Events in the Philippine Islands Essay Sample

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Introduction of TOPIC

By order of the most excellent Don Luis de Velasco, viceroy of this Nueva Espana, and of the most illustrious and reverend Don Fray Garcia Guerra, archbishop of Mexico, and member of his Majesty’s council, I have examined this book of the Events in the Philipinas Islands, written by Doctor Antonio de Morga, alcalde of the court in the royal Audiencia of Mexico. In my judgment it is entertaining, profitable, and worthy of publication. The author has strictly obeyed the laws of history therein, in the excellent arrangement of his work, in which he shows his soundness of intellect and a concise style to which few attain, together with a true exposition of the subject matter, as it was written by one who was so fully conversant with it, during the years that he governed those islands. I have accordingly affixed my signature to this instrument here at the professed house of the Society of Jesus in Mexico, on the first of April, 1609. JUAN SANCHEZ

Don Luys de Velasco, knight of the Order of Sanctiago, viceroy-lieutenant of the king our sovereign, governor and captain-general of Nueva Espana, and president of the royal Audiencia and Chancilleria established therein, etc. Whereas Doctor Antonio de Morga, alcalde of criminal causes in this royal Audiencia, informed me that he had written a book and treatise on the Events in the Filipinas Islands, from their earliest discoveries and conquest until the end of the past year six hundred and seven, and requested me to grant him permission and privilege to have it printed, to the exclusion of all others doing the same for a certain period; and whereas I entrusted Father Juan Sanchez, of the Society of Jesus, with the inspection of the said book, as my proxy: therefore, I hereby grant permission to the said Doctor Antonio de Morga, so that, for the period of the next ten years, he, or his appointee, may freely have the said book printed by whatever printer he pleases; and I forbid any other person to do the same within the said time and without the said permission, under penalty of losing—and he shall lose—the type and accessories with which the said impression shall be made, and the same shall be applied in equal shares to his Majesty’s exchequer and to the said Doctor Antonio de Morga. Given in Mexico, on the seventh of the month of April, one thousand six hundred and nine. DON LUYS DE VELASCO

By order of the viceroy:
MARTIN LOPEZ GAUNA
Don Fray Garcia Guerra, by the divine grace and that of the holy apostolic see, archbishop of Mexico, member of his Majesty’s Council, etc. Having seen the opinion expressed by Father Juan Sanchez, of the Society of Jesus, after he had examined the book presented to us by Doctor Antonio de Morga, alcalde in this court and Chancilleria, entitled Events in the Filipinas Islands, their Conquest and Conversion, for which we granted him authority; and since it is evident, by the above-mentioned opinion, that it contains nothing against our holy Catholic faith, or good morals, but that, on the contrary, it is useful and profitable to all persons who may read it: therefore we do hereby grant permission to the said Doctor Antonio de Morga, to have the said book of the said conquest and conversion of the Filipinas Islands printed in any of the printing establishments of the city. Given in Mexico, on the seventh of April, one thousand six hundred and nine. FRAY GARCIA, archbishop of Mexico.

By order of his most illustrious Lordship, the archbishop of Mexico: DON JUAN DE PORTILLA, secretary.
To Don Cristoval Gomez de Sandoval y Rojas, duke of Cea [1]
I offer your Excellency this small work, worthy of a kind reception as much for its faithful relation as for its freedom from artifice and adornment. Knowing my poor resources, I began it with fear; but what encouraged me to proceed was the fact that, if what is given were to bear an equal proportion to the receiver, there would be no one worthy of placing his works in your Excellency’s hands; and oblivion would await the deeds achieved in these times by our Spaniards in the discovery, conquest, and conversion of the Filipinas Islands—as well as various fortunes which they have had from time to time in the great kingdoms and among the pagan peoples surrounding the islands: for, on account of the remoteness of those regions, no account has been given to the public which purports to treat of them from their beginnings down to the present condition. I entreat your Excellency to accept my good will, which is laid prostrate at your feet; and should this short treatise not afford that pleasure, which self-love—that infirmity of the human mind—leads me to expect, will your Excellency deal with me, as you are wont to deal with all, and read this book and conceal its imperfections with the exercise of your toleration and gentleness.

For you are so richly endowed with these and other virtues—which, through the divine power, cause lofty things not to keep aloof from humble ones; and which, in addition to your own natural greatness, have placed your Excellency in your present office for the good of these realms, where you reward and favor the good, and correct and check the opposite. In such rule consists the welfare of the state; and this made the ancient philosopher, Democritus, say that reward and punishment were true gods. In order to enjoy this happiness, we need not crave any bygone time, but, contenting ourselves with the present, pray that God may preserve your Excellency to us for many years. DON ANTONIO DE MORGA [2]

To the reader
The greatness of the monarchy of the Spanish kings is due to the zeal and care with which they have defended, within their own hereditary kingdoms, the holy Catholic faith taught by the Roman church, against all enemies who oppose it, or seek by various errors to obscure its truth which the kings have disseminated throughout the world. Thus, by the mercy of God, they preserve their kingdoms and subjects in the purity of the Christian religion, meriting thereby their glorious title and renown of “Defenders of the Faith.” Moreover, by the valor of their indomitable hearts, and at the expense of their revenues and possessions, they have ploughed the seas with Spanish fleets and men, and discovered and conquered vast kingdoms in the most remote and unknown parts of the world. They have led the inhabitants of these regions to a knowledge of the true God, and into the fold of the Christian church, in which those peoples now live, governed in civil and political matters with peace and justice, under the shelter and protection of the royal arm and power, which were wanting to them when weighed down by blind tyrannies and barbarous cruelties, on which the enemy of the human race had so long reared them for himself. For this reason the crown and scepter of Espana have extended themselves wherever the sun sheds its light, from its rising to its setting, with the glory and splendor of their power and majesty, and the Spanish monarchs have excelled the other princes of the earth by having gained innumerable souls for heaven, which has been Espana’s principal intention and its wealth.

