Behaviourism – is a psychological theory where it’s acquired from conditioning where it occurs through the environment. Behaviourism can be studied in a systematic and observable manner with no consideration or internal or mental states. There are different theories that were developed by B.F. Skinner it’s created on acting, thinking and feeling that can be treated by changing behaviours patterns by modifying the environment.
Ivan Pavlov (Classical Conditioning) – he was a behaviourist where his theories focused on observable behaviour. Pavlov studied reflexes, automatic behaviour that is caused by a stimulus from the environment. Some reflexes, such as blinking your eyes when puff of air comes in or when the baby is sucking something in his/her mouth. This automatic behaviour can be manipulated. This is called conditioning. In this conditioning procedure, an unconditional stimulus is given to a person. This stimulus causes a reflex on its own. Therefore an unconditional stimulus is given together with conditional stimulus this is because the presence of the unconditional stimulus the reflex is caused. This process of stimulus response is repeated for a number of times. Later on the unconditional stimulus is not offered anymore so only the conditional stimulus is offered because it’s repeated association of the unconditional and the conditional stimulus.
The conditional stimulus will now cause the reflex on its own. Classical conditioning has succeeded. Pavlov theories have influential in particular in the field of child psychology. Pavlov theory was tested in experiments that were conducted in a laboratory. He often used animals in his experiments. The most famous experiments when he used dogs to demonstrate classical conditioning. The dogs that he used showed a salivation response when they were offered food (unconditional stimulus). The food was offered a number of times with the sound of the bell (conditional stimulus. After bell rang alone the dog still produced the salivation for response.
1. Before conditioning food (unconditional stimulus) the response is that the dog salivate (unconditional response). 2. Before conditioning the bell rings (neutral stimulus) the response from the dog is no salivation (No conditional response). 3. during conditioning the bell rings plus food is given the response is the dog is salivating (unconditional response). 4. After conditioning the bell rings (conditioned stimulus) the response that the dog is salivating (conditioned response). B.F. Skinner (Operant Conditioning) – he was a behaviourist and he researched operant condition. This is when behaviour is modified. Reinforcement causes certain behaviour to happen more often. Reinforcers can be positive and negative and both are used to strengthen behaviour. Unlike animals and human they often respond to verbal operants, taking advice, listening to the warnings of others, and obeying given rules and laws, even without having personally experienced any negative consequences from disobeying.
The knowledge of what could happen if certain behaviours are chosen can be enough to keep us from acting in certain ways. Although this isn’t always the case with many lessons being learned “the hard way” from the ability and the benefits from the experience of others as examples are a uniquely human characteristics. One of the aspects is important to human behaviour although the feelings associated with behaviour that is controlled by conditioning. When positive behaviours have been rewarded, children are likely to repeat those behaviours happily and willingly, feeling that they are doing what they ‘want to be doing’ but on the other hand children choose behaviours in order to avoid a repeat of negative reinforcement they may behave appropriately but will be inclined to feel that their freedoms are being bottled-up. Children are just the same as us; they are free to behave in any manner that they choose as long they are willing to accept the consequences of their action.
Skinner also used punishment but he always believed that it punishment will never work as Skinner always says ‘if punishment worked, people would not go back into jail’. That’s why he believed that behaviour could be modified. Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning that it does not require repeated efforts, but instead an immediate reaction to a familiar stimulus. His experimented with a rat using food as a reward. The animal was placed in a box, for a few day foods was occasionally delivered through an automatic dispenser. Before long the rat approached the food tray as soon as the sound of the dispenser was heard clearly anticipating the arrival of more food. The next step of the experiment Skinner putted a small lever on the box and when the rat touched it the food dispenser provided a snack. After the first self-induced meal so the rat repeatedly touched the lever in order to get more food. To the rat the sound of the dispenser became a reinforcer when it was first associated with feedings and continued to be so after a while Skinner stopped giving food when the lever was pressed soon after the rat stopped touching the lever.
Psychodynamic theory: It focuses on the unconscious mind and the early experience in life which influences the behaviour. The unconscious mind is part of the mind that the people are not aware of. The psychologist that came up with the psychodynamic theory is Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson.
Sigmund Freud – he was interested in emotional and behavioural difficulties that developed the psychodynamic theory. He linked his theory through observation with the patients but no scientific experiments. Freud’s theory includes psychosexual development; he used techniques of interpretation, defence mechanism, and transference of dreams. Therapy or counselling is used to treat this kind of situation. The theory is based on the individual’s behaviour and emotions, and how the unconscious and conscious mind that influences the person’s behaviour. There are 3 parts of the mind where it describes the person’s life they are Id, Ego and Super ego. Id is when the person is fully unconscious where it’s present from birth. It’s a primary element that is part of the individual’s personality and the emotional part of the mind so it is in the child’s mind.
