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Experiment on Properties of Materials Essay Sample

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Experiment on Properties of Materials Essay Sample

Aim
To calculate a range of different properties (steel, aluminium alloy, pure aluminium. PMMA, timber and nylon) and measure deflection at failure, energy stored at failure and the young modulus for each of the respective materials.

Materials and methods
Materials used to conduct the experiment were deflection rig, two weight hangers ,material rods(steel aluminium alloy pure aluminium PMMA, timber ,nylon)varying weights, ruler , electronic vernier calliper. Method

Before the experiment was conducted ,protective goggles was worn to ensure eyes are protected from fragments of flying materials that are likely to come about as a result of breaking the rods. After inspection of the apparatus the venier callipers was closed and turned to record in millimetres. The steel rod was placed into the nylon collect and tightened .measurement of 200 mm was taken from nylon collet and weight hanger is placed on the steel rod then locked afterwards. Venier is lowered until it comes into contact with the steel rod and the reset to read to read 0.00mm on the display. Weight of 1 kg was placed on the hanger and the venier lowered until it touches the top of rod. The deflection is then recorded, and placed in a table as in fig 1; theoretical deflection of just the steel rod, collet deflection and collet deflection per kilogram and average collet deflection is calculated for the steel rod

The rest of the materials are tested in the order of aluminium alloy, pure aluminium, PMMA, timber and then nylon. In all instances force was calculated, measured deflection, collet deflection and material deflection, then put in a form of table as illustrated in fig For the aluminium a weight increment of 1 kg was used and 6 readings acquired. For the pure aluminium a weight increment of 1kg was used only three readings was recorded as a result of the calliper not being able to take readings when more than 3 kg is added. For PMMA a weight increment of 0.2 kg starting off with a weight of 0.2 With the timber rod the weight increment of 0.1 kg was used, material failed after it reaches a weight of 2.2kg For the nylon rod a weight increment of 0.1 kg was used, the calliper could not read anymore than 0.5 kg a force deflection graph was plotted based on the information from the measurements, with the force on y and deflection on the x axes.

Conclusion
From the results it can be concluded that steel has got the highest young modulus among the materials tested .steels high modulus makes it have large strength hence its suitability for large structures such as high rising buildings, bridges, oil rigs etc. The stiffness of steel as a property enables it to resist bending; steels tensile strength makes it withstand large weights Aluminium alloy also depicts a large young modulus as compared to the others and larger strength, with low tensile strength .Aluminium alloy can also be used in building due to this reason. Aluminium alloy was also detected to have a greater yield than aluminium and the rest of the materials with the exception of steel. Energy stored at failure and deflection failure or steel could not be determined because, failure was not reached in that particular material.

Assumptions
Young modulus for steel is 2.07×10^5
Experiment was performed under room temperature
Weight used in the experiment is accurately calibrated and correct weight displayed on the weight Further assumptions was that the young modulus for all the materials can be measured by gradient of the force /deflection of the material divided by the gradient of the force deflection of steel multiplied by 2.07×105 .

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