These, together with the great riches and treasures which Espana enjoys, and the famous deeds and victories which it has won, cause the whole world to magnify and extol its lofty name and the energy and valor of its subjects, who in accomplishing these deeds have lavished their blood. Having won America, the fourth part of the earth, of which the ancients knew naught, they sailed in the course of the sun until they discovered an archipelago of many islands in the eastern ocean, adjacent to farther Asia, inhabited by various peoples, and abounding in rich metals, precious stones, and pearls, and all manner of fruit. There raising the standard of the Faith, they freed those peoples from the yoke and power of the demon, and placed them under the command and government of the Faith. Consequently they may justly raise in those islands the pillars and trophies of Non plus ultra which the famous Hercules left on the shore of the Cadiz Sea, which were afterward cast down by the strong arm of Carlos V, [4] our sovereign, who surpassed Hercules in great deeds and enterprises. After the islands had been conquered by the sovereign light of the holy gospel which entered therein, the heathen were baptized, the darkness of their paganism was banished, and they changed their own for Christian names.

The islands also, losing their former name, took—with the change of religion and the baptism of their inhabitants—that of Filipinas Islands, in recognition of the great favors received at the hands of his Majesty Filipo the Second, our sovereign, in whose fortunate time and reign they were conquered, protected, and encouraged, as a work and achievement of his royal hands. Their discovery, conquest, and conversion were not accomplished without great expenditure, labor, and Spanish blood, with varying success, and amid dangers: these things render the work more illustrious, and furnish a spacious field of which historians may treat, for such is their office. Certainly the subject matter is not scanty, and contains both serious and pleasant elements sufficient to be worthy of attention, so that it will not depreciate historians to treat of Indian occurrences and wars, which those who have not experienced undervalue. For the people of those regions are valiant and warlike nations of Asia, who have been reared in continual warfare, both by sea and by land, and who use artillery and other warlike implements, which the necessity of defending themselves against great and powerful neighboring kingdoms, taught them to use skilfully; and—although somewhat imperfectly—they have gained dexterity and have completed their education in the school of Espana, which recently brought war to their gates—thus sharing the experience of other provinces of Europe, who also had formerly been ignorant and careless of the use of arms.

Some painstaking persons, to whom—for lack of time and means—I have given and delivered many papers and relations which I possessed, have planned to write this history; and I hope that they will publish it in better shape than the fragmentary histories which we have hitherto received from some contemporary historians. [5] I spent eight years in the Filipinas Islands, the best years of my life, serving continuously as lieutenant of the governor and captain-general, and, as soon as the royal Audiencia of Manila was established, in the office of auditor, which I was the first to fill. [6] And desirous that the affairs of those islands should be known, especially those which occurred during my connection with them, I have related these matters in a book of eight chapters, tracing them from their origin so far as was necessary. The first seven chapters contain an account of the discoveries, conquests, and other events in the islands and neighboring kingdoms and provinces, which occurred during the time of the proprietary governors [7] until the death of Don Pedro de Acuna. The eighth and last chapter contains a brief summary and account of the nature of these regions, their inhabitants, the manner of governing and converting them, and other details; moreover, it treats of the acquaintance, dealings, and intercourse which they maintain with their neighboring islands and pagan communities.

As fearful am I for the imperfections which will be found in this work, as I am persuaded that they deserve forgiveness, since my design and chief intent has been to give each one his due and to present the truth without hatred or flattery, which has been injured in some current narratives. [8] The latter is a fault to be severely reproved in those who relate the deeds of others, inasmuch as it was prohibited by a penal law which Cato and Marcius, tribunes of the Roman people, established for those who, in relating their own deeds, overstepped the truth—although this seemed less worthy of punishment, on account of the self-love which intervenes in such a case. There will not be wanting some person who will point out my oversights, but I shall have already answered him by confessing them; and should this not suffice to silence him, I shall stop up my ears like another Ulysses, and—considering the haste with which I have written—endure this inconvenience and difficulty, desiring only to please and serve whomsoever may read it; and this will be sufficient to protect me from greater dangers. Notice is given that

In reading this history, one may find certain words—names of provinces, towns, magistrates, arms, and vessels—which it has seemed more suitable to write by their usual names in those regions. In the last chapter, which contains an account of the islands and their peculiarities, these words will be explained and defined. ¶ Of the first discoveries of the eastern islands; the voyage thither by Adelantado Miguel Lopez de Legazpi; the conquest and pacification of the Filipinas during his governorship, and that of Guido de Labazarris, who afterward held the office. ¶ CHAPTER FIRST

According to ancient and modern cosmographers, that part of the world called Asia has adjacent to it a multitude of greater and lesser islands, inhabited by various nations and peoples, and as rich in precious stones, gold, silver, and other minerals, as they abound in fruit and grain, flocks, and animals. Some of the islands yield all kinds of spices which are carried away and distributed throughout the world. These islands are commonly designated in their books, descriptions, and sea-charts, as the great archipelago of San Lazaro, and are located in the eastern ocean. Among the most famous of them are the islands of Maluco, Celeves, Tendaya, Luzon, Mindanao, and Borneo, which are now called the Filipinas. When Pope Alexander the Sixth divided the conquests of the new world between the kings of Castilla and of Portugal, the kings agreed to make the division by means of a line drawn across the world by the cosmographers, so that they might continue their discoveries and conquests, one toward the west and the other toward the east, and pacify whatever regions each might gain within his own demarcation.