Ego is when the person has a part of them that is conscious where it’s responsible at dealing with reality and its rational and realistic as a result it is a balancing act. Super ego is when the person is partly conscious where the parent of the mind that has no guilt. Freud maintained that dream was fundamentally acts when an individual sleeps. When individuals go to bed when the curtains are drawn and the lights are switched off the effects that we attempts to disconnect from the reality by extinguishing all the eternal stimuli. During the night the mind protects the sleeper from being disturbed by reacting to the further external stimuli such as noise, temperature, light, the need to urinate, numb arm leg pain etc. as well as all internal stimuli such as emotions, fear, dissatisfaction, desires, previous day’s activity etc. by manufacturing by dreams. Freud’s work was just concerned about the internal stimuli.
Essentially for a person to continue to sleep and be undisturbed the strong negative emotions and the forbidden thought and unconscious desires that is disguised or censored in some form or another. Otherwise confronting by these the dreamer would now become distressed where they would eventually wake up. In a result the dream is being understood correctly that could lead to greater understanding of the dreamer’s subconscious. Freud believed that the dream was composed to 2 parts. The manifest and the latent content. The manifest content is thought of what a person that remembers as soon as they wake up. What they would consciously describes to someone else recalling the dream. Freud suggests that the manifest content is controlled with no meaning whatsoever because it was disguised representation of the true thought underlying the dream. Furthermore the latent content holds the true meaning of the dream – the forbidden thoughts and the unconscious desires. It appears in the manifest and the latent content that will be disguised and recognisable. Although in rare cases the manifest and the latent content can distinguishable. Freud referred this to ‘Infantile dreams’.
The procedure was produced to transform the manifest content known as the ‘dream work’. The dream work can disguise the distort the latent of thought in the following ways – Condensation – two or more latent thoughts that are combined to make up one manifest dream image or situation. Displacement – instead of directing the emotion or desire towards the intended person by an object which is transferred onto unrelated object in the manifest dream. Symbolism – a complex or vague concepts which are converted into a dream image. For the mind that may use image of a similar sounding which is more recognisable that uses a similar looking less instructive object. According to Freud, dreams symbolises the most part of sexual in meaning of the meanly dreams but not all have a sexual correction. For instance Freud suggests that objects is like a tree trunk that ties all weapons, sticks, balloons, rockets and elongated objects where all symbols are for male organ/erection. Where boxes, cases, chests and other hollow objects represent the female genitalia.
Freud also had an attraction with symbols of castration that he believed they were represented in a dream by baldness, teeth falling out or cutting of hair. So sometimes genitals could also represent another part of the body like the male organ could be represented by a hand whereas the female could represent by the mouth or the eye. This could therefore explain the reason why people have ‘wet dreams’ which is usually never the result of a normal sexual act within a dream. Secondary Revision – the final stage of the dream work. This stage is where the dream loses ‘the appearance of absurdity and incoherence’. For instance secondary revision could be thought of a way in which the dream work covers up the contradiction and attempts to reorganise the dream into pattern in sync with the dreamer’s experience of everyday life. Freud used the technique of ‘free association’ that discovers the underlying meaning behind the dream (latent content). A patient would describe a dream as accurately as possible (manifest content).
The patient would then be told to focus on a specific element of the dream and form as many associations as they could. Basically allowing the patient to let their mind wander. Then it would continue until manifest content association (that was previously been unknown to the interpreter) that been discovered. Then then essentially means that the interpreter is moving in the opposite direction unravelling the ‘dream work’ until the latent content is revealed. Freud claimed that dreams are a form of fulfilling suppressed wishes. If a wish goes unsatisfied during the dreamer’s normal day, the mind that reacts to this ‘internal stimuli’ by transforming it into a visual fantasy allowing the dreamer to satisfy his or her desire. The result of which is a peaceful night’s sleep.
Moreover Freud also started the early experience that shaped us. The stages of development are Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency and Genital. The Oral stage is from (0-18 months) where the child is focused on the oral pleasure where it’s too much or too little pleasure that may result in an oral addiction or personality. The type of personality may tend to make the person smoke, drink or over eat. Although personality may wise the individual that may become overly dependent to others but it may develop a negative personality along with aggression towards others. In the Anal stage from (18 months-3years) the child focuses to control to bowels and to gain pleasure from it. The child then goes through the society’s pressure where the child starts to learn to control the anal stimulation. The person’s personality might result in obsession of cleaning things with perfection this is called anal retentive where they may become messy and disorganised which is called oral expulsive.
