The Every Child A Reader Program (ECARP) is a national program that addresses the thrust of the Department of Education (DepEd) to make every child a reader at his/her grade level. It is designed to equip elementary pupils with strategic reading and writing skills to make them independent young readers and writers. ECARP is implemented through the following components: Reading Recovery (RR), Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (Phil-IRI) and Philippine Word Lists in English (PWLE). (DepEd Order No. 70, s. 2011)
It is expected that the pupils in the primary grade levels have phonetic mastery and oral fluency in accordance with the implementation of mother tongue based-multilingual education, and the intermediate grade levels had acquired oral reading comprehension and fluency. However, Phil-IRI results in Filipino Oral Reading show that out of 63 primary pupils: 25.4% are non-readers, 52.38% are frustrated readers; and, out of 58 intermediate pupils: 27.59% are frustrated readers. Poor result is also manifested in English Oral Reading wherein 25.4% are non-readers and 65.08% are frustrated readers in primary level; and, 81.03% are frustrated readers in the intermediate level.
The teachers of Toytoyan Elementary School collectively agreed that the pupils need immediate reading intervention and/or remediation to improve their reading performance. Since the teachers aren’t trained on the Reading Recovery nor the school has provision of PWLE, it is decided that the DepEd initiated programs such as Drop Everything and Read (DEAR), Big Brother, Big Sister/Kaklase Ko, Sagot Ko/Shared Reading, Intensified Remedial Reading, Five Words A Week (FWAW)/A Paragraph A Day (APAD) be implemented; hence, digesting the programs be dubbed Extensive Reading Assistance to Struggling Readers Program. Extensive reading can be defined as the reading of large quantities of material for information or pleasure. In extensive reading, the immediate focus is on the content being read, rather than on language skills. Although ER focuses on students reading alone, ER programs can involve group activities that motivate students to read more and provide them an avenue for discussing what they have read. ER programs are often beneficially combined with explicit forms of instruction, such as intensive reading. A more common scholarly explanation of the benefits of ER argues that the human brain contains innate potential for language learning of both L1 and L2s. (Lituanas et.al, 1990)
1. Develop phoneme awareness for primary level pupils
2. Make Grade I pupils reader with their mother tongue
3. Improve pupils’ oral reading fluency in English
4. Develop pupils’ vocabulary and spelling skills
5. Develop pupils’ ability to guess new words from context
6. Develop pupils’ innate interest to read for meaning
7. The number of pupils under non-reader and frustration levels be reduced
Extensive Reading Assistance to Struggling Readers Program intend to provide variety of reading activities and materials to pupils. The school will implement the following programs with its strategies:
A. Intensified Remedial Reading Program
Pupils identified in the IRI as non-reader and frustrated readers will be subjected to individualized reading instruction and/or group remedial reading.
1. Oral Reading Bridges to Assist Frustrated Readers (ORBAF)
a. Guided Oral Reading
Guided oral reading is an excellent tool for improving fluency. This strategy benefits children in developing accuracy and word recognition skills, two of the components of fluency. In this activity, the teacher works one-on-one with a child. The child reads a text that is at or slightly above his/her independent reading level aloud with the teacher guiding him/her. The role of the teacher is not to constantly correct the child’s oral reading, but to guide him/her in applying appropriate strategies for comprehending the text. For example, if the reader comes to an unfamiliar word the teacher can encourage him/her to use phonics to sound out each phoneme in and then to blend these together to create the entire word. Similarly, if a child is reading with little expression, the teacher can ask him/her guiding questions about the sort of emotional associations he/she might have with certain words to help him/her elicit these when reading aloud. Marungko and/or Anggulo Approach will be used for the beginning readers in Filipino.
b. Repetitive Oral Reading
Repetitive oral reading is a strategy for improving a reader’s fluency as well as his/her vocabulary. Like guided oral reading, repetitive reading is conducted one-on-one. The teacher should select a text that is at least 50 words long and is at or slightly above the child’s independent reading level. The child reads the selection aloud several times with the teacher providing guiding feedback focusing on different elements of fluency each time the text is read. Each time the child reads the piece his/her fluency should increase. By the final reading he/she should be able to read the passage aloud at an appropriate rate of fluency. Repetitive oral reading does not have to be only a teacher-child activity. Teachers can pair children together for repetitive oral reading practice. When choosing student pairs, teachers should consider student personalities as well as reading abilities. Generally, children with low fluency rates should be paired with compassionate students who are at or above grade level in their fluency. The Dolch and Frys basic sight words and Fuller Approach lessons will be utilized for those who have difficulty in reading CVC, CVCV, CCV, CVV, CCVC and CVCC.
2. Choral Reading
Choral reading is another beneficial one-on-one oral reading activity for children. For this activity, the paired readers sit close together with a single copy of the text. The two read the text aloud with the teacher (or stronger pupil reader) reading it at a slightly faster rate than the other. As the pair reads, the teacher (or stronger pupil reader) should track the words on the page with a finger to help the other reader follow along. This encourages child to focus his/her attention on the words on the page.
