Empowerment-is any process that provides greater autonomy to employees through the sharing of relevant information and the provision of co9ntrol over factors affecting job performance. Five broad approaches to empowerment:
1.Helping employees achieve job mastery
2.Allowing more control
3.Providing successful role models.
4.Using social reinforcement and persuasion.
5.Giving emotional support.
-is the mental and emotional ihnvolve3ment of people in group situations that encourages them to contribute to group goals and share responsibility for them. 3 important ideas
Elements in Participation
Involvement-participation means meaningful involvement rather than muscular activity. Motivation to contribute-a second concept in participation is that its motivates people to contribute Acceptance of Responsibility-Finally participation encourages people ta accept responsibility in their groups activities Why is participation Popular?
Research Conclusion – is the collective results suggested the general proposition that, especially in the introduction of changes participation tends to improve performance and job satisfaction Spirit at work- a harmony among all faces of life as guided by a higher (religious) power Desires -employees have also acquired both a greater desire for influencing work related decisions Expectation they will be allowed to participate in these decisions Ethical Imperatives an equally strong argument can be made
Forces affecting the greater use of participation
Benefits of Participation
•Improve their self-esteem, job satisfaction and cooperation with management. •Conflict and stress are reduced, more commitment to goals and better acceptance of change. •Turnover and absences may be reduced.
•Establishes better communication as people mutually discuss work problems. •Management tends to provide workers with increased information about the organization’s finances and operation allows employees to make better quality suggestions.
When one company adopted participative management, it predicted 10 years would be needed to achieve the full effect.