The Phallic stage 3-6 years the child may start to work out what it means to be a boy or a girl where they start to develop unconscious sexual desires for the parent of the opposite sex. The feeling is known as Oedipus complex and the Electra complex. The boy starts to develop masculine characteristics and to recognises himself as a male and represses the feelings for his mother. The Latency stage from 6 years to puberty where the child is clam and interacts mostly with the children of the same sex. The Genital stage puberty and adult take place which is the final stage of the psychosexual development. It is when work and love are balanced where the child is no longer in love with the parent of the opposite sex. Freud believed that changes happened in life.
Erik Erikson – He is a psychologist that developed the psychodynamic theory that he came up with his own eight stages of development. He focused on how emotional and motivational personalities effect on an individual’s behaviour and how the theory described the impact of an individual’s social experience in life. Erikson believed that personality that develops throughout a person’s life. Erikson’s eight stages of development include – Psychosocial stage 1 – Trust vs. Mistrust: it is the stage where it happens in-between the child’s birth to 1 year which is important stage in life. The baby is dependant everyone around where the baby learns to trust the world, where as the child may be neglected and will become withdrawn and will have lack of self-confidence. Psychosocial stage 2 – Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: This is the second part where it occurs between at the age of 2-3 years.
The child needs support on the positive atmosphere where it can develop self-control and self-esteem. If the child does not trust the world then the child may be labelled as naughty where he may go through shame and doubt. Therefore the child carer encourages independence the child will go through autonomy. Psychosocial stage 3 – Initiative vs. Guilt: the third stage happens in-between the age of 4-5 years. It is where the child develops a sense of responsibility and to control over the world this increases initiative at this stage. Moreover the child may be anxious to go through guilt, self-doubt and lack of initiative. Psychosocial stage 4 – Industry vs. Inferiority: it the fourth stage that occurs between the age of 6 years up until puberty. The child may start school and learn about the world from every aspect. It will also be very eager to learn and to success that makes the child happy along with sense of achievement to encourage further industry. Moreover if they do fail then they feel inferior and they will doubt their ability to be successful.
Psychosocial stage 5 – Identity vs. Role confusion: It’s the fifth stage that happens at the period of adolescence. During adult hood people are discovering that their independence where they can act like a child at times. So individuals that are encouraged by others may appear as someone that has strong feeling of being independent and some who has control over them self although it will remain unsure of their desires to become self-doubting and be in role of confusion. Psychosocial stage 6 – Intimacy vs. Isolation: it’s the sixth stage where it occurs the person to become a young adult where it covers the stage for people to explore personal relationships. The person may remain isolated or may entre a close and intimate relationship with someone. Erikson believed that to develop close relationship with a person that ensures the individual doesn’t get isolated from close people.
Psychosocial stage 7 – Generativity vs. Stagnation: it’s the seventh stage where it happens in adulthood where it builds the lives where it focuses on the career and family. So the person who is successful during phase and feels that they are contributing to the world by being creative at home and in their community although a person who fails will feel that they have unfulfilled their dreams and haven’t achieved anything that is stagnant. Psychosocial stage 8 – Integrity vs. Despair: It’s the last stage of Erikson’s stages of development and this occurs the elderly people. It happens when the person reflects back and assesses their life. For example a person who has succeeded during their life will feel unpleasant with full regrets and despair. However a person who has a good life will feel less regret where it will make them experience integrity.
Humanistic theory – It’s when focusing on yourself which translate ‘you’ and ‘your’ perception from an experience. It argues that people are free to choose their own behaviour, rather than reacting to the environment stimuli or reinforcers. The issues that people deal with everyday are self-esteem, self-fulfilment and the needs of paramount. It focuses on the personal development and the major theorists associated with this view are Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.
Carl Rogers – he was a humanistic psychologist that agreed with the most of what Abraham Maslow believed but he added that a person should ‘grow’ they need an environment that provides them with genuine (opening up to your-self and self-disclosure), acceptance (being seen with unconditional positive regard) and empathy (being listened and being understood). Rogers believed that every person can achieve their goal, desire and wishes in life. That’s when self-actualization took place. This was one of Carl Rogers’s most important contributions to psychology where people can reach their potential that has to be satisfied. He believed that everyone can achieve their dreams and desires in life that where self-actualisation took place. Self-actualisation is when an individual encounters their full potential. He has said that people behave in a certain way because of the situation that they are in so then they have one motive which is too self-actualised. Therefore one’s potential is different from others were its supposed to develop in different ways due to the personality.
