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Feasibility Study of Water Station Essay Sample

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

THE RELATIONSHIP OF PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND JOB
SATISFACTION TO ADVERSITY QUOTIENT OF POLICE OFFICERS
IN MANILA POLICE DISTRICT

A Thesis
Presented to the
Department of Psychology
Polytechnic University of the Philippines

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Degree Bachelor of Science in Industrial and Organizational Psychology

By

BANTANG, FATIMA OLGA A.
BIANES, NERIZA JANE S.
CAGUINGIN, MICHELLE P.
ESTRELLA, PAULEEN MAE C.
MACANLALAY, CHRISTINE KATE M.
BSIOP 4-2

March 2013

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
ABSTRACT

Title:

The Relationship of Personal Characteristics and Job
Satisfaction to Adversity Quotient of Police Officers in
Manila Police District

Researchers:

Bantang, Fatima Olga A.
Bianes, Neriza Jane S.
Caguingin, Michelle P.
Estrella, Pauleen Mae C.
Macanlalay, Christine Kate M.
BSIOP 4-2

Degree:

Bachelor of Science in Industrial and Organizational
Psychology

Institution:

Polytechnic University of the Philippines

Date:

March 2013

Adviser:

Prof. Jose M. Abat

The Problem:
The main purpose of this study is to determine the relationship of personal characteristics and job satisfaction to the adversity quotient® of Police Officers in Manila Police District.

Research Methodology
The researchers utilized the descriptive method using the Adversity Quotient® Profile Version 8.1 Online, Job Satisfaction Questionnaire and Personal

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Characteristics Questionnaire. These were distributed to 100 Police Officers of the Manila Police District.
The percentages and weighted mean were computed for the profile of the respondents in terms of personal characteristics (age, civil status, gender, educational attainment, and number of years of service) and job satisfaction level. In testing the hypothesis, Pearson Correlation Coefficient r was used. Findings:

Results of the study showed that the Police Officer respondents belong to middle range of Adversity Quotient® Reach and Endurance dimensions. In terms of the Control and Ownership dimension and the over-all Adversity Quotient® level, respondents belong to low range.

On

the

assessment

of

significant

relationship

between

personal

characteristics (age, gender, civil status, educational attainment, and number of years of service) and over-all Adversity Quotient® level and CORE dimensions, the study showed that there is no significant relationship between gender, civil status, age and length of service, except for
educational attainment and AQ® Control dimension and the study on the significant relationship between the Job Satisfaction level and Adversity Quotient®, though the AQ® Ownership dimension correlates with the job satisfaction level of the respondents, there is no significant relationship between job satisfaction and Adversity Quotient® in Control, Reach, Endurance and Over-all

AQ®

of

i

the

respondents.

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
Conclusion:
Based on the findings, the following conclusions are derived: (1) Majority of the respondents above is married More than half of the respondents were male. With regards to educational attainment, majority of the Police Officers only have Bachelor’s Degree. Most of them have served as Police Officers for five years and above. (2) The respondents are generally satisfied and contented with their overall job as Police Officers. (3) The respondents are within the low range of Adversity Quotient® in Control and Ownership dimensions. However, in terms of Adversity Quotient®, in Reach and Endurance dimensions, the respondents are within the average range. (4) The respondents have low level of Adversity Quotient®. (5) There is no significant relationship between the personal characteristics and Ownership, Reach and Endurance dimensions and the Over-all AQ® of the respondents. However, there found to be a significant relationship between educational attainment and AQ® Control dimension of the respondents. (6) With regard to the relationship between job satisfaction and Adversity Quotient®, the study showed that there is no significant relationship in Control, Reach,
Endurance and Over-all AQ®. Though, there found to be a significant relationship between AQ® Ownership dimension and the level of job satisfaction.

Recommendations:
Based on the conclusions, the following are recommended: (1) As the level of Job Satisfaction is not very high among respondents, there is a need to improve

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
more on the kind of motivation the institution is giving to the police officers. The study recommends providing monetary support of the administration to improve headquarters and outposts for the Police Officers, especially the availability of technical facilities needed to perform their jobs effectively and efficiently. Safety and security are also important factors to improve. It is also recommended that administration should improve the skills, knowledge, and competencies among Police Officers through national and international seminars and trainings and in employing modern technology to their line of work. (2) Police Officers should pursue and finish their Master’s Degree to make them fully equipped with gainful skills and expertise so as to avoid the effects of adversities in reaching other areas of their lives and for promotional purposes. (3) Police Officers should constantly conduct a psychological assessment for them to monitor their capacity to be in control of the adverse events and its consequences as they perform their duties. (4) It is recommended that the present study may be reviewed, criticized, and even replicated using more varied samples, variables and other surveys and measurement techniques and include the rank of the Police Officers to provide a deeper comparisons of the results. (5) The Philippine National Police Administration should purchase testing instruments and facilities for Adversity Quotient and conduct regular and continuous tests for in-service policemen and new applicants. (6) An intervention program or counseling is highly recommended for policemen who suffer from unnecessary waver of fortitude and despondency. (7) The
Neuro-Psychiatric Unit should perform pertinent actions after the results of the Neuro exams have been

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
released and given to the clients. (8) Inclusion of life coaching and mentoring in the conduct of seminar and trainings of PNP is highly recommended. (9) Future researchers may widen the coverage of their studies by extending to the regional and national scope

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This study could not have been conducted and completed without the genuine assistance and immeasurable contribution of the people behind the researchers. To them this acknowledgment is due:
To Dr. Paul Stoltz, the author of Adversity Quotient, whose scholarly works provided information and helped the researchers determine the adversity quotient of Police Officers in Manila District;
To Katie Martin, the secretary of Dr. Stoltz, who has been unselfishly exerting effort in sending email notes to the researchers whenever they have queries about Adversity Quotient;
To Police Sr. Inspector Maria Agbon of Manila Police District for granting the researchers the permission to conduct the study in her area of supervision; The Manila Police Officers who willingly and untiringly shared their time and effort in accomplishing the questionnaires;

To Dr. Marissa B. Ferrer, whose dissertation became the source of information for the researchers’ concept on formulating the questionnaires on job satisfaction;
To Prof. Jose M. Abat, the researchers’ adviser who contributed some ideas for the accomplishment of this research works;

