities for them to enumerate of what has to be improved in the school.

To the Faculty – the faculty or the academicians are responsible for the learning achievement of the students for them to have a more comprehensive and affective approach towards the facilities.

To the Future Researchers – this study will help the future researchers for them to use this study as a reference of new research.

Research Paradigm

| | | | |INPUT |PROCESS |OUTPUT | |The relevance of the school facilities in the student’s |Conduct a Survey. |To improve some of the school facilities of the said | |learning? |Tabulation of results. |Institution. | |The problems in the school facilities of Liceo De San Pedro|Interpretation of results |To distinguish the problems of school facilities of | | | |the school. |

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Facilities make up a school. Therefore, school facilities are one of the foundations in order for a student to gain knowledge. It has effects on the students’ learning and performances. But as the time passes and facilities get useless and needs to have an improvement because of the technology, it should be changed, improved, and maybe added. The administrator need to give their attention to the faci[1]lities and equipments needed in the school. They need to do all these things for them to be a more productive school and gain more intelligent students.

A number of studies have shown that many school systems, particularly those in urban and high-poverty areas, are plagued by decaying buildings that threaten the health, safety, and learning opportunities of students. Good facilities appear to be an important precondition for student learning, provided that other conditions are present that support a strong academic program in the school. A growing body of research has linked student achievement and behavior to the physical building conditions and overcrowding.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Academe – a place where instruction is given to students.

Academician – a member of an academy for promoting science, art, or literature.

Accommodation – adjustment of differences, adapting.

Achievement – something accomplished.

Disposition – preparation or state of readiness.

Facility – something that is built, installed, or established to serve a particular purpose.

Relevance – significance, meaning or connection.

Scaffolds – supports or helps.

Sector – may be referring to a member or a part.

Chapter II
Review and Related Literature
This Chapter is a thematic presentation of the collected literatures which are significantly related sources of background information and concepts with the present study. Related Literatures

An effective school facility is responsive to the changing programs of educational delivery, and at a minimum should provide a physical environment that is comfortable, safe, secure, accessible, well illuminated, well ventilated, and aesthetically pleasing. The school facility consists of not only the physical structure and the variety of building systems, such as mechanical, plumbing, electrical and power, telecommunications, security, and fire suppression systems. The facility also includes furnishings, materials and supplies, equipment and information technology, as well as various aspects of the building grounds, namely, athletic fields, playgrounds, areas for outdoor learning, and vehicular access and parking. The school facility is much more than a passive container of the educational process: it is, rather, an integral component of the conditions of learning. The layout and design of a facility contributes to the place experience of students, educators, and community members. Depending on the quality of its design and management, the facility can contribute to a sense of ownership, safety and security, personalization and control, privacy as well as sociality, and spaciousness or crowdedness.

When planning, designing, or managing the school facility, these facets of place experience should, when possible, be taken into consideration. (http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2394/School-Facilities.html#ixzz2EKOG3bT7) Student achievement is affected by many variables. This study focused on one area that has received minimal attention through the years: the relationship between high school facilities and student achievement. This study explored the relationship between certain design features identified in the literature and student achievement as measured by the Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT). The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship existed between the selected design features and the GHSGT. The population of the study included 27 public high schools in two Regional Service Educational Area districts.

Multiple regression analyses were conducted on the data set. Correlative variables including socio-economic status, educational background of the teachers, average number of years teaching, and the size of the student population of each school were used as variables in the equation. The Design Appraisal Scale for High Schools (DASH-I) was completed for each school to determine the total score for the educational facilities variable. This was also included in the regression equations as a correlative variable. Regression models were examined to determine the amount of variance that was explained by DASH-I. Based upon the results of the analyses, school design variables explained approximately 6% of the variance related to the English and Social Studies, 3% of the variance related to the Science, and 2% of the variance related to both the Mathematics and Writing. (Ken Tanner, 1999)

The teacher should know the standards of good lighting. Lighting and illuminations should be abundant and adequate. Good lighting facilities affect the health and learning of pupils. Many factors enter into the provision of good lighting facilities, among them being the size of the room, the artificial light available, the color of walls, shades, location, and manipulation of blinds. Interest in school facilities has increased dramatically in the past decade as the rate of school construction and renovation has increased. There are many current themes in the literature, but the hot topics coalesce around effective educational environments, health and safety of building occupants, and operating costs, and environmental issues such as sustainable design and climate change. There have been significant advances in each of these areas during this period:reliable research linking educational environment to learning outcomes (Schneider has an excellent summary), comprehensive approaches to health and safety (LEED, CEPTED) that may change with better research into statistical risk, and giant strides in design of high-performance sustainable buildings that use very little energy (CHPS) (LEED) (Core Performance) while maximizing learning.