After the crown of Portugal had conquered the city of Malaca, on the mainland of Asia, in the kingdom of Jor [Johore]—called by the ancients Aurea Chersonesus—a Portuguese fleet, in the year one thousand five hundred and eleven, on hearing of neighboring islands and especially of those of Maluco and Banda, where cloves and nutmegs are gathered, went to discover them. After touching at Banda, they went to Terrenate, one of the islands of Maluco, at the invitation of its king, to defend him against his neighbor, the king of Tidore, with whom he was at war. This was the beginning of the Portuguese settlement in Maluco. Francisco Serrano, who after this discovery returned to Malaca, and thence went to India with the purpose of going to Portugal to give an account of the discovery, died before he had accomplished this voyage, but not, however, without having communicated in letters to his friend, Fernando de Magallanes, what he had seen; [9] for they had been together at the taking of Malaca, although the latter was then in Portugal. From this relation, Magallanes learned whatever was necessary for the discovery and navigation of these islands. [10]

At this time, Magallanes, who for certain reasons had entered the service of the king of Castilla, told the emperor Carlos V, our sovereign, that the islands of Maluco fell within the demarcation of the latter’s crown of Castilla, and that their conquest belonged to him, according to the concessions made by Pope Alexander; moreover, he offered to make the expedition and navigation to the islands in the emperor’s name, by sailing through that part of the demarcation belonging to Castilla, and by availing himself of a famous astrologer and cosmographer, named Ruyfarelo [sic], whom he had with him. The emperor, moved by the importance of the undertaking, entrusted Fernando de Magallanes with this expedition and discovery, supplying him with the necessary ships and provisions therefor. Thus equipped, he set sail and discovered the strait to which he gave his name. Through this he entered the southern sea, and sailed to the islands of Tendaya and Sebu, where he was killed by the natives of Matan, which is one of these islands. His ships proceeded to Maluco, where the sailors fell into disputes and contentions with the Portuguese then stationed in the island of Terrenate.

Finally, not being able to maintain themselves there, the Castilians left Maluco in a ship, called the “Victoria,” the only remaining vessel of their fleet. As leader and captain, they chose Juan Sebastian del Cano, who made the voyage to Castilla by way of India, where he arrived with but few men, and informed his Majesty of the discovery of the great archipelago, and of his voyage. The same enterprise was attempted at other times, and was carried out by Juan Sebastian del Cano, Comendador Loaisa, the Saoneses, and the bishop of Plasencia. [11] But these did not bear the fruits expected, on account of the hardships and perils of so long a voyage, and the opposition received by those who reached Maluco, from the Portuguese there. After all these events, as it was thought that this discovery might be made quicker and better by way of Nueva Espana, in the year one thousand five hundred and forty-five, [12] a fleet, under command of Rui Lopez de Villalobos, was sent by that route. They reached Maluco by way of Sebu, where they quarreled with the Portuguese, and suffered misfortunes and hardships, so that they were unable to effect the desired end; nor could the fleet return to Nueva Espana whence it had sailed, but was destroyed. Some of the surviving Castilians left Maluco by way of Portuguese India and returned to Castilla.

There they related the occurrences of their voyage, and the quality and nature of the islands of Maluco and of the other islands that they had seen. Afterward as King Don Felipe II, our sovereign, considered it inadvisable for him to desist from that same enterprise, and being informed by Don Luys de Velasco, viceroy of Nueva Espana, and by Fray Andres de Urdaneta of the Augustinian order—who had been in Maluco with the fleet of Comendador Loaisa, while a layman—that this voyage might be made better and quicker by way of Nueva Espania, he entrusted the expedition to the viceroy. Fray Andres de Urdaneta left the court for Nueva Espania, [13] for, as he was so experienced and excellent a cosmographer, he offered to go with the fleet and to discover the return voyage. The viceroy equipped a fleet and its crew with the most necessary things in Puerto de la Navidad, in the southern sea, under charge of a worthy and reliable man, Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, a citizen of Mexico and a native of the province of Guipuzcoa. On account of the viceroy’s death, the Audiencia which was governing in his place completed arrangements for the despatching of Legazpi, and gave him instructions as to his destination, with orders not to open them until three hundred leguas at sea; for there were differences among members of the fleet, some saying that they would better go to Nueva Guinea, others to the Luzones, and others to Maluco.

Miguel Lopez de Legazpi left Puerto de la Navidad in the year one thousand five hundred and sixty-four, with five ships and five hundred men, accompanied by Fray Andres de Urdaneta and four other religious of the Order of St. Augustine. After sailing westward for several days, he opened his instructions, and found that he was ordered to go to the islands of Luzones and there endeavor to pacify them and reduce them to the obedience of his Majesty, and to make them accept the holy Catholic faith. [14] He continued his voyage until reaching the island of Sebu, where he anchored, induced by the convenience of a good port and by the nature of the land. At first he was received peacefully by the natives and by their chief Tupas; but later they tried to kill him and his companions, for the Spaniards having seized their provisions, the natives took up arms against the latter; but the opposite to their expectations occurred, for the Spaniards conquered and subdued them. Seeing what had happened in Sebu, the natives of other neighboring islands came peacefully before the adelantado, rendered him homage, and supplied his camp with a few provisions. The first of the Spanish settlements was made in that port, and was called the city of Sanctisimo Nombre de Jesus [Most holy name of Jesus], [15] because a carved image of Jesus had been found in one of the houses of the natives when the Spaniards conquered the latter, which was believed to have been left there by the fleet of Magallanes.