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To their parents Mr. Rene M. Bantang, Mrs. Rosario A. Bantang, Mr. Raul B. Bianes, Mrs. Enelita S. Bianes, Mr. Rogelio P. Caguingin, Mrs. Luvimin P. Caguingin, Mr. Rogelio C. Estrella, Mrs. Isabelita C. Estrella, Mr. Isagani M. Macanlalay and Mrs. Eden M. Macanlalay, brothers and sisters whose infinite love and immeasurable support have encouraged the researchers to finish this very challenging task;

Most of all, to our Almighty God, the source of knowledge and wisdom, and whose guidance, good health and bountiful graces have enabled the researchers overcome the challenges and endure the hardships and trials they encountered during their studies.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract……….……………………………………………………………..……….. i Acknowledgment..………………………………………………………………….. ii Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………… iii .
Chapter 1: The Problem and its Background
Problem and Its Background………………………………………………… 1 Theoretical Background……………………………………………………… 4 Conceptual Framework………………………………………………………. 6 Statement of the Problem……………………………………………………. 7 Null Hypothesis.…………………………………………………………..…… 8 Scope and Delimitations……………………………………………….…….. 8 Significance of the Study…………………………………………………….. 9 Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature and Studies

Foreign Literature…………………………………………………………… 11 Local Literature……………………………………………………………… 22 Foreign Studies……………………………………………………………… 27 Local Studies………………………………………………………………….34
Chapter 3: Research Methodology

Method of Research………………………………………………………… 41 Sample Population Size……..……………………………………………… 42 Instrumentation……………………………………………………………… 42 Data Gathering Procedure……………………..………………………….. 46 Statistical Treatment Used…………….…………………………………… 46 Chapter 4: Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of data…………………………49 Chapter 5: Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations Summary of Findings………………………………………………………. 81 Conclusions…………………………………………………………………. 83 Recommendations………………………………………………………….. 85 References….………………………………………………………………. 87

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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction
Life is not easy; surrounding a person’s life is the pressure to do well in one’s chosen field, demands to cope up with the stress that accompanies his/her work or studies, frustrations that he/she encounters on a day-to-day basis and most of all the unexpected situations that test his/her resilience to get by and continue living a normal and healthy life.

Resilience is not only the person’s capacity to cope up with pressure, demands and frustrations that happen in one’s life. It is also the opportunity and capacity of individuals to navigate their ways to psychological, social, cultural and physical resources that may sustain their well-being and their opportunity and capacity individually and collectively to negotiate for these resources to be provided and experienced in culturally meaningful ways. Finally, resilience can be viewed as the phenomenon of recovery from prolonged or severe adversity from an immediate
danger or stress.

A person’s resilience can increase and strengthen if one has the ability to cope up with stress effectively in a healthy manner. A good problem solving skills can make a person feel that he/ she can manage tough situations. Seeking help

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
from family members and friends will make people feel that they are not alone in whatever situation they are facing. Having faith in God and always thinking that one is a survivor rather than a victim will help a person recover faster from trauma. With today’s fast paced life, many things have improved: lifestyle, technology, entertainment, infrastructures and the like. What about the things which modern technology can’t improve like people’s feelings and emotions, specifically the coping up with the rapid changes around us that affect our personal well-being? Due to lack of studies conducted on this subject, many have succumbed to adversities resulting to trauma and worse cases of suicide. With the number of alarming cases, Dr. Paul Stoltz decided to conduct Adversity Quotient®, which measures a person’s response to adversity and at the same time his/ her resilience to unexpected or traumatic experience.

Adversity Quotient® deals with a person’s resilience or overcoming problems in life, work and relationship even when it gets tough. Since people are naturally resilient, they have the great potential to bounce from setbacks that may occur and start anew. With Adversity Quotient®, we can now measure people’s resilience just like how we measure emotion and intelligence which will greatly help further improved the manner that one can give to people who have experienced adversities in life. Moreover, Adversity Quotient® can be related to the job satisfaction of the workers. If one is able to cope up with stress then surely he is satisfied or fulfilled

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
with his or her work. Job satisfaction describes how contented an individual is with his/her job. Happier people are satisfied with their jobs; the more satisfied they are the happier they are. Moreover, job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job; an affective reaction to one’s job; and an attitude towards one’s job. The success of any organization depends on how its member performs his/ her tasks. If the members are effective, efficient and committed to their job, the organization will be able to attain its mission. In the case of the Philippine National Police (PNP), it is of utmost importance for its personnel to perform their tasks effectively and efficiently to be able to achieve its mandate, which is the maintenance of peace and order in the country. However, the newspapers abound with stories of murders, kidnappings, robberies and other criminal activities. The news articles about the present peace and order condition of the country imply that the PNP has not successfully achieved the task it was created and assigned for. Weiss (2002) has argued that job satisfaction is an attitude but points out that researchers should clearly distinguish the

objects

of

cognitive

evaluation

which

affect

emotions,

beliefs

and

behaviours. This definition suggests that we form attitudes towards our jobs by taking into account our feelings, our beliefs, and our behaviours. Now, we can take into account that Adversity Quotient® and Job Satisfaction are correlated with each other. Hence, this study deals with the relationship of Job

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
Satisfaction together with the respondents’ personal characteristics to their Adversity Quotient®.

Theoretical Background

Job Satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organizations. Several theories were used as a framework to better understand it and to serve as a guide in making the tools for its measurement. Frederick Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) arguably the most famous job satisfaction model attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. An employee’s motivation to work is continually related to job satisfaction of a subordinate. Motivation can be seen as an inner force that drives individuals to attain personal and organizational goals. Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic for the job, or for carrying out the job. Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions. In Edwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory, satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Furthermore, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are met or aren’t met. When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who doesn’t value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet.

Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one’s job. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs.

Other related literatures are on the succeeding page.

