In the knowledge economy it is appropriate to revise the approach to teaching and learning in unpredictable environment in which wider numbers of societies function. The traditional approach to learning and teaching cannot be sufficient, precisely because of unstable conditions in which the gaining knowledge comes to use. In the age of globalization and digitization of social and economic life it has become a very important need of skilful and flexible use of ever more sophisticated tools and technologies. At once, thanks to modern technologies, acquisition of knowledge, skills and qualifications has become faster, easier and more efficient. In this paper it has been made an aim to estimate the use of modern technologies, in particular internet, such as: amplified reality, videoconferences online in real time, strategic games, social networking sites or books on-line, enabling the creation of knowledge and skills, which may be an element of value innovation in higher schools. There were made the differentiation of use of new technologies in higher schools, and it was shown their benefits, both from the view of the recipients of educational services, and from the point of view of the universities in Philippines and other countries. There were analyzed the student’s opinions about the benefits and the major problems associated with the use of modern technologies described in this paper
Table of Contents
Chapter I Introduction
The reason why we chose this topic “The Use of Modern Technology On highschool”, the main purpose of this paper was approximating the benefits and main problems connected With the use of modern technologies, in particular internet, such as: augmented reality, Videoconferences on-line in real time, strategic games, social networking sites and on-line Books, from viewpoint of students in context of their use as an element of value innovation in High schools. The pilot researches show that from students’ viewpoint most benefits of the use of modern Internet technologies are connected with the use of the Internet itself. Other technologies are Perceived as a novelty which use is not still associated with more substantial benefits.
This is Probably due to the fact that they are not still commonly used in higher education, especially in smaller and less prestigious higher schools in Quezon City. The major problems which were pointed out by respondents were lack of contact face-to-face, Difficult access to lecturers, high costs of using, lack of appropriate equipment and Unreliability of information. From students’ point of view the most important advantages of new technologies for higher Schools are more attractive courses, faster flow of information and easier contact with Students.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Since the beginning of the 20th century, Modern technology has rapidly changed our world. It improves the length and quality of life. Although modern technology brings an enormous number of benefits for mankind, it causes many harmful effects as well. At first, we need to mention self phones. If we use self phones so much, our memory will be seriously affected because radiations from self phones damage brain cells. This can lead to cancer. In addition, nowadays, many students overuse self phones. They are keen on sending and receiving messages without concerning about their study. As a result, their study results are not good. The development of technology also leads to many negative impacts on our environment. There are numerous modern vehicles which release many toxic gases in the atmosphere such as automobiles, motobiles, trucks, and trains. The industries burn fuels such as oil, coal.
The processes of burning fuels also produce a large number of poisonous gases in the air. Consequently, the air is polluted, and the surface of the earth is warm. This means that the people’s health is seriously influenced . morerover . besides, many factories are built near to the residence. They produce a large mout of waste water which pollutes the water supply. This is detrimental to the health of people. The most harmful effect which modern technology induces is the abuse of internet. Many people become addicted to the internet especially students. They spend most of the time playing game online or visited a variety of bad websites. Accordingly, the time they spend on study is automatically redused, which in turn causes lower academic achievement. Moreover, some of the students even refuse to go to school due to the fact that they can’t escape from the trap of the internet.
One of the possible approaches to designing and implementing an advanced technology course in a general high school is proposed and discussed in this paper. The pilot optional course ìAn Introduction to Robotics and Real Time Controlî presents a two-year program, which includes theoretical studies, lab experiments and construction work, as well as a practical mini-project and a theoretical mini-research. The program started in 1994 at the Ohel-Shem general high-school (School #1). Blich school (School #2) has joined since 1995, and an additional school associated with the Hebrew University (School #3) joined in 1996. By the 1996-97 school year a total of 122 students (grades 10-12) had participated in the program: 17 students in 1994-96, 43 in 1995-97, 62 students started in 1996 (see the 3 dimensional graphic description in Fig. 1).
Figure 1. Participation of high schools in the program.