The natives held the image in great reverence, and it wrought miracles for them in times of need. The Spaniards placed it in the monastery of St. Augustine, in that city. That same year the adelantado despatched the flagship of his fleet to Nueva Espana, with the relation and news of what had happened during the voyage, and of the settlement in Sebu. He requested men and supplies in order to continue the pacification of the other islands. Fray Andres de Urdaneta and his associate, Fray Andres de Aguirre, sailed in the vessel. One of the ships which left Puerto de la Navidad in com

pany with the fleet and under command of Don Alonso de Arellano, carried as pilot one Lope Martin, a

mulatto and a good sailor, although a turbulent fellow. When the ship neared the islands, it left the fleet and went among them ahead of the other vessels. There they bartered for provisions, and, without awaiting the adelantado, returned to Nueva Espana by a northerly course—either because of their slight gratification at having made the voyage to the islands, or to gain the reward for having discovered the return passage. They soon arrived and declared that they had seen the islands and discovered the return voyage.

They alleged various reasons for their coming, but brought no message from the adelantado, or news of what had happened to him. Don Alonso de Arellano was well received by the Audiencia which was governing, where the rewarding of him and his pilot was considered. This would have been done, had not the adelantado’s flagship arrived during this time, after having made the same voyage. It brought an authentic account of events, of the actual state of affairs, and of the settlement of Sebu. Moreover, they related that Don Alonso de Arellano, without receiving any orders, and without any necessity for it, had preceded the fleet with his ship at the entrance of the islands, and was seen no more. They said also that, besides those islands which had peacefully submitted to his Majesty, there were many others, large and rich, well-inhabited, and abounding in food and gold. They hoped to pacify and reduce those islands with the reenforcements requested. They said that the adelantado had named all the islands Filipinas, [16] in honor of his Majesty. Reenforcements were immediately sent to the adelantado, and have been sent every year, as necessity has demanded, so that the land has been conquered and maintained.

The adelantado heard that there were other islands near Sebu, abounding in provisions, and accordingly sent some Spaniards thither to reduce the natives to peace, and bring back rice for the camp. Thus he relieved his necessity and maintained himself as well as possible until, having gone to the island of Panay, he sent Martin de Goiti, his master-of-camp, and other captains thence to the island of Luzon with what men he deemed sufficient, and under the guidance of a native chief of the latter island, called Maomat, to try to pacify it and reduce it to the obedience of his Majesty. When they reached the bay of Manila, they found its settlement on the seashore, near a large river, and under the rule and protection of a chief called Rajamora. Opposite, on the other side of the river, was another large settlement named Tondo, which was likewise held by another chief named Rajamatanda. [17] These settlements were fortified with palm-trees and stout arigues [18] filled in with earth, and very many bronze culverins and other pieces of larger bore. Martin de Goiti, having begun to treat with the chiefs and their people concerning the peace and submission which he demanded, found it necessary to come to blows with them.

The Spaniards entered the land by force of arms, and took it, together with the forts and artillery, on the day of St. Potenciana, May nineteen, one thousand five hundred and seventy-one. [19] Upon this the natives and their chiefs made peace and rendered homage; and many others of the same island of Luzon did the same. [20] When the news of the taking of Manila and of the Spanish settlement there reached Panay, Adelantado Legazpi set in order the affairs of Sebu and other islands which he had subdued, entrusted their natives to the most reliable soldiers, and having taken the most necessary precautions for the government of those provinces, which are commonly called Bicayas de los Pintados, [21] because the natives of them have all their bodies marked with fire, went to Manila with the remainder of his men. He was well received there, and established afresh with the natives and their chiefs the peace, alliance, and homage, which had been given. On the very site of Manila, of which Rajamora made a donation to the Spaniards for their settlement, the adelantado founded his town and colony, on account of its strength and its situation in a well-provisioned district, and in the midst of all the other islands. He left it its name of Manila which it had received from the natives. [22] Taking sufficient land for the city, the governor established therein his seat and residence, and fortified it with special care.

He paid more attention to the above, in order to make this new settlement the seat of government, than to the temperature, and width of the site, which is hot and narrow from having the river on one side of the city and the bay on the other, while at the back are to be found large swamps and marshes, which make the place very strong. From this post he continued to prosecute the pacification of the other provinces of this great island of Luzon and of surrounding districts. Some submitted voluntarily; others were conquered by force of arms or by the efforts of the religious, who have sown the good seed of the holy gospel therein. Various of them have labored valiantly in this, not only in the time and administration of Adelantado Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, but also in that of the governors that have succeeded him. The land was apportioned among its conquerors and colonizers. The capitals of provinces, the ports, and the settlements of cities and towns which had been founded, and other special encomiendas, were assigned to the royal crown, for the necessities that arise and the expenses of the royal exchequer. The affairs of government and the conversion of the natives were treated as was necessary. Ships were provided for the annual voyage to Nueva Espana, which return with the usual supplies.