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
Conceptual Framework
The main concern of the study is to explore the application of AQ® in the field of public service and to find out if Police Officers’ AQ® level has something to do with their success and failure as policemen. This conceptual framework presents the relationship of personal characteristics and level of
job satisfaction to the AQ® level of the target respondents. In this study the AQ® level is the dependent variable. The independent variables are level of job satisfaction and personal characteristics. Job Satisfaction level is based on the achievement, growth and advancement, recognition,

responsibility,

work itself,

company policy and

administration,

remuneration, supervision and working conditions. The personal characteristics are based on gender, civil status, age, educational attainment and years of service as Police Office
Personal Characteristics




Age
Gender
Civil Status
Length of Service
as Police
Highest
Educational
Attainment

Adversity
Quotient

Job Satisfaction
Figure 1. Research Paradigm

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
Statement of the Problem

The main purpose of this study is to determine the relationship of Personal Characteristics and Job Satisfaction to Adversity Quotient of Police Officers in Manila Police District and specifically attempt to answer the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

Age

Gender

Civil Status

Educational Attainment

Length of Service

2. What is the level of Job Satisfaction of the respondents? 3. What is the level of Adversity Quotient of the respondents in terms of: –

Control

Ownership

Reach

Endurance

Overall AQ®

4. Is

there

a

significant

relationship

between

the

following

characteristics of the respondents and their Adversity Quotient® –

Age

7

personal

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
Gender

Civil Status

Educational Attainment

Length of Service

5. Is there a significant relationship between the Job Satisfaction level of the respondents and their Adversity Quotient®

Null Hypothesis

This study tested the Null Hypothesis:

There is no significant relationship between personal characteristics of
respondents such as: Age, Gender, Civil Status, Educational Attainment, Length of Service, and their Adversity Quotient®

There is no significant relationship between the respondents’ level of Job Satisfaction and Adversity Quotient®.

Scope and Delimitation

This research focuses on the level of Adversity Quotient® and the level of Job Satisfaction of the Police Officers of Manila, thus, the significant relationship of the variables were identified including the relationship of their personal characteristics

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
which is their age, gender, civil status, educational attainment and length of service on their Adversity Quotient®.
The Adversity Quotient® level was measured by Adversity Quotient® Profile Version 8.1 Online. The said instrument was adapted by the researchers as it is. Job Satisfaction level was based on the achievement, growth and advancement, recognition, responsibility, work itself, company policies and administration, remuneration, supervision and working conditions which is also adapted by the researchers. Lastly, the personal characteristics were based on age, gender, civil status, educational attainment and length of service.

Significance of the Study

This study will contribute to the development of the following sectors:

To the Police Officers of Manila. This study will be beneficial to their line of work because it will give them a better view of how to control
temperament by taking AQ®. It will also help to develop better personality that can be of great use in doing their job efficiently.

To the Philippine National Police (PNP). This study will contribute ideas in understanding the importance of resilience in relation to their kind of job. The AQ® is

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
a part of psychological examination, a test included in the recruitment process for producing better policemen who can work under pressure.
To the Educators. It will be an important research material that can help them create better teaching strategies which can improve the performance of their students. This will help them understand the role of Adversity in the lives of normal people.

To the Future Researchers. This may be used by future researchers as a reference material and guide in the conduct of a study similar to the previously conducted one.

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Presented in this chapter are foreign and local literatures and studies that would be of great help in the pursuit of this undertaking. This helped the researchers to have a better understanding and a wider perspective on this investigation.

Foreign Literature

For a very long time, it was believed that IQ (Intelligence Quota) was the primary determinant of success. It turns out that IQ has virtually nothing to do with success in life. Then a few a years ago, Emotional Quotient (EQ) was thought to be a significant indicator of success- and yes, to some degree it is. But more recently, Paul Stoltz, PhD has used the research of Dr. Albert Bandura on Efficacy to demonstrate that people’s AQ (Adversity Quotient) probably has a much more dramatic impact on their ability to succeed than anything else. According to Dr. Paul Stoltz (1997), Adversity Quotient® embodies two essential components of any practical concept- scientific theory and real world application. AQ tells you how well you withstand adversity and your ability to surmount it. AQ predicts who will overcome adversity and who will be crushed. AQ

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
predicts who will exceed expectations of their performance and potential and who will fall short. AQ predicts who gives up and who prevails.
He also stated that AQ takes three forms. First, AQ is a new conceptual framework for understanding and enhancing all facets of success. It builds upon a substantial base of landmark research, offering a practical, new combination of knowledge that redefines what it takes to succeed. Second, AQ is a measure of how you respond to adversity. Unchecked, these subconscious patterns are yours for life. Finally, AQ is a scientifically-grounded set of tools for improving how you respond to adversity, and, as a result, your overall personal and professional effectiveness. Furthermore, Adversity Quotient is developed to measure the resiliency of a person. According to David Lee (2008), Resilience refers to a person’s capacity to handle difficulties, demands, and high pressure without becoming stressed. Resilient people are the opposite of Drama Queens. They maintain their good cheer despite the frustrations and hassles that are part of everyone’s work life. Resilient people handle pressure well. They don’t become testy or sharp-tongued in difficult situations. They don’t come unglued when confronted by difficult situation or high pressure. Resilient people are the one you can count on to come through when the stakes are high. Resilient
people respond resourcefully to change. Rather than fight change and hang on to old, outdated ways, they respond to change with confidence and flexibility. This is typically the quality of resilience people think of when they hear

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
the term. The more resilient people are, the more quickly they’re able to recover from a setback, make the best of the new situation, and become a “new and improved” version of themselves because of it. In the workplace, resilient individuals don’t dwell on failures, request denied, or dark chapters in their employer’s past. They move on.

AQ becomes more important as daily dose of adversity rise. Business leaders, children, entrepreneurs, professionals, parents, teachers and policemen alike describe greater challenges – a relentless barrage of adversity in the lives. Regardless of how effectively one handles these challenges their magnitude and frequency continues to mount. Adversity is on the rise and it strikes earlier and more unremittingly than ever.

Unlike most pyramid-shaped models which begin at the bottom and work-up, this model begins at the top and works down to you, the individual. In this way, the model describes two effects. First, it describes that each of us confronts along our perilous journey. This model depicts the growing reality that adversity is a pervasive, real, and inevitable part of life. However, it need not crush your spirit. The three levels of Adversity also shows that positive chance at all three levels starts with you, the individual, and works up, affecting the workplace, and ultimately society-at-large. In order to create change, you must have the relentless fortitude to climb through adversity. You must develop a sufficiently high AQ.

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
Societal Adversity as experiencing a profound shift in wealth, pervasive sense of uncertainty about the future, dramatic rise in crime, heightened sense of anxiety about the economic security, unprecedented environmental destruction, a radical redefinition of home, a nationwide moral crisis, and a loss of faith in the institutions, including the educational system – together, these changes are what is called societal adversity.

