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Erickson’s Psychosocial theory of psychosocial development Essay Sample

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Erickson’s Psychosocial theory of psychosocial development Essay Sample

In this assignment, I will be discussing Erickson’s Psychosocial theory. I will be doing the case analysis of a grade 1 learner focusing on the psychosocial theory and recognizing the emotional and social systems of the grade 1 learner. The power of this theory lies in Erickson’s integration of both Psychoanalytic and social insights. In the Psychosocial theory, the eight stages will be discussed. Erickson defines these eight stages of Psychosocial development in a lifespan. Each stage involves certain developmental tasks that are Psychosocial in nature.
Biographical details of the learner and genogram
Pseudonym_ Nomalanga ZunguAge_ 7
Gender_ Female
Grade_ 1 Zulu classroom
Languages_ Zulu and English
Family members_ There are 13 members of her family
501967545085003667125121285-5905503403601276350111760Mothers side
166687549529Grandfather GrandmotherGrandfather Grandmother
Brother Nomalanga Little sister
Psychosocial theory
Erik Homburger Erikson born (15 June 1902-12 may 1994) was a German-born American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory of psychosocial development in human beings. He is most famous for coining the phrase identity crisis.
Erik Erikson proposed a psychoanalytic theory of psychosocial development comprising eight stages from infancy to adulthood. During each stage, the person experiences a psychosocial crisis which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality development.
The stage of psychosocial development, as articulated by Erik Erikson, in collaboration with Joan Erikson, is a comprehensive psychoanalytic theory that identifies a series of eight stages, in which a healthy developing individual should pass through infancy to late adulthood.
Erikson has made a contribution to the field of psychology with his developmentary theory. He can be compared to Sigmund Freud in that he claimed that humans develop in stages. There are eight psychosocial stages of developmental stages in which humans develop through throughout their entire lifespan.

The stages related to peoples progressively emerging emotional needs in interaction with expanding social relationships. These challenges occur in a sequence, each at a critical point in a person’s life cycle. Each stage has a certain optimal time. It is no use trying to rush children into adulthood, as is so common among people who are obsessed with success. Neither is it possible to slow the pace or try to protect children from demands of life. If the stage is managed well, we carry away a certain virtue or psychosocial strength which will help us through the rest of the stages of our lives.

Each stage is characterized by a challenge or developmental tension between two opposites. There eight stages are; Trust vs Mistrust(birth-18 months), Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt(1-3 years), Initiative vs Guilt(3-6 years), Industry vs Inferiority(6-12 years), Identify vs Pole Diffusion(adolescence), Generativity vs stagnation( middle age), and the last stage is Integrity vs Despair( late adulthood-old age).
Trust is fostered by consistent, caring, predictable relationship with the primary caregiver. Mistrust is caused by changing non-accepting, unpredictable experiences. Autonomy refers to the child’s control over themselves and their life. They experience shame and doubt about themselves if they are reprimanded or prevented from trying.

Internal systems (emotional and social)

Social theories explain emotions as the product of cultures and societies. In Google “emotional expression in Psychology are those expressions in people while taking observable verbal and non-verbal behaviors are communicate an internal emotional” Darwin claimed that the expression of emotions involves many systems.
Social interactions(Psychosocial) reinforces how you as a teacher constantly need to recognize the influence of social context in understanding your students, yourself, and interaction with you. As a teacher when you are a teacher you must use the stories around them, use things that are happening in their community as examples when you are teaching.
Active involvement sees people as active in their own development. As a teacher, you need to create opportunities for learners to explore and re-explore the Psychosocial challenges they are confronting at the moment. As a teacher, you make learners in your classroom play emotional games.

Individual variation experiencing the same problem individual people vary in what they bring to that stage and how they bring to that stage and how they will progress through it. Interdependence of developmental aspects, not only the emotional and social aspects, but also the physical, cognitive, moral, and spiritual aspects of development are all implicitly integrated and interdependent.
Learners experience different social and emotional effects and as a teacher you have to try in every way that you help the learners in your class that are experiencing these effect, you must create a space where you allow learners to talk to you about everything except from learning they must also tell you about their social lives.

There are some emotional and social effects that affect the learners; social effects can be difficulties in building a new relationship, family stress, poverty, divorce, violence and peer pressure/drug effect. The emotional effects can be child abuse, fearfulness, low self-esteem, isolation, and depression.
Divorce- children of divorce affect a child’s academic, social skills in their math and social skills and may not catch up with their peers, a study shows. Researchers say these difficulties along with feelings of anxiety, sadness, and low self-esteem become evident once divorce proceedings officially begin.
Poverty- has the greatest impact on young children as it often strips them of the right to safe and nurturing environments. In our experience, working in under-resourced communities, we have found that families living hand to mouth tend to focus less on a child’s social and emotional development.

Violence- these children become physically, emotionally and psychologically abandoned. Children who are exposed to domestic violence emotional, mental, and social damaged that can affect their developmental growth.
Isolation- a child who is lonely feels sad because he/she has friends or feels emotionally isolated. Children who struggle with ongoing loneliness may be more likely to develop low self-esteem.
Depression- childhood depression and emotional development can lead to early exposure to circumstances can have a long-term deleterious effect on children. Contextual risk factors such as poverty, marital conflict, and stressful life events may exacerbate parental depression and child behavior problem.


1. Isolates himself/herself from other children NO, she is a very friendly child she associates herself with every learner in her class.
2. Not accepted by the group NO, she is accepted
3. Get pushed around Sometimes, because she also pushes other learners around.
4. Is aggressive or destructive She is aggressive.
5. Teases or interferes with other children No, she is a disciplined child.
6. Gets on well with other children Yes, she is good in making friends.
7. Can work in a group and take turns, Yes, but she sometimes wants to take over.
8. Can share toys or pens It depends on who she is sharing with, she has her favorite people.
9. Does not get cross easily She does get cross easily and when she is cross she cries.
10. Is willing to perform in the presence of others Yes, she does but she’s a little shy.
11. Is not afraid to take part in class activities Yes, she always takes part when there are activities.
12. Does not give the impression of daydreaming Yes, active in class.
13. Easily frustrated/ Cries often and easily Yes, she cries very easily.
14.Temper outbursts Yes, almost every time.
15. Is restless or fidgety She is restless, always want to be busy.
16. Speaks or jumps out of seat Speaks very much always want to report others to the teacher.
17. Interrupts has difficulty waiting turn No, she has some discipline.
18. Avoids tasks that require sustained effort No, she loves her work.
19. Is easily distracted Yes, she likes news too much.
20. Doesn’t seem to hear directions She does and ask if she did not hear the instructions.
21. Is fearful of being wrong, indecisive Yes, always want to be correct.
22. Makes many careless mistakes in written work No, she checks her work.
23. Paperwork is messy, disorganized, or incomplete No, she has complete work.
24. Has fluctuations in performance She is improving every day.
25. Is confused by number process Yes, she needs extra help when it comes to mathematics.
26. Has difficulty in reading/spelling No, she is trying.
27. Gives up easily No, she always wants to be correct.
28. Tells strange stories or makes peculiar comments No, she comes from a disciplined family.
29. Seeks or demands a lot of attention Sometimes not always.
30. Acts without thinking of consequences No, she thinks before she acts.


According to the Psychosocial theory Nomalanga Zungu, the grade 1 learner that I was observing the learner fits to the industry vs inferiority (6-12 years) the sixth stage of the theory. The learner that I was observing is 7 years old so she fits on the sixth stage.
Dec 19, 2014, article by t Matthews-2015
Article by PM Cole-2008
Google web MD

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