Lurking just out of sight are some emerging issues: classroom acoustics, building envelope design (rainscreen), rapid construction cost escalation (more than 35% from 2003 to 007), disaster planning and mitigation (in the Pacific Northwest, earthquakes in particular). Other issues may or may not emerge, such as school size, building longevity, classroom flexibility, universal design, and changing demographics. As such, the renovation of our nation’s educational infrastructure is one areawhere the problem is severe and the solution seems obvious and direct (Edwards, 1991,p.2). If a goal of educational leadership is to affect student achievement in a positivemanner, we must determine the extent to which urban students believe they are adverselyaffected by their physical learning environments.

The call for increased student andteacher accountability amidst unsafe, deteriorating facilities—which can negatively impact student motivation and/or conduct—is an irony that must be firmly situated in research.(http://etd.ohiolink.edu/send-pdf.cgi/Edwards%20Nicole%20C.pdf?osu1164663224) Studies in the Capistrano Unified School District (CUSD) in Orange County, California found that the students in classrooms with natural lighting, large windows or well-designed skylights performed 19 to 26 percent better than theirpeers in classrooms without these features (Hale, 2002). Recent concerns with moldrelatedhealth issues are driving schools to focus on the impact that poor indoor airquality has on the attendance and achievement rate of students (De Patta, 2002). Eventhe impact of furnishings in educational settings has been addressed. Anchorage, Alaskaschools developed a committee dedicated to selecting “equipment in which students canwork comfortably, furnishings that create an aesthetically pleasing ambiance, andfurniture that stands up to the rugged treatment it receives from daily student use”(Kennedy, 2003d).

More profoundly, studies are increasing their focus on the impact that the environmental design will have on student outcomes. When the learning process is at the core of design priorities, there is a significant likelihood that the facility will positivelyinfluence performance (Blair, 1998). The correlation appears to be positive betweenfacility design and learning. Chan (1996) clarifies that poor learning facilities can foster negative attitudes just as exceptional designs may bolster achievement. The growth of brain-based research has provided a shot in the arm for facility design studies. Caine andCaine (1990) make the point that brain-based research is not an independent movementin education, but an approach from which all learning research will benefit. The brain isa physiological system and can be stimulated, both positively and negatively, by itsphysical surroundings (Chan & Petrie, 1998).
(http://repository.tamu.edu/bitstream/handle/1969.1/85819/McGowen.pdf)

In this study, Mark Schneider, Ph.D. looked at how clean, quiet, safe, comfortable, and healthy environments influence successful teaching and learning. He asks which facility attributes affect academic outcomes the most and in that manner and degree?His research examines six categories: indoor air quality, ventilation, and thermal comfort; lighting; acoustics; building age and quality; school size; and class size.(http://www.sbga.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=114&Itemid=106) Recent research suggests that a school’s physical environment also can play a major role in academic performance. Leaky roofs; problems with heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, known as HVAC systems; insufficient cleaning or excessive use of cleaning chemicals; and other maintenance issues can trigger a host of health problems — including asthma and allergies — that increase absenteeism and reduce academic performance. Research links key environmental factors to health outcomes and students’ ability to perform. Improvements in school environmental quality can enhance academic performance, as well as teacher and staff productivity and retention.

(http://www.epa.gov/iaq/schools/student_performance/index.html)

While the learning environment is often viewed as background or scenery for teaching and learning, there is another way to view the physical environment and the teacher’s role in creating it. This view recognizes that by purposefully arranging the environment, teachers acknowledge the physical setting as an active and pervasive influence on their own activities and attitudes, as well as those of the children in their classrooms. Appropriate physical arrangement of furniture, selection of materials, and the visual aesthetic quality of a room contribute to teaching and learning (Loughlin& Martin, 1987; Rivlin& Weinstein, 1984; Morrow, 1990; Morrow & Weinstein, 1982, 1986; Morrow & Tracey, 1996; Sutfin, 1980). Field (1980) observed that rooms partitioned into smaller spaces facilitated such behaviors amongst peers as verbal interaction, fantasy and cooperative play more than did rooms with large open space