Thus the condition of the Filipinas Islands has reached its present known height in both spiritual and temporal matters. Adelantado Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, as above-said, discovered the islands, colonized them, and made a good beginning in the work of pacification and subjugation. He founded the city of Sanctisimo Nombre de Jesus in the provinces of Pintados, and then the city of Manila in the island of Luzon. In this island he conquered the province of Ylocos, in whose settlement and port called Vigan, he founded a Spanish colony, to which he gave the name of Villa Fernandina. [23] He also pacified the province of Pangasinan and the island of Mindoro, fixed the amount of tribute that the natives were to pay throughout the islands, [24] and made many ordinances concerning their government and conversion, until his death in the year one thousand five hundred and seventy-four, at Manila, where his body was buried in the monastery of St. Augustine. [25] At his death, there was found among his papers a sealed despatch from the Audiencia of Mexico, which was governing when the fleet left Nueva Espania, appointing a successor to the government, in case of the death of the adelantado. By virtue of this despatch, Guido de Labazarris, formerly a royal official, took the office and was obeyed. He continued the conversion and pacification of the islands with great wisdom, valor, and system, and governed them.

During his term the pirate Limahon came from China, and attacked Manila with a fleet of seventy large war-ships and many soldiers. He entered the city, and, after killing the master-of-camp, Martin de Goiti, with other Spaniards who were at his house, marched against the fort, in which the Spaniards, who were but few, had taken refuge, with the intention of seizing and subjecting the country. The Spaniards, reinforced from Vigan by Captain Joan de Salzedo and his soldiers—for Salzedo saw this pirate pass his coasts, and brought the reinforcement to Manila—defended themselves so bravely that, after having killed many of Limahon’s men, they forced him to reembark, to leave the bay in flight, and to take refuge in Pangasinan River.

The Spaniards went thither in search of him and burned his fleet. [26] For many days they besieged this pirate on land, but he, taking flight in small boats that he made there secretly, put to sea and abandoned the islands. During the government of this same Guido de Labazarris, trade and commerce were established between Great China and Manila. Merchant ships came every year and the governor received them kindly, and as a consequence commerce has been growing ever since. This same governor apportioned all the pacified land in the island of Luzon and surrounding islands, to the conquerors and settlers there. He assigned to himself the towns of Betis and Lubao in the province of Pampanga, besides others of some importance. The succeeding government dispossessed him of these towns; but afterward his Majesty, on account of his good services, granted them all to him, and he enjoyed them, together with the office of master-of-camp of the islands, as long as he lived. ¶The administration of Doctor Francisco de Sande, and the events of the Filipinas Islands during his term. ¶CHAPTER SECOND

When the news of the entrance and conquest of the Filipinas Islands by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, and of his death, reached Espania, his Majesty appointed as governor and captain-general of the islands, Doctor Francisco de Sande, a native of Caceres, and alcalde of the Audiencia of Mexico. The latter journeyed thither, and took over his government in the year one thousand five hundred and seventy-five. During this administration, the pacification of the islands was continued, especially that of the province of Camarines, by Captain Pedro Chaves, who often came to blows with the natives, until he conquered them and received their submission. A Spanish colony was founded there which was called the city of Caceres. Among other enterprises, the governor made in person the expedition to the island of Borneo with a fleet of galleys and frigates. [27] With these he attacked and captured the enemy’s fleet, which had come out to meet him. He captured also the principal settlement, where the king of the island had his house and residence, but after a few days he abandoned it and returned to Manila, on account of sickness among the crews, and his inability to support and care for the Spaniards in that island.

On the way back, and by his orders, Captain Estevan Rodriguez de Figueroa entered the island of Jolo; he came to blows with the natives and their chief, whom he conquered, and the latter rendered him acknowledgment and submission in the name of his Majesty. Thence he went to the island of Mindanao which he explored, reconnoitering its river and chief settlements. On his way he reduced other towns and natives of the same island, who had been pacified, to friendship and alliance with the Spaniards. The governor despatched the ship “San Juanillo” to Nueva Espana, under command of Captain Juan de Ribera, but it was lost at sea and never heard of again. Doctor Sande remained until Don Gonzalo Ronquillo de Penalosa came from Espania as the new governor and captain-general. After his residencia the doctor returned to Nueva Espana to fill the office of auditor of Mexico. ¶ Of the administration of Don Gonzalo Ronquillo de Penalosa, and of Diego Ronquillo, who filled the office because of the former’s death. ¶ CHAPTER THIRD

Because of the many accounts that had reached the court of his Majesty concerning the affairs of the Filipinas, and because of their need of being supplied with settlers and soldiers to pacify them, an arrangement was made with Don Gonzalo Ronquillo de Penalosa, a native of Arevalo, and chief alguacil of the Audiencia of Mexico, who was residing at court, so that it might be done better and at less cost to the royal exchequer. By this arrangement he was to be governor of the Filipinas for life and was to take six hundred married and single men from the kingdoms of Castilla to the Filipinas. His Majesty granted him certain assistance and facilities for this purpose, together with other favors as a reward for this service. Don Gonzalo prepared for the voyage, raised his people, and embarked them in the port of San Lucas Barremeda, but, as the fleet left the bar, one of his ships was wrecked. He returned in order to repair his losses, and, although he took less than at first, he made his journey to the mainland, and at Panama, embarked his people in the South Sea, and set sail for the Filipinas, where he arrived and took over the government, in the year one thousand five hundred and eighty.