Workplace Adversity – “Constant Change is here to stay,” has become a mantra of the workplace as to move toward new millennium. Adversity in the workplace is on the rise. According to Jeffery M. Humphrey, University of Georgia Economist, “As long as there is tangible fear out there – and there is – people are going to work harder.” Workers will learn to be more selfish, not expect very much from management, and it has to mean a decline in productivity. Individuality Adversity – is the third level; it is at the final bottom because, as one of the program participants put it, “Stuff flows downhill.” Individual is the one who carries around the accumulated burden of all three levels. Conversely, the individual is on the bottom, because that is where change begins and control is instigated. It is the level which person can make a difference. (Stoltz, 1997) According to American Psychological Association, resilience is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats, or even significant source of stress such as family and relationship problems, serious health problems

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
or workplace and financial stressors. It means, “Bouncing back” from difficult experiences. Research has shown that resilience is ordinary, not extraordinary. Being resilient does not mean that a person doesn’t experience difficulty or distress. Emotional pain and sadness are common in people who have suffered major adversity or trauma in their lives. In fact, the road to resilience is likely to involve considerable emotional distress. Resilience is not a trait that people either have or do not have. It involves behaviors, thoughts and actions that can be learned and developed
in anyone. (American Psychological Association, 2008). Moreover Al Siebert (2006) stated that resilient people, when faced with difficulty, focus on solving the challenge. The least resilient people become overly emotional, portray themselves as victims, blame others, and dwell on their misfortune. Highly resilient people continuously learn new ways of doing things seek new experiences, and frequently change how they interact with their circumstances. The least resilient people drift into a calcified condition where they try to avoid change and new experiences. Childhood curiosity, playfulness, and self-motivated, self-managed learning lead to advanced resilience skills. We are marvelously blessed with the ability to replace old behaviors by learning new ones at any age. Resiliency is not an ability one either has or does not have. Resiliency strengths can be developed, just as proficiency in any sport or activity can be learned and developed.

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
Therefore, resiliency means being able to bounce back from setbacks that may seem overwhelming at first. When resilient people have their lives disrupted, they handle their feelings in healthy ways. They allow themselves to feel grief, anger, loss, and confusion when hurt and distressed, but they don’t let it become permanent state. An unexpected outcome is that they not only heal, but often bounce back stronger than before.

Psychological resilience refers to an individual’s capacity to withstand stressors and not manifest psychology dysfunction, such as mental illness or persistent negative mood. This is the mainstream psychological view of resilience, that is, resilience is defined in terms a person’s capacity to avoid psychopathology despite difficult circumstances. Psychological stressors or “risk factors” are often considered to be experiences of major acute or chronic stress such as death of someone else, chronic illness, sexual, physical or emotional abuse, fear, unemployment and community violence. The central process involved in building resilience is exposure to adversity and the training and development of adaptive coping skills. The basic flow (called the transaction model) of stress and coping is: A
stressor (i.e. a potential source of stress) occurs and cognitive appraisal takes place (deciding whether or not the stressor represents something that can be readily dealt with or is a source of stress because it may be beyond one’s coping resource). If a stressor is considered to be a danger, coping responses are triggered. Coping

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
strategies are generally either be outwardly focused on the problem (problemsolving), inwardly focused on emotion (emotion-focused) or socially focused, such as emotional support from others.
In Humanistic Psychology, resilience refers to an individual’s capacity to thrive and fulfill potential despite or perhaps even because of such stressors. Resilient individuals and communities are more inclined to see problems as opportunities for growth. In other words, resilient individuals seem not only to cope well with unusual strains and stressors but actually to experience such challenges as learning and development opportunities. (James Neill, 2006)

According to Jackson Brown Jr. (2008), Job satisfaction doesn’t have to mean pursuing the ultra-glamorous or making money from your hobby. You can work at job satisfaction, and find it in the most unexpected places. The heart of job satisfaction is in your attitude and expectations; it’s more about how you approach your job than the actual duties you perform. Whether you work on the farm, a production line, in the corner office or on the basketball court, the secret is to understand the key ingredients of your unique recipe for job satisfaction. There are three basic approaches to work: is it a job, a career, or a passion? Depending on which type of work you are in right now, the things that give you satisfaction will vary. If you work at a JOB, the compensation aspects of the position will probably hold more appeal than anything else, and have the greatest impact on whether you stay

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
or go. If you work at a CAREER, you are looking for promotions and career development opportunities. Your overall satisfaction is typically linked with your status, power, or position. If you work at a PASSION, the work itself is the factor that determines your satisfaction, regardless of money, prestige, or control. Inevitably, these are generalizations, and you will probably find that you get satisfaction from more than one approach to work. Being aware of the type of work you are doing, and the things you need for job satisfaction, will help you to identify and adjust your satisfaction expectations accordingly.

R. V. Dawis (1992) stated that if you are working and dissatisfied, what can you do about it? First, it is important to know that there are different kinds of job satisfaction. This is when a person considers the whole job and everything about it. Overall job satisfaction is actually a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. Intrinsic job satisfaction is when workers consider only the kind of work they do, the tasks that make up the job while extrinsic job satisfaction is when workers consider the conditions of work, such as their pay, co-workers, and supervisor. These two types of satisfaction are different, and it helps to look at jobs from both points of view. Second, you want to recognize that job satisfaction is influenced by job expectations – what people look for or require from a job such as job security, pay, prestige, or independence. And, that some people have higher expectations for work than others. He created eight recommendations to maximize

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
job satisfaction. First is to know yourself. Know what is important to you and what is not. Be clear about what you expect from or require of a job. Write your ideas down. Then, you will know what to look for when choosing among jobs or careers. Next is to learn about jobs that are most likely to meet your expectations. Identify occupations that fit your personality and to get accurate information about each of them. Consider consulting a
professional career counselor. Do not allow your job dissatisfactions to go unresolved for long. Job satisfactions and dissatisfactions are barometers of your adjustment to work. They may lead to something worse – job loss, accidents, even mental illness. Depression, anxiety, worry, tension, and interpersonal problems can result from, or be made worse by job dissatisfaction. In fact, job satisfaction was found to be the best predictor of how long you live better than a doctor’s rating of physical functioning, use of tobacco, or genetic inheritance. So, it is important to work out a solution if your job is making you unhappy. Have realistic expectations for work. Overall job satisfaction is a trade-off (like many things in life). You should not expect 100% satisfaction or 0% dissatisfaction. There are usually dissatisfactions even in the best jobs. And, in todays work world you cannot expect your company to look out for you; you have to take the initiative yourself. Look separately at the kind of work you are doing versus the conditions of work (pay, supervisor, co-workers, company, and physical working conditions). If you are becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the kind of work you are doing, you

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should consider a career change. If you are dissatisfied with the conditions of work, you might be able to set matters right by negotiating with your supervisor or your coworkers, or by changing companies. Look down the road at your possible career progress. Present dissatisfactions might be worth bearing if you see your career progressing. Lastly, examine your values – what is most important to you. You have to answer this question honestly: How important is your job, your career to you? Only when this question is answered can you put your job satisfaction or dissatisfaction in proper perspective.