Local Literatures

The term “school plant” includes the school site, the school building, and the school equipment. It also refers to the housing operation ,unkeep, and extension of the existing plant. School administration and supervision have to provide a school system with the adequate plant and equipment to promote efficient instruction and to meet the requirement of space and safety. The Bureau of Public schools, now called the Bureau of Elementary Education follows a definite method and has a fixed standard of acquiring school sites and constructing school buildings. unless the school building is properly planned and constructed and the equipment for it is well selected and economically purchased and the site intelligently selected, there is a bound to be waste. It is difficult to do a good job of teaching in a poor building and without adequate equipment. The type and quality of educational equipment play an important part in the instructional efficiency of the school building. If the classroom is not well lighted, if the building is not well ventilated, if there is little space for storage of supplies — these factors will operate against good teaching and learning. Of course, a teacher may make her room attractive by the decoration she places on the walls and by the plants grown at the windows.

But even with utmost efforts, it is possible to give the pupils the opportunities they should have if the entire school plant is unsuited to the educational program. A school building has no merit when built without due regard to its educational objectives. In the last analysis, the reasonable way of viewing the school plant and its premises is in terms of their function to facilitate instruction. As an important agency in the instructional process, the school plant must represent the ultimate in the consideration of cost. Initially cheap and poorly designed buildings are more expensive in the long run, say a period of fifty years, than an initially superior and immediately more costly construction. It is generally known and accepted that education is changing, and it must change, if it is to keep phase with the unacceptable realities of the time we live in. We are, likewise, beginning to understand atleast what is true of education is no less than true of the school house. We are now in the threshold of a new movement in education.

Education is on the move and the traditional box building must get out of its way. In other words, education is moving and the building must not be permitted to inhibit its progress. More and more educators are questioning the validity of traditional box-like school building in the face of a rapidly multiplying student population. Teachers and student are meeting new circumstances and in new environment. Students are searching out information with the tools of their time, call it atomic or space age. If modern education is to grow and mature, each community must develop a social design and a program suited to its own particular requirement. Educators are asking for a space that encourages students to use their school more fully; areas in which social and intellectual contacts might be given opportunity to merge. The school building can and must say that the teachers have been given the proper space conditions in which to teach. For in the end the quality of a school building means very little unless it contributes to improving the quality of teaching and the amount of learning.

The school site must be well located and easily accessible, it must have suitable frontage on a public road preferably on a quiet side street if it is in the city; it must not be shut in, from the main highway of private property; and the site should be free from noise, odors, and dust, and not close to the heavy traffic highways, cockpits, jails, dance halls, and other recreational places of questionable character, and bowling alleys, shipyards, railroadyards, and manufacturing and industrial establishment. The site must be well drained and sanitary, and it should therefore not be closed to a public market, slaughter house, garbage dump, or stage.

Private school petitioning for government permit to open courses must have adequate school sites for their buildings, for physical education and also for vocational education where this course is required by the curriculum. Its size, nature, location and accessibility must be such that it is adequate for the purpose in mind.

School Factors – these factors refers to the unattractive schoolroom, an unhygienic room condition, and lack of organization of classroom routine. These factors should not be overlooked, though some of them are beyond the teacher’s control. Poor school conditions have a depressing and detrimental effect on pupils. The pupils cannot develop a natural respect for an unattractive room. On the other hand, a cheerful atmosphere serves to arouse the pupil’s spirits and to stimulate in them a desire to achieve. Poorly ventilated rooms are likely to make the pupils restless or depressed. The attractiveness of the classroom and the adequacy of heat, light, and ventilation are important because they affect the children’s behavior.

SCHOOL
A school is an institution designed to allow and encourage students or “pupils” to learn, under the supervision of teachers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/schools) All school sites, whether elementary or highschool purposes, must be under the administration, supervision and control of the Department of Education (formerly known as Department of Education, culture and Sports) (http://www.deped.gov.ph/cpanel/uploads/issuancelmg/DO%20No.%206.%20s.%201989.pdf) The areas of School sites shall, as a general rule, be as follows: a.) one half hectare for a school with an enrollment of 500 students. b.) One hectare for a school with an enrollment of 501 to 1000 students; c.) Two hectares for a school with an enrollment of 1001 to 2000 students; d.) Three hectares for a school with an enrollment of 2001 to 3000 students. FACULTIES

The word facility may refer to an installation or other thing which facilitates something. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facilities) The utilization of school properties or facilities is, and should always be, under the strict authority and responsibility of the school administration, and any illegal act or activity resulting from, or related to the utilization of the school head. (http://www.deped.gov.ph/cpanel/uploads/issuancelmg/DO%20No.%2030.%20s.%201977.pdf) According to Brubacher, J. (1998) Schools shall provide the following: a.) Sufficient suitable seats to accommodate all students; appropriate seats in the kindergarten, elementary grades, secondary and collegiate classes. b.) Sufficient teachers’ cabinets, tables and chairs.

c.) Sufficient number of blackboards.
d.) Sufficient library equipment and materials.
e.) Sufficient and appropriate laboratory furniture and fixtures.

