The twenty first century is a century of the scientific and technological progress. The achievements of the mankind in mechanization and automation of industrial processes, in chemical industry and conquering outer space, in the creation of atomic power stations and ships are amazing. But at the same time, this progress gave birth to a very serious problem – the problem of environment. Ecology and the contamination of environment, is concerned with climate, over-population in certain areas, deaths of plant and animals, chemical contamination of seas, lakes and rivers as well as atomic experiments and dumping of atomic waste from power stations. Floods, unexpected draughts, and the greenhouse effect are the next reasons. Environmental problems are of a great concern nowadays. More and more scientists warn about the threat of a global ecological catastrophe as a result of mans economic activity. Medics note with alarm the growing number of diseases caused by air and water pollution.
Ecological problems are also very acute in Arkhangelsk region and in our city. The ecological situation in the region is influenced by a powerful industrial military complex, which includes the defense enterprises in Severodvinsk, cosmodrome in Plesetsk, nuclear test site in Novaya Zemlya. Out of 20 cosmodromes in the world one of them is in Plesetsk. Citys population are also worried about the Northern Dvina. Sawmills and pulp and paper plants contaminate water. As a result the ecological balance in the river upsets. Transport is a major source of environmental pollution. Every car exhausts tons of CO2 into the air. Another source of public concern is disappearance of forests. Their disappearance upsets the oxygen balance. Among other acute ecological problems are: pollution of the worlds ocean, radioactivity, noise and other types of pollution, destruction of ozon layer, deserts advance, green-house effect, acid rains, etc. They are result of mens careless interaction with nature.
There are alot of international ecological organizations. Greenpeace is one of them. Greenpeace has 2.8 million supporters worldwide, and national as well as regional offices in 41 countries. Its headquarters are based in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Greenpeace is a non-profit organization and nongovernmental. It unites people of different colours living in different continents and speaking different languages. The common mission of this organization is preserving life on the earth in its full variety. Greenpeace does not accept donations from governments, corporations or political parties but relies on contributions from individual supporters and foundation grants. Greenpeace does not support any political party. Nevertheless, its members carry on a dialogue with all political forces and struggle for approving and passing laws for the welfare of our environment. As a global organization, Greenpeace focuses on the most crucial worldwide threats to our planet’s biodiversity and environment. It campaigns to stop climate change, save the oceans, stop whaling, say no to genetic engineering, stop the nuclear threat, eliminate toxic chemicals.
The goal of Greenpeace is to expose environmental criminals, and to challenge government and corporations when they fail to live up to their mandate to safeguard our environment and our future. Environmental protection is one of the main problems of nowadays. Technological progress improves people life, but at the same time it causes numerous problems that were unimaginable in the past centuries. If we don’t find the way out, our planet will die. Big cities face the environmental catastrophe. For example, air pollution is caused by increasing number of cars, heavy traffic causes a lot of air pollution, too. Having more buses would improve public transport in cities and there would be fewer cars in the streets. I think people should go on foot more often or use bicycles. The necessity to employ all the inhabitants of the city leads to building new factories that produce not only consumer goods, but wastes and smog as well. Chemicals from factories contaminate atmosphere. Governments can solve this problem by passing laws to stop factories from polluting air and water. It also should force factories to put filters on chimneys.
If they did these, our cities would be healthier places to live in. Pollution of water creates a problem of water deficit. There are solutions to this problem. We can save the water from our baths and use it for the garden. This would help to keep many litters of water especially in the summer. Governments could stop water companies from wasting water supplies because of leaking pipes. Many cities have successfully saved water by repairing pipes. Another source of global danger is an acid rain. It falls as a result of poisonous chemicals from power stations and cars mixing with the moisture in clouds. This toxic mixture then falls as rain which kills trees, plants and pollutes the ground. There are ways to reduce acid rain. Firstly, power stations should stop releasing so much pollution into the air.
Secondly, car drivers should use lead-free petrol. Thirdly, we should use less electricity, and finally, we should try to use public transport instead of cars. What is more, destroying forests-lungs of our planet. They were called so because they produce oxygen, which is one of our basic needs. Logging companies are cutting down rainforests destroying wildlife. But if they planted new trees, rainforest wouldn’t disappear. If we collected and recycled paper, there would be more forests around. To sum up, if pollution of land, air and water continues, the damage caused by all these to nature may become irreversible. Serious actions must be taken now to avoid disaster.