1.1 Explain the anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal tract in relation to extended feeding. every part of the gastrointestinal tract is designed to help in the digestive process in a specific way. The mouth is involved in chewing also know as masticating. The purpose is to break down food into small enough pieces to pass through the esophagus and enter the stomach. The food is moistened with saliva helping turning it into bolus in order to turn initiate the digestion of food. The esophagus is a tube like muscle which use contractions to pass food from the mouth into the stomach it does not help with the digestive or absorptive function. The stomach acts like a sort of storage depot for food, but also acts as a place in which mechanical and chemical breakdown of food happens. The small intestine absorbs water, electrolytes, proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Whereas the large intestine is where the food matter and water that can’t be absorbed is the formed into stools. The rectum is a temporary storage area for feces before passed.
1.2 Explain the importance of fluid and nutritional balance to the health of individuals.
Good food a fluid is necessary for a person well being, this is by having a good balance diet, and high fluid intake. There are five separate food groups.
-fruit and vegetables.
-Bread, rice, potatoes and pasta.
-Milk and dairy food
-meat, fish, eggs and beans
-food and drink high in fat and/or sugar
it is important that all food groups are included in meals throughout the day. you need atleast 5 portions of fruit and vegetables each day which is 1/3 of your daily intake. Bread rice pasta and potatoes also know as carbohydrates should make up another 1/3 of you daily intake. The last three groups will make up the final third of your daily intake milk and dairy you should eat in moderate amounts as they are high in fats but contain a good source of calcium. Meat, fish, eggs and beans should also be eaten in moderate amounts as they provided good source of animal and plant protein which is good for cell growth and repair. Water makes up around two thirds of our body and is important so we can carry nutrients around the body. The recommended daily fluid intake is 1.2 litre of fluid every day to prevent dehydration.
1.3 Describe conditions where feeding may be undertaken by extended methods A peg is a way of introducing food, fluids and medicines directly into the stomach by passing through a thin tube in the skin directly into the stomach. A peg would be used if you have difficulty swallowing, or if there is a risk of food going down the wrong way into the lungs. The peg bypasses the throat and gullet entering directly into the stomach. People that have varying different illness such as MS, huntingson, spinal injuries all of the can lead to swallowing difficulties.