Secondary
f.) An adequate number of home reading and general reading books. g.) An adequate number of sets of supplementary readers appropriate for each year to include: (1) First year – one set of silent readers and two sets of supplementary readers. (2) Second Year- two sets consisting of 26 copies per set, for a class of 50students. (3) Third Year- one set of collection of short stories.

(4) Fourth Year – one subscription of every six students for any two approved magazines one of which should be of local publication. ( Nolledo, J. 1998 ) use of school equipment in conjunction with the use of school facilities must be specifically requested in writing and may be granted by the procedure of which permission to use facilities is granted. The user of school equipment must accept liability for any damage to or less of such equipment that occurs while it is in use. Where rules so specify, no item of equipment maybe used accept by a qualified operator.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
This Chapter is a presentation of the research method, sources of data, respondents, data-gathering procedure, research instrument, and statistical treatment. Research Design

This study utilized the descriptive method of research. Descriptive research attempts to collect data from the members of the population in order to determine the status. The method used is found most appreciated because this study is concerned with the effects of school facilities. The researchers made use of a questionnaire in determining the effects of the school facilities to the learning achievement of the students. Research Locale

[pic]
The research was conducted inside the institution of Liceo De San Pedro, Luna Street, Barangay Poblacion San Pedro, Laguna. Research Respondents
Respondents of this study were taken from the Fourth Year students of LDSP. They were selected based on the top 10 of every section of fourth year level. They are guided by the researchers in answering those questions in the questionnaire.

Research Methodology
The researchers looked for related literatures from the web, gathered information from the different books and used old thesis for us to be guided. The researchers requested permission from the principal of LDSP to conduct the study of the effectiveness of the school facilities to the selected fourth year students. After the request has been granted, the researchers distributed the questionnaires to the respondents. The data gathered were then tabulated and organized. Research Instrument

The researchers conducted survey questionnaire survey method in gathering information and data needed in the study. The questionnaire was composed of 10 questions.

Statistical Treatment
The statistical tools that were used for the presentation and analysis of data were the frequency count, and percentage, P= f/n x 100. P = percent
f = frequency
N = number of respondents

CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter is a presentation of the findings, analysis and interpretation of the results of the statistically treated data gathered through the questionnaire given to the student-respondents. 1. What School Facility do you want to add in every classroom for the next school year? [pic]

This graph shows that 74.65% of the selected 4th year students chose Air-Conditioner as addition to the classrooms for the next School Year, 16.90% prefer to have locker for every classroom, 5.63% prefer to have whiteboard instead of chalkboard and 2.82% prefer to improve the chairs next school year.

2. What laboratory do you want to improve?
[pic]
The graph shows that 38.03% of the respondents prefer to improve the PhyChem Laboratory, 29.50% prefer the Computer Laboratory, 26.76% prefer the Speech Laboratory and 5.63% prefer the THE Laboratory.

3. What part of the school do you want to improve?

The graph shows that 38.03% of the respondents prefer to improve the Comfort Room, 52.11% prefer the Canteen, 5.63% prefer the Covered Court and 4.23 prefer the stage.

4. What are the things do you want inside your classroom for improvement?
The graph shows that 7.04% of the respondents prefer to improve Chalkboard, 16.90% prefer the chairs, 57.90% prefer the Ventilation and 18.31% prefer the Bookshelves for the classrooms.

5. What facility real affects the learning status of the students?
The graph shows that 12.68% of the respondents prefer the Library, 61.97% prefer the Classrooms, 15.49% prefer the Laboratories and 9.86% prefer the Gymnasium that really affects the learning status of the students.

6. Do the facilities help the students improve their academic status?
The graph shows that 85.29% of the respondents agree that the facilities help them improve their academic status and 14.08% of the respondents do not consider the facilities as a help in improving the academic status of the students.

7. Does the school facilities consider as one of the factors towards the progress of the learning achievement?
The graph shows that 88.73% of the respondents consider the facilities as one of the factors towards the progress of the learning achievement and 11.27% of them are not

8. Are they satisfied with the school facilities?

The graph shows that 29.58% of the respondents are satisfied with the school facilities and 70.42% of them are not satisfied.

