Poverty is a pervasive concern in a huge country like India. It has been projected that India is home to approximately 33% of the impoverished population of the world. Eradication of poverty in India is a priority for the Indian government.
About Poverty in India: An overview
As laid down by the information furnished by the World Bank in 2005, around 41.6% of the overall population of the country is under the international poverty line of US$ 1.25 per day. This has been estimated in terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), in technical terms INR 14.3 in village regions and INR 21.6 a day in metropolitan places. As reported by the United Nations Development Program statistics of 2010, approximately 37.2% of the population of the country is living under the countrywide poverty line. Of late, a report was published by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI). The report states that eight of the states in India are home to a poverty-stricken population which is higher than the aggregate population of the 26 most underprivileged countries in the African continent. The population adds up to over 410 million underprivileged people in the most underdeveloped nations in Africa. Regardless of all the reasons contributing to poverty in India, India is at present adding population of 40 million people to the middle class annually.
According to the 2011 Global Hunger Index (GHI) Report, India ranks as one of the three nations where the Global Hunger Index from 1996 to 2011 rose to 23.7 from 22.9. At the same time, a survey was conducted taking into consideration 78 out of the 81 developing nations across the world such as Nepal, Pakistan, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda, Myanmar, Malawi, and Zimbabwe that have been successful in bettering the hunger situation. The most recent information provided by UNICEF demonstrates that one out of three kids who are suffering from malnutrition all over the world will be found In India. At the same time, around 42% of the kids of the country below the age of five years are underfed. The report also comes up with the fact that around 58% of the kids below the age of five years were underdeveloped. According to Rohini Mukherjee, one of the officials of the Naandi Foundation, the performance of India in hunger management is even poorer than the nations that form sub-Saharan Africa.
The Naandi Foundation is one of the charitable non-governmental organizations that are working to eradicate poverty in India. Marvin J. Cetron, one of the famous experts and forecasters and founder of “Forecasting International”, says that approximately 300 million people of India are now a part of the middle class. About 33% of this population has come out from the state of impoverishment over the last decade. Nonetheless, this must be viewed from the standpoint of the population growth in India since the population of the country has also risen by 190 million from 2001 and 370 million from 1991. Therefore, there has been a rise in the number of poor people as well.
However, there is some good news for the deprived people of India. As stated by a report from the new United Nations Millennium Development Goals project, about 320 million residents of China and India will probably be freed from intense impoverishment over the coming four years. At the same time, it has been anticipated that in 2015 the rate of poverty of the country will slump to 22% which is certainly good news for India. In addition, the report reflects that in the southern part of the Asia, nevertheless, just India, where the rate of poverty has been estimated to go down to about 22% in 2015 from 51% in 1990, is heading in the right direction to cut down poverty by 50% by the year 2015.
What are the causes of Poverty in India?
The causes behind poverty in India are manifold. Some of the major causes include license raj, absence of market economy, red tapism, the negative outcomes of liberalization policies, and centralization of industries. Given below are the different problems and issues that give rise to poverty among most of the people of the country: •It is oftentimes difficult for the citizens of India or nearly impossible to get accessibility to essential amenities such as electricity, drinking water, healthcare and public transport. •One of the most significant concerns for a big nation like India is the trouble to access the basic services. •Approximately half of the manpower of the country relies on agricultural and cultivation activities. •The middle class is mostly affected by the food inflation, and echoes of dissatisfaction are rising among them. •Till the rainy season arrives in the month of July, food inflation will probably grow to double digits this year.
Steps to eradicate Poverty in India
In order to eradicate poverty from India, the economists have suggested few measures that are given below: 1. Increasing Employment Since unemployment is interconnected with poverty, raising employment opportunities in India is a surefire solution to poverty. Specific focus should be on the agricultural industry since the majority of people of the country depend on agriculture for a living. The quality of equipments and seeds needs to be enhanced for higher harvest. 2. Industrial decentralization
In India, a prominent problem is that all the industries are centralized or located in specific areas of the country. Decentralization of industries is necessary for the economic growth of the country and industrial units should also be set up in rural areas of the country for generating rural employment. 3. Improved healthcare facilities
Poor health condition becomes a deterrent for the people of India to work hard and earn a satisfactory amount to sustain their day-to-day living. In order to get rid of this hindrance, there should be improved healthcare facilities in both urban and rural areas. 4. Marketing of agricultural products should be facilitated
Only enhanced agricultural production will not solve the problem of unemployment which is one of the root causes of poverty in India. There should be better facilities for marketing the agricultural produces throughout India. 5. Ancillary industries in the rural sector
There should be opportunities for earning for the people who are engaged in cultivation activities in the rural areas at a time when the cultivation activities are not in progress. Cottage industry and ancillary industry like threading, furniture manufacturing, matchstick making, spinning, and rope making can make a significant contribution to eradicate joblessness and poverty. 6. Land reform rules should be made stronger
The lacunae in the land reform regulations should be done away with for making land reform statutes more sensible. Landless cultivators should be given land in order to ensure that they can earn some more money. 7. Higher focus on cattle breeding and husbandry
Cattle breeding and husbandrycan makea significantcontribution in generating employment in the rural areas and eradicating poverty. The government should focus on this sincerely and arrange facilities for training. 8. Bolstering Poverty Eradication Programs
The need of the hour is to make the poverty eradication programs like IRDP (Integrated Rural Development Program) more effective. More follow-ups are needed in this regard. 9. Instill the awareness of Family Planning
In order to tackle poverty, it is essential to inculcate the awareness about the importance of family planning in the minds of people. High population often leads to poverty hence it is essential to check population explosion. Family planning is a good measure to battle poverty. 10. Raising the awareness about society and political situation In order to eliminate poverty from India, it is also important that we try our best to raise the awareness about the sociopolitical situation in the common people of the country.
The population should be aware about the various advantages of the poverty alleviation programs and their importance. In spite of government endeavors, CSR (corporate social responsibility) stays at a lower rank on the order of business of the corporate industry. Just 10% of financing is done by the corporate entities and other individuals for poverty elimination. The broadening difference of earnings between the poor and the affluent over an extensive period of time has invoked concerns of a public repercussion. What is the Government of India doing to eradicate poverty?
From 1970, the Government of India has put into operation many projects and plans intended to do away with poverty. Some of these plans have been effective. The administration is looking for measures to raise the Gross Domestic Product via various methods which obviously incorporate amendments in industrial guidelines. The Public Distribution System (PDS) is in place, and is successful to a particular degree. Other schemes and projects are there like the Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, Integrated Rural Development Program, Training Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM), and other continuing programs.
In India, poverty is most intense among the scheduled caste and scheduled tribe communities in the villages of India. On the poverty map of the country, the most underprivileged regions are situated in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Chhattisgarh. Posted in India, Poverty Tags: causes of Poverty in India, Eradication of poverty in India, India poverty, Steps to eradicate Poverty « Home Alone: The Advantages and Disadvantages of Living on Your Own Bollywood: The Past, Present, and Future – Part I »