According to Linda Stollings (2009), there are currently four generations in the workforce. The Traditionalists, born 1922-1943; the Baby Boomers, born 1943-1960; Generation X, born in 1960-1980; and Generation Nexters, (or Millennials) born 1980-2000. This makes for some very interesting dynamics
in the workplace. With an aging workforce comes a host of potential health care problems, increased health care costs and the potential for decreased work productivity. Just because of the sheer increase in numbers of older workers, work place injuries and health costs will increase. It is important that employers develop strategies to address this issue, both from a specific, on-the-job-activity perspective as well as an overall employee wellness perspective. Regardless of the way you look at the situation, it will be necessary in the future to look at ways to address the costs of an aging workforce. Let’s look at some of the common problems associated with the aging workforce:

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Unhealthy lifestyles: This includes alcohol consumption, poor food choices, smoking, lack of exercise and resistance to preventive health screenings. This unhealthy lifestyle brings with it a host of lifestyle-related diseases. This can certainly affect productivity at work in the firm of increased absenteeism, on the job injuries, etc. Resistance to change: One of the biggest challenges in today’s workforce is that employees can be resistant to chance. They may not see the need for wellness programs or preventive measures to make their workplace or work task safer. They are accustomed to performing a task in specific way. Changing the tasks to improve the employee’s safety can prove to be challenging. However, it is well worth the effort. Physical demands: There are many jobs out there that are very physically demanding. Physically demanding jobs can certainly present the danger of serious injury. Of course, this can happen in any age group, but there are factors that affect increase the aging worker’s potential for injury.

Another is an article by the Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology (2003), When assessing age differences in the performance of a particular job, a number of selection factors may be operating that either inflate or reduce the apparent productivity of older workers. On the other hand, less productive older workers may be well transferred to other work,
dismissed or persuaded to take early retirement. On the other hand, more productive older workers may be promoted to supervisory positions, leaving less productive older

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workers behind. Furthermore, the most productive younger workers may leave jobs for elsewhere, especially in industries where there is high demand for labor. In all these cases, comparisons of age differences in job performance are likely to be vitiated. Such comparisons are therefore more likely to be valid when turnover and internal transfer rates are low, and when checks are made on task allocation within particular jobs.

Local Literature

Since, Adversity Quotient deals with the capacity to overcome unexpected situation, it is greatly related in coping with stress but in a lesser degree. As stated by Aguirre et.al (2008), coping with stress means using thoughts and actions to deal with stressful situations and lower our stress levels. Adjustment refers to any attempt we make to cope with a stressful situation, balancing our needs and desires against the demands of the environment and the realistic possibilities available to us. They remain optimistic and persevere even under extreme adverse circumstances. They also stated several strategies in dealing with stress. First, is coping strategies, the conscious attempt of coping with stressful situations is considered as well-adjusted or coping mechanism while the unconscious attempt of overcoming frustration is called defense mechanism. When a person cannot cope with his frustrations and his coping and defensive reactions are still inadequate, it can lead to

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abnormal or maladaptive behavior. Coping strategies are of two types:
problemfocused coping and emotion-focused coping. Both strategies aim to reduce stress level. In problem-focused coping, a person tries to short-circuit negative emotions by taking some actions to modify, avoid, or minimize the threatening situation. They change their behavior to deal with the stressful situation. In emotion-focused coping, a person tries to directly moderate or eliminate unpleasant emotions. In some cases, people may resort to direct coping which is an action taken by a person to change an uncomfortable situation. It could be of three ways: 1) Confrontation, in which by confronting a stressful situation, it may lead to learning new skills, try harder to reach one’s goal or express anger; 2) Compromise usually resolves a conflict by forcing a person to settle for less than what is originally sought; 3) Withdrawal, which sometimes considered as the most effective way of coping with a stressful situation, is distancing oneself from the conflict or trouble, however, the danger of withdrawal is it may become a maladaptive habit. Second is Social Support, support from friends, family members and others who care for us can help us buffer stress. Social support system provides us with emotional sustenance, tangible resources and aid, and information when we are in need. People with social support feel cared about and valued by others and feel a sense of belonging to a larger social network. Third is Biofeedback, it is a technique in which people learn voluntary control of stressrelated physiological responses, such as skin temperature, muscle tension, blood

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pressure, and heart rate. Fourth is relaxation. It is a good way of coping with stress. One method of relaxation is progressive muscular relaxation which involves systematic tensing and then relaxing different groups of skeletal (voluntary) muscles, while directing attention towards the contrasting sensations produced by the two procedures. And lastly Aerobic Exercises that proved to be helpful in reducing stress. It is increases the endurance of the heart and lungs, thus an aerobically fit individual has lower heart rate and lower blood pressure, less reactivity to stressors and can quickly recover from stress.

According to Mison and Bernabe (2004), frustrations are part of the main streams of life from birth to death. All living individuals will be faced with this process of some kind of a thwarting experience that forms a block to an on going activity. Such a frustrating experience may be taken lightly or seriously depending on the personality development of the individual. Frustration as defined is a stirred-up state of hopelessness that results when a person is prevented from reaching a particular value goal to which he aspires or is prevented from satisfying psychological needs. In order to cope with frustrations, man uses temporary device to maintain a certain level of satisfying himself to face the stress he is in. there are three choices in dealing with stress, first is remove the stressor from the environment. Second is get out of the stressful environment and last is to use relaxation techniques to counter toxic effects directly of a stressful environment.