Roger also believed that an individual can achieve self-actualization if they state congruence. It means that self-actualization can happen if the individual’s ideal self is the same as their actual behaviour and self-image. So then the person will be able to describe them as a fully functioning person whereas it may determine on the persons childhood experience. In Rogers personality theory talks about the view of self-concept where the conscious mind and belief of one’s self. It is the inner personality where it’s influenced by a persons experience in life including their childhood experiences and evaluation by others. He also said that people may feel experiences and behave in certain ways which is consistent and regular with self-image where it helps to reflect on what we would like to be the ideal self. The self-concept includes three different components where there are self-esteem, self-image and ideal self.
Self-esteem is the values we have on out self. Carl Rogers believed that these feelings would be gathered during childhood where it’s formed through the interaction of the child and the parents. Self-image is the image we see ourselves where includes the influence of our body image and personality. However people may perceive themselves as good and bad, beautiful or ugly so then it will affect the person on how they feel and behave. An Ideal self is when the person as an individual would like to be where it involves a person dreams and desires in life it also when a person’s view on their ideal self constantly changing.
Abraham Maslow – his humanistic psychologist where he developed the humanistic theory and the hierarchy of needs. The hierarchy of needs state the five levels of need where one must fulfil In order to go on to the next level. The five stages include: Physiological Needs – this stage includes the basic needs which is essential for survival such as the need of water, air, food and sleep. Maslow believed that the needs are the basic that it needed in the hierarchy because all needs become secondary until these physiological requirements are met. Security Needs – this stage includes in feeling safe and secure. The need of security is important for survival whereas it’s not demanding as the physiological need. Security needs includes a desire on a steady employment, health insurance, safe neighbourhood and shelter from the environment. Social Needs – this stage includes the love, belonging and affection.
Maslow reflected these needs to be less basic than the physiological and security needs. Relationship with people is more important like being with the love such as friendship, romantic attachments and families that helps to fulfil the need to companionship and acceptance as it may involve social, community or religious groups. Esteem needs – after the three needs have been fulfilled esteem need becomes more important. It includes the needs for things that reflect on self-esteem personal worth, social recognition and accomplishment. Self-esteem is how much a person or individual would value themselves. Self-actualizing needs – this is the last stage of the hierarchy of needs. It’s where a person can self-actualise and be confident in who they are. Some people achieve self-actualisation later or early life and some people may not achieve this stage. Although an individual may be self-actualising but if they in a situation where they are in danger and can no longer self-actualise so then they will have to look at the basic needs.
Social Learning Theory – it is when people learn from individual and groups of people. It’s influenced by the culture of society. There are three factors within the social learning theory they are environmental factors where it influences on others, social norms, attitudes to peers and consequences of actions. Personal factors that includes self-knowledge, expectation and attitudes. Behavioural factor that includes choices, verbal statements and the actions. Albert Bandura is a social learning psychologist where he believed that environmental factors were not the only aspect to influence learning and behaviour. He started that personal factors were forms of internal rewards like feeling of pride and sense of accomplishment and behavioural factor includes lasting changes in people behaviours. Moreover another type of social learning is self-fulfilling prophecy, it means that is a person believes in you then they can do something so then you try your best to achieve it.
Albert Bandura – he developed the social learning theory where he stated that people learn not only through their experience but through watching and witnessing others known as observational skills. There are four parts involved within observational learning they are: Attention – in order for an individual to learn and to pay attention so that if anything distracts them then their attention will be affected on observational learning. If the specific thing that the person is learning about interesting then they will be more likely to pay more full attention to learning. Retention – it is included a specific behaviour on a person that imagines what they would say or do in a curtain situation. Retention is affected by the many factors.
Reproduction – it’s when the person has paid attention to something and has retained the information where they can perform the behaviour and then they can feedback on how t went. Motivation – in order for the observational learning to be successful then the person will need to be motivated to copy curtain behaviour. Reinforcement and punishment are important roles within motivation as it influence others to imitate behaviours. So then if a child came to class early and was rewarded then others children will imitate the behaviour that the child did in order to get some rewards. Albert Bandura’s most famous experiment was the Bobo doll experiment from 1961. He made a film that was about a woman who was beating up a Bobo doll and out aggressive words. He them exposed this film to a group of young children where he placed them in a room with a Bobo doll where sees that the children was influenced by the video. The children immediately started to beat the doll this is because the video has imitated the children to do the same action as the woman was doing by beating the doll and saying aggressive words.