Don Gonzalo Ronquillo founded a Spanish town in the island of Panay, in Oton, which he named Arevalo. During his term, the trade with the Chinese increased, and he built a market-place and Parian for them within the city, where the Chinese could bring and sell their merchandise. He tried to discover a return passage from the islands to Nueva Espana, by way of the south, for which purpose he sent his cousin, Captain Don Juan Ronquillo del Castillo. The latter could not effect this, for after sailing for some time, until finding himself near Nueva Guinea, he could go no farther, on account of many severe storms, and returned to the Filipinas. In like manner, Don Gonzalo sent another ship, under command of Don Gonzalo Ronquillo de Vallesteros, to Peru, with some merchandise, in order to obtain certain goods from those provinces which he said that the Filipinas needed. This vessel returned from Peru after the death of the governor. The latter imposed the two per cent duty on the merchandise exported to Nueva Espana, and the three per cent duty on the goods imported by the Chinese to the Filipinas. Although he was censured for having done this without his Majesty’s orders, these duties remained in force, and continued to be imposed thenceforward.

During this same term, as his Majesty had succeeded to the kingdoms of Portugal, and had ordered the governor of Manila to maintain good relations with the chief captain of the fortress of the island of Tidore, in Maluco, and to assist him when necessary, he sent a fleet and soldiers thither from Manila, under command of Captain Don Juan Ronquillo del Castillo. This he did at the request of Diego de Azambuja, chief captain of Tidore, for the expedition and conquest of the island of Terrenate. But after reaching Maluco, the expedition did not succeed in its object. [28] Thenceforward supplies of men and provisions continued to be sent from the Filipinas to the fortress of Tidore. During this same administration, the province of Cagayan in the island of Luzon, opposite China, was first pacified [29] by Captain Joan Pablos de Carrion, who founded there a Spanish colony, which he named Nueva Segovia. He also drove a Japanese pirate [30] from that place, who had seized the port with some ships, and fortified himself there. A few days after Don Gonzalo Ronquillo had entered into the government, he sent Captain Gabriel de Ribera with a small fleet, consisting of one galley and several frigates, to explore the coast and settlements of the island of Borneo, with orders to proceed thence to the kingdom of Patan on the mainland, where pepper is produced.

The captain having coasted along and reconnoitered Borneo, returned with his fleet to Manila, on account of the advanced season and lack of provisions. Thence the governor sent him to Espana, with authority from himself and from the islands, to confer with his Majesty upon several matters that he desired to see carried out, and upon others which would prove advantageous to the islands. [31] The captain found his Majesty in Portugal, gave him a few pieces of gold and other curiosities which he had brought for that purpose, and stated the matters of which he had come to treat. The result was that his Majesty, among other favors, appointed him marshal of Bonbon, for his hardships during this voyage, and the proper resolution was made in the matters of which he had come to treat. It was during the administration of Don Gonzalo Ronquillo, that the first bishop of the Filipinas was appointed, in the person of Don Fray Domingo de Salazar, of the Dominican order, a man of great learning and piety. As soon as he arrived in the islands, he took upon himself the management and jurisdiction of ecclesiastical affairs, which were at first in charge of the Augustinian friars who had come at the time of the conquest, and afterwards of the discalced Franciscan religious, who had arrived at the time of the conversion.

The bishop erected his cathedral in the city of Manila, by apostolic bulls, with prebends paid by the royal exchequer, until there should be tithes and ecclesiastical revenues to maintain themselves. Moreover, he provided whatever else was necessary for the service and decoration of the church, and for the divine worship which is celebrated there with great solemnity and display. Don Fray Domingo de Salazar took Antonio Sedeno and Alonso Sanchez, both priests and grave members of the Society of Jesus, with him. They were the first to establish that order in the Filipinas, which, since that time, has been steadily growing, to the great profit and fruit of the teaching and conversion of the natives, consolation of the Spaniards, and the education and teaching of their children in the studies which they pursue. Don Gonzalo Ronquillo was in such poor health from the day on which he entered upon his administration, that he died in the year one thousand five hundred and eighty-three, and his body was buried in the monastery of St. Augustine in Manila. His kinsman, Diego Ronquillo, by virtue of his appointment through a decree of his Majesty, succeeded him in the governorship; this man continued what Don Gonzalo had commenced, especially in the assistance for Maluco and pacification for other islands.

During the same term of Diego Ronquillo, a fire broke out in the city of Manila, which started at midday in the church of the convent of St. Augustine, while the doors of the church were closed. The fire increased so rapidly that all the city was burned in a few hours, as it was built of wood. There was great loss of goods and property, and some persons were in danger. The city was rebuilt with great difficulty and labor, leaving the Spaniards very poor and needy. [32] The main result of the matters treated at court by Mariscal Gabriel de Ribera was (although at that time the death of Governor Don Gonzalo Ronquillo was unknown) to order the establishment of a royal Audiencia in the city of Manila, whose president was to be governor and captain-general of all the Filipinas.