9. Does the learning capabilities affect only to the facility?
The graph shows that 26.76% of the respondents agree that their learning capabilities are affected by the school facility only and 73.24% of them are not.

10. Are the facility of the school needs to have an improvement?
The graph shows that 73.24% of the respondents believed that the school facilities need to have an improvement and 26.76% of them are not.

CHAPTER V
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter is a presentation of the summary of the study from the data that is being discussed in the previous chapter, most important findings were drawn and conclusions were made. Summary

This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the school facilities to the learning achievement of the selected fourth year students of Liceo de San Pedro. Specifically, it sought to answer the following answers the following questions: 1.)What is the relevance of the school facilities in the student’s learning; 2.) What are the problems in the school facilities of Liceo De San Pedro; 3.)How does the school facility affect the students’ performance. This study conducted the descriptive method of research utilizing questionnaire. The questionnaires administered to the 71 fourth year student of Liceo De San Pedro of their class. For statistical research, frequency and percentage were used.

Research Findings
The findings of the study based on the gathered information are the following: 1. Seventy four point sixty-five percent (74.65%) of the selected 4th year students chose Air-Conditioner as addition to the classrooms for the next School Year, 16.90% prefer to have locker for every classroom, 5.63% prefer to have whiteboard instead of chalkboard and 2.82% prefer to improve the chairs next school year. 2. Thirty-eight point three percent (38.03%) of the respondents prefer to improve the PhyChem Laboratory, 29.50% prefer the Computer Laboratory, 26.76% prefer the Speech Laboratory and 5.63% prefer the THE Laboratory. 3. Thirty-eight point three percent (38.03%) of the respondents prefer to improve the Comfort Room, 52.11% prefer the Canteen, 5.63% prefer the Covered Court and 4.23 prefer the stage. 4. Seven point four percent (7.04%) of the respondents prefer to improve Chalkboard, 16.90% prefer the chairs, 57.90% prefer the Ventilation and 18.31% prefer the Bookshelves for the classrooms.

5. Twelve point sixty-eight percent (12.68%) of the respondents prefer the Library, 61.97% prefer the Classrooms, 15.49% prefer the Laboratories and 9.86% prefer the Gymnasium that really affects the learning status of the students. 6. Eighty five point ninety two percent (85.92%) of the selected fourth year students help their academic status improved through the use of school facilities. 7. Seventy three point twenty four percent (73.24%) of the respondents believed that the school facilities need to have an improvement. 8. Seventy three point twenty four percent of the respondents (73.24%) do not agree that their learning capabilities are only affected by the school facilities. 9. Eighty eight point seventy three percent(88.73%) of the respondents consider the facilities as one of the factors towards the progress of the learning achievement. 10. Seventy point forty two percent (70.42%) of the respondents are not satisfied with the school facilities.

Conclusions
1. The school facilities help the students and the respondents to improve their academic status. 2. School facilities are one of the factors towards the progress of the learning achievement. 3. Most of the respondents are not satisfied with the school facilities in Liceo De San
Pedro. 4. The school facilities need to have an improvement. 5. Laboratories really affect the learning status of the students. 6. Ventilations, canteen and PhyChem laboratory are needed to be improved.

Recommendations
In the light of the findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are proposed: 6. School Administration must focus on the improvement of the school facilities. They must be aware of the students’ status towards the learning achievements. 7. School sectors must guide the students. They must assist students to determine, analyze, and understand their interests, aptitudes abilities, limitations, opportunities, and needs towards the facilities. 8. School Facilities must be maintained especially those equipments that are very efficient and useful inside the school. 9. Most school facilities must be improved for the better quality of the school. 10. School grounds and corridors need to have improvement to make it functional. They can add altars or chairs in the corridors.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Herman C. Gregorio, Ph. D., School Administration and Supervision, 1961, p.311;

Herman C. Gregorio, Ph. D., Administrative Control of School Plant, Ground and Equipment, 1961, p.322;

Amparo S. Lardizabal, Alicia S. Bustos, Luz C. Bucu, Maura G. Tangco, Classroom Management, p.269; Principles and Methods of Teaching 2004, p.269;

Lesley Mandel Morrow, 1990, 1993, 1997, Literacy Development in the Early Years;

Edmund T. Emmer, Carolyn M. Evertson, Barbara S. Clements, Murray E. Wolsham, Classroom Management for Secondary Teachers.

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