Bandura found out that children that were exposed to the video were more violent than the children who haven’t seen the video. It shows that children did not receive encouragement or motivations to beat up the Bobo doll that they imitated the behaviour that they had seen. Therefore Bandura stated that it was observational learning that was shown through children behaviour. Cognitive Theory – it’s a theory which can be studied through mental processes including how people think, remember, learn and perceive. It is also about how people receive process and store information and how to improve their memory also increasing decision making skills and improves learning. Jean Piaget was a psychologist who developed the theory to make children to develop their learning by memory and making decision by themselves for example a child may start saying some colour are red but when developing through the learning they will know the difference between the red with the pink and orange. George Kelly was also a psychologist where he wanted people to view the world as a positive way.
Jean Piaget – he described this theory of cognitive development where children that involves changes in cognitive processes and abilities. The four stages of Piaget cognitive development are Sensori-motor stage – from birth to two years of age the child experiences the world through their senses and movement. They are born with the ability like sucking, looking, listening and grasping to learn about the environment. Pre-operational stage – from two to seven years of age the child may start to develop motor skills such as jumping, skipping, hopping and writing. Concrete-operational stage – from seven to eleven the child will start to think logically like using difficult words and trying to understand what words or the sentence of the paragraph means. Formal-operational stage – after the age of eleven the child may not need certain things to order to work out things by them self or trying to using difficult words on a paragraph also using abstract reasoning.
George Kelly – he is a psychologist where he created a construct grid to show that people have a positive view of the world and see things in a positive light that effects the behaviour. For example I am kind, friendly and quite so that how I see myself the way I am. George Kelly’s personal construct theory where it makes sense of how individuals view the world either negatively or positively. It is used in education and management to help people make sense of how they see the world and there opinion about it. The person interprets the world by seeing similarities and patterns of particular events. Also many people are not aware of the personal constructs. When people look other people’s construct theory they filter the bad ones out and keep the important owns known as repression.
Biological Theory – it’s a field where the mind of the body connects where it explores through scientific research and clinical practice. Researchers in the field study the biological basis of thoughts, emotions and behaviours. It involves the physical body where influences a person’s behaviour. Within the theory the maturational theory where it involves with the state with the brain and has to mature properly in order to shape a person’s behaviour. It also states that development depends on the maturation of the nervous system.
Arnold L Gesell – he is a psychologist paediatrician and educator that said that behaviour which follows a set of development patterns and milestone. He was also very interested in the child development and is formulated this own theory known as the maturational theory.
Maturational theory – his theory that is made by Arnold Gesell that he devised theories of childhood and adolescence which is based on genetic influences. It states that individual’[s brain has to mature in order to shape behaviour. Gesell believed the important of genetic influences the behavior so then believed the nature or upbringing that effects on how children develop.
Genetics and behaviour – the behavioural genetics is a field where its examines the role of genetics in human behaviour. It’s an inheritance of behavioural individuality. In humans the information is often gathered through the use of the twin study or adoption study. Twin studies help to straighten out the relative importance of environmental and genetic influences on individual traits and behaviours. There have been many twin studies carried out to check how much behaviour which is due to genes and how much is due to nurture. Endocrine or hormonal imbalance the cause of depression, SAD seasonal affective disorder is said to be due to lack of serotonin in the brain. Boosting the serotonin levels relieves the disorder. Nervous System:
The main job of the brain is to control body movements it also controls temperature, heart rate and respiration rate. Spinal cord
The spinal cord job is to store information between the brains to the body. The information includes touching, temperature, pains and signal telling the muscles to move it also supports cells to the brain. Nerves
The Nerves job is to carry messages around the body.
The Endocrine system
Circadian – it is a timing mechanism that controls periods of activity and inactivity. It’s known as the circadian rhythm that refers the cycle of physiological and biological procedure that alters on a roughly 24-hour timetable. People may feel more energetic and alert in the day but more tried at other times of the day. It’s present in the sleeping and feeding patterns of animals, including human beings. Clear patterns of core body temperature like the brain and the wave activity and hormone production, cell regeneration and other biological activities. The circadian system plays the role in the measurement an interpretation of day length. Human have biological rhythms which is controlled by a biological clock where it works on a daily time scale. It makes the body alter the appetite hormones and section. As well as sleep timing. Physiological Functions – it’s the function of physical chemicals processes in organism. It deals with internal and external processes that work from the cellular level to the level of the entire organism. The major physiological functions like respiration, coordination and excretion, circulation and reproduction.
http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/personalityelem.htm http://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/psychosocial.htm http://www.mesacc.edu/dept/d46/psy/dev/Fall98/Theories/humanistic.html http://www.simplypsychology.org/carl-rogers.html
http://dinamehta.com/blog/2010/01/12/twitter-maslows-hierarchy-of-needs-nay-hierarchy-of-tweets/ Health and social care book