The program is currently authorized by the Israel Ministry of Education to be used as a substitute of the conventional course ìMachine Controlî which is a part of the technology (machinery) program. The course grade accepted by the general high school student is included in the advanced disciplines section of the matriculation certificate under the title ìMachine Control.î It provides the graduate with a considerable bonus when applying for engineering university studies. The three schools, in which the program has been implemented so far, are known as top-level general secondary schools. Participants were students studying math and physics at the advanced level, who had not studied technology at school beforehand and had joined the course voluntarily.
A few of them, prior to the course, had participated in extracurricular youth activities in computers or electronics. All of those who started the program finished it successfully. The students’ graduation project reports passed external inspection and evaluation at the Israel Ministry of Education (Dept. of Science and Technology). The ministry currently recommends the wider implementation of the program. Teacher training courses for the program have been conducted since October 1996. In this paper the course curriculum and it’s implementation are discussed in relation to the following questions: 1. To what extent can a free choice technology course be attractive for general high school students? 2. What
should be the central course objective?
3. What teaching methods are most relevant?
4. What changes in students’ perceptions and behavior may be stimulated by the course?
THE RESEARCH PARADIGM
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Does modern Technology make life more convenient or was life when technology was simpler? How Can Technology Benefit Our Students?
HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
students who use the technology for real communication with a real audience are much more capable of talking to adults because they are getting used to it…technology facilitates cooperative learning, encourages new roles for learners and the ability to work independently
ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The proposed research will determine the common factors and effects of the modern technologies among the kids. The result of this study will make the PSBA students, parents as well as our community be aware of the effects of the modern technologies among the kids. The researchers expect that through this study, the community will develop strategic solutions regarding the right usage of technologies among the kids.
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
DEFINITION OF TERMS
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
FOREIGN LITERATURE AND STUDIES
LOCAL LITERATURE AND STUDIES
OBJECTIVES AND RESEARCH CONTEXT
This research project aims to compensate the current lack of research information on the impact of technology on adult education, in particular, in the context of distance learning and lifelong learning. This book addresses different contexts of the use advanced technology in learning and teaching at universities and vocational institutions. It focuses particularly on the growing field of distance education. According to Desmond Keegan (1990), distinguishing characteristics of distance education include the:
• Separation of the teacher from the learner(s)
• Use of technical media supporting communication and collaboration among students and their teachers;
• Influence of an educational organization.
In this study we investigate empirically:
• Students’ views about the value of ICT and its actual and potential role in distance education;
• A list of opportunities that might be enhanced by ICT on learning in distance education.
The overall approach of the project is depicted in Fig. 1. The project plan was designed after a detailed literature study (Keegan et al., 2007) that revealed the need for systematic knowledge helping educators to exploit technology to the advantage of their students. The proposed research methodology was a series of randomized controlled trials using questionnaires and statistical analyses as research instruments.
The complexity of research clearly emerges when the reasons that made it difficult to practise a traditional data-collecting model as the one
represented in figure 1 are critically considered.
Figure 1. A traditional model for collecting data on the changes occurring in a given context due to o convincing arguments are needed to demonstrate that it is not acceptable that ven if in the initial situation extraneousness to technology cannot be obtained, a initial situation variation final situation
an intermediate variation.
Such a model implies that those changes that are introduced in the intermediate steps (variations) correspond to aspects which are totally absent from the initial situation. In other terms, if the research concerns the impact of communication technology on learning, it should be possible to define an initial situation in which a group of people has no experience with technologies, is not influenced by sociallyshared opinions and has no expectations on the possible advantages. Since this research aims at defining aspects of learning, in the initial situation the statistical population of students is supposed to have no experience with communication technologies and no opinions on the usefulness that the use of such technologies presumably has in facilitating learning.
Na population of students has nothing to do with communication technology (at least in the countries participating in the research, and probably not anywhere else). Epopulation could be hypothetically imagined that has no experience with communication technologies used for acquiring information, that is for a sort of learning. In other words, the individuals included in the population under study could be supposed to be experienced in the use of communication technology, but inexperienced in the use of a specific technological resource or in the field in which such a resource is applied.
This is a convincing hypothesis only if the individuals included in the population whose characteristics are being analysed are very similar to each other. For example, the research design could aim at verifying if the use of a resource or of a given procedure determines higher levels of learning than those obtained with other resources or procedures. From the point of view of methodology, this means that both experimental and control samples are extremely reduced. The research hypotheses must be restricted in order to avoid the risk of confusing the roles that variables have from time to time. Time itself must be strictly necessary to develop a precise experience not affected by uncontrolled or unexpected variables.