In view of this, the necessary instructions were issued, and the presidency given to Doctor Sanctiago de Vera, alcalde of the Audiencia of Mexico, and a native of the town of Alcala de Henares. He went to the islands with the usual reenforcements from Nueva Espana, taking with him the royal seal of the Audiencia, the auditors whom his Majesty was sending, the fiscal, and other officials and assistants of the said Audiencia. The auditors and fiscal were Licentiates Melchior de Avalos, Pedro de Rojas, and Gaspar de Ayala—[the latter] as fiscal. At the end of two years, Don Antonio de Ribera went as third auditor. ¶ Of the administration of Doctor Sanctiago de Vera, and of the establishment of the Manila Audiencia, and until its suppression; and of events during his term. ¶ CHAPTER FOURTH

The president and auditors arrived at the Filipinas in the month of May, in the year 1584, while Diego Ronquillo was governing. Doctor Sanctiago de Vera entered upon his office, and immediately established the Audiencia. The royal seal was received and deposited with all possible solemnity and festivity. Then they began to attend to the affairs both of justice and of war and government, to the great profit of the country. At this time new reenforcements were sent to Maluco for the conquests that the chief captain of Tidore intended to make of the island of Terrenate. Captain Pedro Sarmiento [33] went from Manila for this purpose, and on another occasion the captain and sargento-mayor, Juan de Moron; [34] but neither of these expeditions met with the desired result. President Sanctiago de Vera also continued the pacification of several provinces of the islands, and did many things, which proved advantageous in every respect. He discovered a rebellion and insurrection which the native chiefs of Manila and Pampanga had planned against the Spaniards, and justice was done the guilty. [35] He built with stone the fortress of Nuestra Senora de Guia [Our Lady of Guidance], within the city of Manila on the land side, and for its defense he caused some artillery to be founded by an old Indian, called Pandapira, a native of the province of Panpanga.

The latter and his sons rendered this service for many years afterward, until their deaths. During the administration of President Sanctiago de Vera, the Englishman Thomas Escander, [36] entered the South Sea through the Strait of Magallanes; on the coast of Nueva Espana, close to California, he had captured the ship “Santa Ana,” which was coming from the Filipinas laden with a quantity of gold and merchandise of great value. Thence he proceeded to the Filipinas; entering through the province of Pintados, he came in sight of the town of Arevalo and of the shipyard where a galleon was being built for the navigation of the Nueva Espana line. Wishing to burn this vessel, he made the attempt, but he was resisted by Manuel Lorenzo de Lemos, who was supervising its construction. The Englishman passed on, and went to India, whence he took his course to Inglaterra, having followed the same route which the Englishman Francisco Draque [Francis Drake] [37] had taken several years before.

The latter had, in like manner, passed through the Strait of Magallanes to the Peruvian coast, where he made many prizes. At this time, the Audiencia and the bishop thought it advisable that some person of sufficient and satisfactory qualities should be sent to Espana, to the court of his Majesty, to give a thorough and detailed account of the state of affairs in the Filipinas Islands, and to request that some necessary measures might be taken concerning them. The court was especially to be informed that, for the time being, the Audiencia could be dispensed with, for it was a heavy burden to all estates, because of the newness of the country. The person of Father Alonso Sanches, of the Society of Jesus, a learned man, and one well informed concerning the country, and very active in business, was chosen for this purpose. Instructions were given him, and authority to act for all estates, religious orders, and communities, as to what he was to treat and request in Espana, and at the court of his Holiness in Roma, where he was also to go. [38]

This father reached Madrid, and after having conferred with his Majesty several times respecting those things of which he thought fit to treat and to make requests, went to Roma, where he introduced himself as the ambassador of all the estates of the Filipinas, and on their behalf he kissed the foot, and visited the pontiffs who ruled during that time, after the death of Sixtus the Fifth. Having received from them favors and indulgences with many relics, bulls, and letters for the Filipinas, he returned to Espana, where again he solicited a decision on the business which he had left under discussion when he went to Roma. His Majesty listened to the messages that he brought from the pontiffs, and lent him a favorable ear concerning the affairs of the islands. In private audiences the father made the king understand his requests, and decide them to his own satisfaction. But as soon as the despatches reached the Filipinas, much of their contents appeared outside the intention and expectation of both bishop and Audiencia, and the city, citizens, and encomenderos. They appeared even detrimental to the inhabitants of the islands, and therefore they expressed their displeasure toward Father Alonso Sanches, who was still in Espana.

The father negotiated for the suppression of the Audiencia of Manila, and the appointment of a new governor; and in begging such an one, the same father, because of his friendly relations with him, proposed one Gomez Perez Dasmarinas, who had been corregidor of Leon and later of Murcia, and who was at that time in the court, and corregidor-elect of Logrono and Calahorra. His Majesty appointed him governor and captain-general of the Filipinas, and increased the annual salary of his office to ten thousand Castilian ducados. Moreover, he made him a knight of the Order of Sanctiago, and gave him a large sum of money with which to meet the expenses of the voyage.

He was provided with the necessary despatches, both for the exercise of his office, and for the suppression of the Audiencia of Manila, and the establishment of a camp of four hundred paid soldiers with their officers, at his Majesty’s expense, for the garrison and defense of the land. His Majesty ordered him to sail immediately for Nueva Espana in the ships on which Viceroy Don Luis de Velasco sailed in the year one thousand five hundred and eighty-nine, who was going to govern that country. Gomez Perez Dasmarinas left Mexico as soon as possible, and with what ships, soldiers, and captains he needed, sailed for the Filipinas, where he arrived in the month of May, in the year one thousand five hundred and ninety. ¶ Of the administration of Gomez Perez Dasmarinas, and of Licentiate Pedro de Rojas, who was elected by the city of Manila to act as governor, on account of the former’s death, until Don Luis Dasmarinas was received as the successor of Gomez Perez, his father. ¶ CHAPTER FIFTH