3. Home Assisted Reading
TEEP/SEMP textooks are issued to pupils. Parents and/or older siblings are mobilized to assist their children/siblings to read at home.
B. Silent Sustained Reading (SSR) Program
In silent sustained reading or SSR children spend a pre-selected amount of time silently reading texts that they have chosen. The goal of this activity is to give them opportunities to engage in pleasurable, sustained reading. It is important that children are able to select what they read during this activity because choice increases their motivation and ability to focus. It is also essential that the SSR period be uninterrupted. Fluency increases when a reader is given the time to “get into” a text. Fifteen (15) minute-reading time from 7:45-8:00AM, recess time ( 9:45-10:00; 10:00-10:15) , and 1:00- 1:15 PM will be allotted for SSR while the teacher is preparing for the instructional material to be utilized for the day’s lesson. Big books and story books will be borrowed from the Library Hub.
C. Five Words A Week (FWAW) and A Paragraph A Day (APAD)
One word a day will be posted on the bulletin board. The given word together with a paragraph using the focus word will be recited before the start and dismissal of classes. A spelling using the words in the paragraph and/or the highlighted words during the week may also be conducted.
D. Bridges to Reading Workbook Activity
The Bridges to Reading Workbook Series, published by Instructional Coverage System Publishing, Inc. (2004), will be utilized from Kindergarten to Grade Three classes. Bridges to Reading-A – Kindergarten
Bridges to Reading-B – Grade I
Bridges to Reading-C – Grade II
Bridges to Reading-D – Grade III
E. Developing Reading Power Workbook Activity
The Developing Reading Power, published by Saint Mary’s Publishing Corporation, (2007), will be utilized from Grade Three to Grade Six classes.
V. Date: Extensive Reading Assistance to Struggling Readers Program will start immediately upon the approval of this reading program proposal and shall be implemented every school year hereafter. The Intensive Remedial Reading Program which is an individualized remedial instruction will be conducted during remedial time of each class, and at 4:00-5:00 everyday until the end of classes on March 2014 and on every school year hereafter. The Silent Sustained Reading (SSR) Program will be conducted at 7:45-8:00AM, recess time ( 9:45-10:00; 10:00-10:15) , and 1:00- 1:15 PM everyday until the end of classes on March 2014 and on every school year hereafter. The Five Words A Week (FWAW) and A Paragraph A Day (APAD)will be conducted everyday until the end of classes on March 2014 and on every school year hereafter.
The reading programs and its strategies will be conducted by teachers teaching English, Filipino and Mother Tongue in their respective classrooms.
VII. Name of Beneficiaries
Name| Grade| Reading Level During the Pre-Test|
All 19 Kinder Pupils| Kindergarten| Cannot recognize alphabet names and sounds| All 12 Grade I Pupils| Grade I| Non-readers|
All 28 Grade II Pupils| Grade II| Non-readers in English, Most are frustrated readers in Filipino/Mother Tongue| Rodrigo Nacino *(with cleft palate)Mary Rose TacutacoJoan TacutacuPrincess Ronalyn Jallorina| Grade II| Non Readers | All 19 Grade III Pupils| Grade III| Frustrated readers in English and in Filipino| All 12 Grade IV Pupils| Grade III| Frustrated readers in English and in Filipino| All 21 Grade V Pupils| Grade III| Frustrated readers in English and in Filipino| All 14 Grade VI Pupils| Grade III| Frustrated readers in English and in Filipino|
VIII. Budgetary Requirements
Supplies/Materials Needed| Grade| Source of Fund| Amount| Bridges to Reading A| Kindergarten| Available already| | Bridges to Reading B| Grade I| Available already| |
Bridges to Reading C| Grade II| Available already| |
Bridges to Reading D| Grade III| Available already| |
Fuller Approach – book bounded| Grade II-III| MOOE| P 500| Reading Exercises| Grade II-VI| MOOE| P 500|
Developing Reading Power | Grade III-VI| Available Already| | Charts, manila papers, pentel pen, ink| Kindergarten-Grade VI| MOOE| P 6 000| Additional Marungko| Grade I| MOOE| P 1 500|
Additional Anggulo| Grade I| MOOE/HRPTA| P 1 000|
Big Books/Story books| Kindergarten-Grade VI| Borrow from Library Hub| |
IX. Program Matrix
See attached schedule of activities per session.
X. Monitoring and Evaluation
A. Teachers will prepare a brief lesson plan to monitor the development and sequence of reading lessons. B. Teachers will prepare monthly a reading progress checklist. C. The School Head will conduct a spot reading test using the same checklist prepared by the teacher for evaluation on September, November and February. D. The teachers and School Head will prepare an accomplishment report specifying the participants, pre- and post-test results, simple narrative, problems encountered during the implementation of the program, and recommendations.