8 Obviously, these methodological cautions are not to be applied to a research activity aiming at detecting the impact of communication technologies on education. In particular, it is necessary to consider:
• that it is unlikely to find a population of students that have no experience with technologies;
• that it is equally unlikely to find individuals involved in educational activities that have not yet developed a mature attitude towards communication technology;
• that the attitude towards communication technology is highly influenced by a socially accepted common sense;
• that such a common sense gathers and spreads the elements of an ideology of modernisation in which values precede the analysis of phenomena.
The research design becomes even more complicated if the above mentioned cautions are observed. But the quality of the knowledge that can be obtained is not comparable with the inappropriate inductions based on findings taken from investigations in which common sense interpretations prevail in formulating the hypotheses, defining the procedures, selecting the tools, evaluating the results. The Impact project has opened new spaces for theoretical reflection and for the criticism of a research methodology concentrating on those aspects of communication technology in which the dynamic parts of the cognitive and affective profile of the individuals involved become relevant. As a first approximation, the linear pattern sketched in figure 1 is likely to be changed as it appears in figure 2.
Figure 2. A model for identifying attitudes concerning the educational impact to communication technologies.
DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE
PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
A summary of the results and conclusions is presented here:
1. The two major hypotheses of the study, namely that ‘technology has an impact on learning’ and that ‘the impact of technology on learning is beneficial’ are both well supported by this research on the impact of technology on learning by younger learners and by older learners.
The best evidence for this conclusion is from the responses to Question 11 ‘From my personal study experience I find that the impact of technology on learning is valuable.’ 80% of respondents agree an only 5% are in disagreement with this proposal. This is a major endorsement of the impact of technology on learning and of the beneficial nature of this impact.
This support comes equally from the younger and the older respondents. 85% of the younger respondents, 127 out of 150, either agree or strongly agree. 112 out of 150, or 75% of the older respondents have the same opinion. 2. The work of the most important researcher in the field, the American scholar Tapscott, is well supported by the analysis to which it was subjected by this investigation. Tapscott’s study, Growing up digital: the rise of the net generation, remains the leading study in the field.
Tapscott’s research would support Question 17 ‘Older learners have more difficulties in using technology in the learning process than younger learners’. The respondents to this investigation clearly support Tapscott’s position with 60% in agreement and only 18% disagreeing.
Further support is provided by the respondents to Question 19 ‘Older persons are hesitant about online study’. As in Tapscott’s work 62% agree that older persons are hesitant about e-learning while only 13% disagree. Significant numbers of both younger and older respondents share Tapscott’s position. 3. Further support is given to the hypotheses of the study by the responses to Question 10 ’The opinion that the impact of technology on learning is beneficial is correct.’
Over 50%are in agreement and only 28% disagree. Both groupings of respondents support the position that the impact of technology on learning is beneficial, with the older respondents being more favourable. 4. The investigation addressed the difficult question of whether problems of access to learning for students with disabilities had been resolved by technology. The question is blunt and challenging. It does not ask whether the problems of access to education for students with disabilities have been improved. The question says resolved. The issue of whether it can be said that the problems for students with disabilities have been fully resolved may have influenced the answers of some respondents.
The problems of access to education for students with disabilities is an age old problem going back hundreds of years. If it could be shown that technology had resolved these problems it would be a great achievement for technology and prove clearly that the impact of technology on learning is not only a fact but is highly beneficial to society.
The bluntness of the question may have triggered some of the 3% strongly disagree answers who feel that technology has been beneficial to learning, that technology has improved the problems of access for students with disabilities, but who hesitate to agree that all the problems with disability have been resolved. Only in a Utopian world will all the problems for disability be finally solved. Some of the 14% who disagree may also be motivated by such considerations. So too may be some of the 30% who are uncertain.