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Another is according to Josefina O. Santamaria (2005), At one time or another, we have experienced conflict, observe others in conflict or read about conflicts that resulted in court cases, physical aggression, murders or even wars. At work, conflicts between members of an organization can lead to internal turf wars, and even to closure of the organization. Conflict at work can happen at the shop floor, in offices and in the boardroom. The Protagonists could be rank and file and executives, front liners and customers, superiors and subordinates, or stockholders and management. When two or more persons come together, the stage is set for potential conflict because self-interests clash. Some conflicts are just mere disagreements that can be ignored. Others dissolve into organizational breakdown when the protagonists are so dead set on defeating the other that they would risk their relationships, reputation, work, careers and even their lives. Protagonists sometimes engage in shouting matches or icy silence, passivity or “snubbing” each other. They may lash out at each at every opportunity. These unproductive behaviors result in the wasting of time, energy and
resources of the protagonists and observes. A lot of energy is spent on fighting instead of getting tasks done. Other uninvolved employees or “bystanders” waste time talking about the protagonists. Conflict has negative consequences. However, conflict can be constructive and beneficial. In fact, some good leaders stimulate conflict to extract divergent opinions and views. When agreement is reached so easily, this means that no one is thinking;

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everyone wants to be on a “safe side”, by agreeing with the majority. So a good leader may sometimes play a “devil’s advocate” role to stimulate creative and innovative ideas. If well managed, conflict can be the basis of synergy. People disagree, fight or clash because they see a situation differently. Differences in perception are due to differences in needs, values, personality, preferences and interests, orientation, education or training, or background experiences. Conflicts normally occur between sales and marketing, marketing finance, marketing and manufacturing, production and quality control, etc. it is important to practice professionalism in handling conflict situation.

Cynthia A. Zarate (2006) stated that there are simple structural changes in the organization or replacements of people in particular location that may have consequences that others promote or hinder changes in attitude and performance change can alter cultural values, personal values, attitudes and feelings of individuals within the work environment. Work changes operate through each employee’s attitudes and feelings towards change. What is important in adjusting to change in the bringing about of specific changes through the development of new attitudes value and/or behavior, either through identification or internalization, Roethlisberger in his clinical experiments showed that each changed situation is interpreted by an individual according to his attitudes. The way he feels about the change then determines how he will respond to it. Attitudes in turn, are not the result

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of change, they are learned, they are caused these could be traceable to personal history, his background and all his social experiences away from work. He brings these to the workplace. Another cause is the work environment itself. This reflects the fact that he is a member of several reference groups and is influenced by the group codes, values, aspirations and attitudes.

Carmel Tongo-Mosura et.al (2001) explained that most people go to work day after day because it is necessary if they want to get what they consider to be necessities of life and a few luxuries that they desire. What they do to earn is not a matter of choice but is determined by a lot of factors such as education, experience, personal characteristics, inborn abilities, social background and some say, by change. Therefore, we must not see human behavior as either a product of social structures enveloping persons or matter of individual will and choice. There is also interplay between the society expectations for individuals and their own responses in situations. As a consequence, many people engage in work that after sometime become monotonous, tedious and boring. This circumstances result in a certain kind of environment in most organizations that is not conducive to productivity.

Foreign Studies

In Norway, a study was conducted about Adversity Quotient by Vinje, Hege and Forbech (2007), community nursing in Norway has become an increasingly

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stressful occupation and many nurses who experience symptoms of burnout leave the profession. Yet others manage to cope with adversity of nursing. This study addressed the question, ‘how and why do nurses in community health
care experience job engagement and stay healthy- and what can we learn from those who succeed?’ The assumption underlying this study was that job engagement is health promoting, and the intention was the study how and why community nurses can thrive despite the burdens of nursing. The idea was that if we could better understand nurses’ engagement, we might be able to suggest ways in which to help all community nurses to thrive. The main objective of this study was to explore, indepth, the nature of job engagement among thriving community health nurses and to investigate how job engagement may be maintained and promoted. The study used an explorative qualitative design, positioned as phenomenological research in relation to its philosophical approach of being concerned with the nurses’ life worlds, while methodologically it also drew on hermeneutics. The findings indicate that to promote job engagement, acknowledgement of the importance of values and possible value conflict between the person and the workplace is vital, both before a choice of profession is made and on a relatively continuing basis during one’s work life.

Another related study was conducted by Fredrickson et.al (2003), according to them positive emotions were found to disrupt the experience of stress and help

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high resilient individuals to recover efficiently from daily stress. In this case, some argue that positive emotions help resilient people to construct psychological resources that are necessary for coping successfully with significant catastrophe, such as the September 11 attacks. As a result, positive emotion experienced by resilient people functions as a protective factor to moderate the magnitude of adversity to individuals and assists them to cope well in the future. In addition to the above findings, a study further suggests that positive emotions are active elements within resilience.

According to the study by Saari and Judge (2004), their article identifies
three major gaps between HR practice and the scientific research in the area of employee attitudes in general and the most focal employee attitude in particular—job satisfaction: (1) the causes of employee attitudes, (2) the results of positive or negative job satisfaction, and (3) how to measure and influence employee attitudes. Suggestions for practitioners are provided on how to close the gaps in knowledge and for evaluating implemented practices. Future researches will likely focus on greater understanding of personal characteristics, such as emotion, in defining job satisfaction and how employee attitudes influence organizational performance. There is confusion and debate among practitioners on the topic of employee attitudes and job satisfaction—even at a time when employees are increasingly important for organizational success and competitiveness. Therefore, the purpose

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of this article is to provide greater understanding of the research on this topic and give recommendations related to the major practitioner knowledge gaps. As indicated indirectly in a study of HR professionals), as well as based on our experience, the major practitioner knowledge gaps in this area are: (1) the causes of employee attitudes, (2) the results of positive or negative job satisfaction, and (3) how to measure and influence employee attitudes. Within each gap area, we provide a review of the scientific research and recommendations for practitioners related to the research findings. In the final section, additional recommendations for enhancing organizational practice in the area of employee attitudes and job satisfaction are described, along with suggestions for evaluating the implemented practices. Another study is by Syptak et.al (1999); he stated that employee satisfaction and retention have always been important issues for physicians. After all, high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover can affect your bottom line, as temps, recruitment and retraining take their toll. But few practices (in fact, few organizations) have made job satisfaction a top priority, perhaps because they have failed to understand the significant opportunity that lies in front of them. Satisfied employees tend to be more productive, creative and committed to their employers, and
recent studies have shown a direct correlation between staff satisfaction and patient satisfaction. Family physicians that can create work environments that attract, motivate and retain hardworking individuals will be better positioned to succeed in a competitive health care

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environment that demands quality and cost-efficiency. What’s more, physicians may even discover that by creating a positive workplace for their employees, they’ve increased their own job satisfaction as well.