As soon as Gomez Perez Dasmarinas reached the Filipinas, he was received as governor with universal acclaim. He suppressed the Audiencia, and the residencias of its president, auditors, fiscal, and other officials were taken by Licentiate Herver del Coral, whom Viceroy Don Luys de Velasco had sent for that purpose, by virtue of a royal decree received to that effect. The new governor inaugurated his rule by establishing the paid garrison, and by executing, with great enthusiasm and zeal, many and various things, for which he possessed royal orders and instructions, not shrinking from any kind of labor, or taking any care of himself. His first labor was the walling of the city, to which he attended so assiduously, that it was almost completed before his death. [39] He also built a cavalier on the promontory of Manila where the old wooden fort, which he called Sanctiago, formerly stood, and fortified it with some artillery. He razed to the ground the fort of Nuestra Senora de Guia, which his predecessor had built; he built of stone the cathedral of Manila, and encouraged the inhabitants of the city who had shortly before begun to build, to persevere in building their houses of stone, a work which the bishop was the first to begin in the building of his house. During his term he increased trade with China, and regulated better the navigation of Nueva Espana, and the despatch of vessels in that line.

He built some galleys for the defense of the coast, pacified the Zambales, who had revolted, and ordered his son Don Luys Dasmarinas, of the habit of Alcantara, to make an incursion with troops from Manila into the interior of the island of Luzon, [40] by crossing the river Ytui and other provinces not yet explored or seen by Spaniards, until he arrived at Cagayan. He built also an artillery foundry in Manila, where, for want of expert founders, but few large pieces were turned out. In the first year of his administration, he sent the president and auditors of the suppressed Audiencia to Espana. Licentiate Pedro de Rojas, the senior auditor, remained with the governor by order of his Majesty, as lieutenant-assessor in matters of justice, until some years later appointed alcalde in Mexico. During Gomez Perez’s administration, the relations and peace existing between the Japanese and the Spaniards of the Filipinas began to become strained; for hitherto Japanese vessels had gone from the port of Nangasaqui to Manila for some years, laden with their flour and other goods, where they had been kindly received, and despatched.

But Taicosama, [41] lord of all Xapon, was incited through the efforts of Farandaquiemon—a Japanese of low extraction, one of those who came to Manila—to write in a barbarous and arrogant manner to the governor, demanding submission and tribute, and threatening to come with a fleet and troops to lay waste the country. But, between demands and replies, several years were spent, until at last Taico died. [42] While Xapon was causing the governor some anxiety, the king of Camboja sent him an embassy by the Portuguese Diego Belloso, who brought a present of two elephants and offers of friendship and trade with his kingdom, and implored aid against Sian—which was threatening Camboja. The governor answered the king, and sent him a horse, with a few emeralds and other objects, but postponed until later what related to aid, and thanked him for his friendship. This was the origin of the events and the expeditions made later from Manila to the kingdoms of Sian and Camboja, on the mainland of Asia. From the moment that Gomez Perez received his charge in Espana, he had cherished the desire to lead an expedition from Manila to conquer the fort of Terrenate in Maluco, on account of the great importance of this enterprise, and its outcome, in which no success had been attained on other occasions.

He was constantly making necessary arrangements for undertaking this expedition, but so secretly that he declared it to no one, until, in the year ninety-three, seeing that the preparations for his intention appeared sufficient, he declared his purpose, and made ready to set out in person, with more than nine hundred Spaniards and two hundred sail, counting galleys, galliots, frigates, vireys, and other craft. He left the war affairs of Manila and of the islands, with a few troops—although insufficient for the city’s defense—in charge of Diego Ronquillo, his master-of-camp; and those of administration and justice to Licentiate Pedro de Rojas. He also sent his son, Don Luys Dasmarinas, forward with the rest of the fleet, as his lieutenant in the office of captain-general, to the provinces of Pintados, whence they were to sail; while he himself remained in Manila making his final preparations and arming a galley of twenty-eight benches, in which he was to sail. This galley he manned with good Chinese rowers, with pay, [43] whom, in order to win their good will, he would not allow to be chained, and even winked at their carrying certain weapons.

About forty Spaniards embarked on the galley, and the galley itself was accompanied by a few frigates and smaller vessels, in which private individuals embarked. The governor sailed from the port of Cabit, in the month of October, one thousand five hundred and ninety-three, for the provinces of Pintados, where they were to join the fleet which was awaiting them there, and to proceed to Maluco. In the afternoon of the second day of the voyage, they reached the island of Caca, [44] twenty-four leguas from Manila, and close to the coast of the same island of Luzon, at a place called Punta del Acufre [Sulphur Point], where there is a strong head wind. The galley tried to round this point by rowing, but being unable to make any headway until the wind should drop, they anchored and spread an awning, and stayed there that night. Some of the vessels sailing with the galley went in closer to the shore in sight of the galley, and awaited it there. The governor and those who accompanied him passed the night playing on the poop, until the end of the first watch. After the governor had gone into his cabin to rest, the other Spaniards went also to their quarters [45] for the same purpose, leaving the usual guards in the midship gangway, and at the bow and stern. The Chinese rowers, who had three days before that conspired to seize the galley whenever a favorable opportunity presented itself—in order to avoid the labor of rowing on this expedition, and their covetousness of the money, jewels, and other articles of value aboard the vessel—thought that they should not lose their opportunity.

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