In these circumstances the statistic that 84% either agree or are uncertain, and 54% either agree or strongly agree, is a good result and supports the claim that technology has had an impact on learning and that this impact has been beneficial in the field of access to education for those with disabilities. That more than half of the respondents to this analysis agree that technology has fully resolved the problems of access to education for students with disabilities is a great success story for the role of technology in education. 5. The study did not accept, however, that contacts between students and teachers can have the same intensity when mediated by technology and when they take place in face-to-face education.
In their replies both the younger group and the older group are very similar in their attitudes with 40% in disagreement divided almost equally between the groupings. This is an important finding as it underlines the continued important of face-toface education in a technology era and requires consideration by those, especially in corporate e-learning, who often wish to eliminate the human factor in e-learning. Universities which are 100% online, like Kaplan University in the United States and universities which equiparate all forms of teaching whether in classrooms, laboratory or online, as in the University of Leicester in the United Kingdom are other cases in point.
6. In a reply slightly contradictory to the previous conclusion, the investigation supports the claim that the use of technology in educational communication ‘allows increased amounts of communication between teacher and students’ better than other forms of education.
118A large group (27%) are uncertain but 52% agree and only 20% disagree, thus giving solid support to the use of technology in educational communication and in contacts between teachers and students.
7. The study investigated the role of technology in making active participation in learning possible (Question 12).
The results are that 57% of respondents agreed and only 16% disagreed that
‘Information and communications technology has usually been used to encourage us to be active participants in learning’.
These results show that the theme of active participation in learning is strongly supported by the younger learners who have both more respondents in the agree category and fewer in disagreement. The older respondents are also supporters of the idea of active participation in learning but less clearly than the younger grouping.
8. The work of Marton in Sweden and of Entwhistle in the United Kingdom had emphasised the importance in education of learning higher level thinking skills, synthesis and problem solving. The study investigated the challenge presented to technology by this research into higher level skills. The question is: is technology only of value for learning lower level mechanical skills or can it have a beneficial impact on higher level thinking skills as well?
The contribution of technology to supporting the learning of higher level skills like synthesis and problem solving is quite well supported by the statistics with 57% choosing either agree or strongly agree and only 12% in disagreement. The figure for uncertain is high at 30% and may indicate that respondents were not sure of the learning of higher level skills.
9. One of the great contributions of distance education was to contribute to the individualisation of education. Distance education broke with the two thousand year old pattern of education within the learning group and placed the learner largely on his or her own. The study asked had information and communication technologies (ICTs) been used to support more individualized learning possibilities.
This, if it could be proved, would be an important contribution of technology to learning, as individualization of learning is difficult in face-to-face schools colleges and universities.
56% of respondents are found to be in agreement with the statement and 16% disagree. Thus the role of distance education, e-learning and mobile learning in supporting the individualization of the learning experience and the central role of 119technology in achieving this, is supported by the study. The 43% who disagree or are uncertain may feel that although technology has the possibilities of supporting individualized programmes, these programmes have not, in fact, been achieved.
10. Educational games have been one of the great contributions of technology to education and training. The great development of educational games and simulations today has been due to technology.
Again the responses are favourable to the impact of technology on learning in this area. 12% disagree or strongly disagree whereas 60% either agree or strongly agree.
In this case the younger respondents are much more enthusiastic than the older voters with 111 out of 150 younger respondents (74%) in the agree or strongly agree category. The older respondents are less favourable and outnumber the younger respondents in the disagree and strongly disagree categories. There are a very large number of uncertain respondents in the older group (57 out of 150 or 38%) and fewer in the agree and strongly agree categories.
The main purpose of this paper was approximating benefits and main problems connected with use of modern technologies, in particular internet, such as: augmented reality, videoconferences on-line in real time, strategic games, social networking sites and on-line books, from viewpoint of students in context of their use as an element of value innovation in higher schools. The pilot researches show that from students’ viewpoint most benefits of the use of modern internet technologies are connected with the use of the Internet itself. Other technologies are perceived as a novelty which use is not still associated with more substantial benefits. This is probably due to the fact that they are not still commonly used in higher education, especially in smaller and less prestigious higher schools in Poland. The major problems which were pointed out by respondents were lack of contact face-to-face, difficult access to lecturers, high costs of using, lack of appropriate equipment and unreliability of information. From students’ point of view the most important advantages of new technologies for higher schools are more attractive courses, faster flow of information and easier contact with students.