On a study titled “Age and Individual productivity: A Literature Survey by Vegard Skirbekk (2003), the article surveys supervisors’ ratings, work-sample tests, analyzes of employer-employee data sets and other approaches used to estimate how individual productivity varies by age. The causes of productivity variations over the life cycle are addressed with an emphasis on how cognitive abilities affect labor market performance. Individual job performance is found to decrease from around 50 years of age, which contrasts almost life-long increases in wages. Productivity reductions at older ages are particularly strong for work tasks where problem solving, learning and speed are needed, while in jobs where experience and verbal abilities are important, older individuals’ maintain a relatively high productivity level. Another is by Borsch Supan and Weiss (2011), they study the relation between workers’ age and their productivity in work teams, based on a new and unique data set that combines data on errors occurring in the information on the personal characteristics of workers related to the errors. We correct for non-random sample selection and the potential endogeneity of the age-composition in work teams. Our results suggest that productivity does not decline at least up to age of 60.

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A study by Robert I. Lerman (2005) generates new findings about the
earnings-marriage relationship by estimation the linkages between marriage, work commitment, and wage rates. Unlike other studies of the marital wage premium for men, examine how marital status and marital transitions affect hours worked as well as wage rates, take account of the feedback affect on the wage rates and earnings associated with marriage effects on hours worked, estimate marriage effects on black and low skill men, control for several dimension of selection, and follow men age from 17-40. We find that marriage increases men’s earnings by about 20 percent and also find a rise in wage rates and hours worked increases marriage. These findings suggest that both marriage-enhancing and earnings-enhancing policies can set off a virtuous circle, in which marriage and earnings reinforce each other over time. Unmarried men who appear unable to support a family because of low current earnings are likely to become more adequate breadwinners once they marry. Thus, if proposed programs are able to increase to utility from and appreciation of marriage, they are likely to generate earnings gains for men as an important side effect.

On the study entitled, “Effects of Occupational Prestige, Employment Status, and Marital Status on Perceptions of Mothers” by Etaugh and Poertner (1991), Perceptions of mothers were investigated as a function of their marital status, employment status and prestige of their jobs. College students (128 females and 96

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males) evaluated a briefly described adult female stimulus person on 24 7-point bipolar scales that described job performance characteristics and personality traits. Each subject rated one of 16 mothers of a young child. The mother was portrayed as either divorced or married and as either currently employed or formerly employed (by choice) in an occupation of either moderate or low prestige. Employed mothers were perceived as more competent in their jobs but as less well-adjusted than nonemployed mothers. Mothers with moderate-prestige occupations were viewed as more competent than those in low-prestige occupations, especially if they were currently
employed. Married mothers were seen as better adjusted than divorced mothers.

A study of Robinson et.al (1997), entitled, “The Influence of Educational Attainment on the Attitudes and Job Performance of Correctional Officers” stated that, some prison managers assume that recruitment of correctional officers with postsecondary educational credentials promotes job satisfaction and offender rehabilitation. This assumption was tested using a sample of 218 officers. Results supported earlier findings that postsecondary education correlates with endorsement of rehabilitation and job dissatisfaction. However, university graduates were not more willing than less-educated officers to engage in offender treatment and there were no apparent effects of education on job performance, job involvement, and

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career development needs. The findings imply that education alone cannot enhance correctional outcomes and lead to the professionalization of correctional officers. A study by Titus Oshagbemi (2000) asks whether academic workers’ length of service is related to their level of job satisfaction. The enquiry is premised on the assumption that the less satisfied workers tend to resign while the more satisfied ones tend to remain in a job, as some literature suggests. The research distinguishes between length of service in higher education (LSHE) as a whole and length of service in present university (LSPU) in order to separate academics that remain within one university since employment from those who hop from one higher educational institution to another. Two-way analyses of variance confirm the results of the frequency analyses and indicate that, for direct effects and a 0.05 significance level, LSHE is not statistically significant but LSPU is with a p value of 0.022. This means that the overall job satisfaction of university teachers is significantly correlated with LSPU but not LSHE. The implications are explored.

Local Studies

A study conducted by Lazaro (2002), focused on the relationship between adversity quotient and performance level measured by the 360-degree feedback system among selected middle managers in the different departments of the City of Manila. Specifically, the researcher tested if there was a significant relationship

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between the respondents’ profile variables such as age, gender, civil status, and length of service on the adversity quotient and performance level revealed by the 330-degree feedback system. Likewise, differences among the ratings given by the different raters of the 360-degree feedback system were also explored. The study employed descriptive, correlational-survey method in assessing the relationship between adversity quotient and performance level of the middle managers. It was found that majority of the respondents are within the age bracket 36-43. There is a greater number of female than male respondents; mostly married who have been in service for 10 years and above in the City of Manila. The respondents have an average level of control over events that affect their life circumstances and see adversities as temporary- rather than enduring- set back. Also, respondents sense greater ownership regarding the outcome of adversity and they do not allow such adversity to influence other areas of their lives. Moreover, their performance level reached high ratings with no single supervisor received low rating from any of the raters of the 360-degree feedback system. The study found that the demographic profile variables included in this study were not significantly related to the adversity quotient similarly to the performance level of the respondents. However, there was a high correlation between adversity quotient and performance revealed by the 360degree feedback system.

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Another study undertaken by Lugtu (2010) was to identify the significant
relationship of Adversity Quotient and Personality-Temperament Traits of the Specific Weapon and Tactics (SWAT) Police Manila. The Findings of the study led the researcher to come up with the following conclusions: 1) Most of the Special Weapons and Tactics Police (SWAT) Police of Manila are in the adulthood level in human development, are middle-born children, are from average family size, and are from middle class families. Additionally, majority the SWAT respondents were on the Police Officer ranks and have been in the Police Service for eleven to sixteen years. 2) Generally, the respondents have an average level of Adversity Quotient characterized by being able to significantly navigate life, and thus may suffer unnecessarily due to life’s frustrations and challenges. Moreover, the SWAT respondents were found to have average level of the four dimensions of AQ® namely; Control, Origin and Ownership, Reach, and Endurance. This signifies that most of our SWAT Police are competent and unbiased enough to do their respective jobs. Majority of the SWAT respondents have fairly non-discriminatory and unbiased personality patters as revealed by the Guildford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey. Most of them manifest an average level of Sociability, Emotional Stability, Thoughtfulness, and Masculinity. In addition, the respondents were found to have an above average level of General Activity, Restraint, Ascendance, Objectivity, Friendliness, and Personal Relations. The existence of non-significance between the

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levels of Adversity Quotient® to the demographic characteristics to the respondents signifies that the development of Adversity Quotient® is not partial in terms of one’s demographics. This implies that other factors should be considered in developing one’s level of AQ®. In addition, the existence of non-significance between the Personality-Temperament Traits of the respondents to several demographic characteristics signifies little influence in such. However, factors like birth order, social experiences, and age might have little influence in the developmental change in one’s personality. The existence of non-significance between Adversity Quotient® and Personality-Temperament Traits of the respondents signifies that certain
personality traits do not influence the development of AQ® and AQ® to personality traits for this group of respondents. However, Trait Ascendance and Trait Sociability are factors to look into in terms of the development of AQ® and vice versa. By identifying the level of AQ® and personality types of the possible Police candidate, will help the recruitment and selection unit of SWAT in identifying the right person for the SWAT job. This could avoid job mismatch and possible future problems in employee performance.

Other related study is by Antwi (2004), the central problem of his study was to determine the relationship of work attitude, reward systems and personality of workers to the job performance and motivation. The study is focused on the following work attitudes: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job

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involvement. Reward system is composed of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, while personality focused only on extroversion and introversion. This study is quantitative descriptive-correlational in nature. To get the factual information from the respondents and to determine the relationship of work attitude, reward system and personality to job performance and motivation, data were gathered using questionnaire. Based on the hypothesis and the findings of this study, it can be concluded that job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job involvement, reward systems, and personality correlates with job performance and motivation. Intrinsic rewards tend to influence job performance and motivation greater than extrinsic reward. This is because workers were found not to be so dependent on the rewards offered by the institution, but on their ability to reward themselves. Age, gender, marital status and work category makes a significant difference in job performance. Those who tend to perform better are older, male, married and faculty respondents. The male faculty is the ones who are motivated. Those who are likely to perform well in the job are the ones who are satisfied, involved, faculty, male, and have the ability to reward themselves, by having a sense an accomplishment, fulfillment and security etc. Job
satisfaction, intrinsic reward, being faculty and personality predicts motivation.

The study of Antonio Dela Cruz (1997) aims to determine the job performance and job satisfaction of PNP personnel. This study also aims to establish some

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personality factor, the educational background and experience correlates with job performance and job satisfaction. This study was based on the premise that the factors that contribute to job performance and job satisfaction are educational attainment, experience, work attitude, emotional maturity, social maturity and interpersonal relationships.

This study focused on the job satisfaction and

performance of the police officers. The scope of the study was the job satisfaction of PNP officers and their correlates. The study was limited to the police officers of 29 municipalities and 3 cities of Nueva Ecija. The study was limited to the calendar year 1997-1998. The study was also limited to the descriptive method of research and the instruments used. All the instruments used in the study were presented to the thesis committee during the thesis proposal defense. The instruments used in the study, namely emotional maturity scale and interpersonal skills, which were developed by the researcher were subjected to a dry-run. Fifty police officers who were not part of the sample were used in the dry-run to determine the reliability of the instrument. The results of this dry-run were used to improve the final draft of the instrument. The other instruments used which had been adapted from the studies were not subjected to a dry-run anymore since they were already found to be reliable and valid. Based on the findings at the study, the following conclusions are made: Majority of the police officers are college graduates, with long years of experience as police officers, and had been in their present rank for a number of years. Majority of police

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officers are satisfied with their job. Most of the police officers have a job performance rating that is very satisfactory. There is a significant correlation between job performance and job satisfaction. There is a significant correlation between job performance and educational attainment, training, number of years in present rank, but is not significantly correlated to the number of years as police officers, work attitude, emotional maturity, social maturity and interpersonal relationships. There is a significant relationship between job satisfaction and the following variables: educational attainment, training, number of years as police officers, number of years in present rank, work attitude, emotional maturity, social maturity and interpersonal relationship.

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Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter describes the research methodology used in this study specifically, it focuses on the techniques and procedures of gathering the data, the population and sampling design, the instruments to be used and the statistical tools and techniques necessary for analysis of data.

Method of Research

This study used descriptive correlational research design in order to attain its objectives. It determined the relationship between the dependent variable (Adversity Quotient®)

and

independent

variables

(Job

Satisfaction

and

Personal

Characteristics).
Descriptive method proceeds to describe certain phenomena. For this reason, some authorities in research describe it to be “fact-finding” or “information gathering” with analytical interpretations. According to Sanchez (1993), the descriptive method is something more and beyond than just data gathering. The true meaning of data collected should be reported from the point of view of the objectives to and the basic assumptions of the study. Facts obtained maybe accurate expression of central tendency or deviation or correlation; but the report is not research unless discussion

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of the data is carried out up to the level of adequate interpretation. The data must be subjected to the thinking process by means of ordered reasoning.

Sample Population and Sample Size

The population of the study includes the Police Officers in Manila Police District. Random Sampling was used to determine the sample size because the total population was not clearly obtained. This is due to the fact that many policemen were already retired, dead, on leave, on a vacation, on a seminar or on studies so they can’t keep track of the total population. The
researchers assumed that 100 respondents were enough to cover the population of Police Officers in Manila Police District.

Instrumentation

To gather data for the study, the following research instruments were used: Adversity Quotient® Profile Version 8.1 Online. This is a self-rating questionnaire to measure an individual’s style of responding to adverse situations. There are four dimensions of Adversity Quotient® – Control, Ownership, Reach and Endurance. Although these dimension maybe intercorrelated, they measure many different aspects of Adversity Quotient. The sum of the four dimensions (CORE) is the person’s Overall Adversity Quotient®.

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The Control scale measures the degree of control the person perceives he or she has over adverse events. Ownership is the extent to which the person owns or takes responsibility for the outcomes of adversity and the extent to which the person holds himself or herself accountable for improving the situation. Reach is the degree to which the person perceives good and bad events reaching in other areas of life. Endurance is the perception time over which good and bad events and their consequences will last or endure.

The researcher secured the permission from Dr. Paul Stoltz to use the Adversity Quotient Profile® Version 8.1 Online in measuring the Adversity Quotient® level of the respondents. Approval was granted through the reply letters from Dr. Paul Stoltz through Ms. Katie Martin attached on Appendix B.

Job Satisfaction Questionnaire. This questionnaire measures the level of a person’s job satisfaction. It was developed and validated by Miguel in 1980 and has been adapted and modified by Galacio in 1985 to suit the educational setting (Salazar, 1989). The said questionnaire was also used by Dr. Marissa B. Ferrer in her dissertation entitled “Relationship of Personal
Characteristics, Leadership Styles and Job Satisfaction to Adversity Quotient of Academic Heads of selected State Colleges and Universities in the National Capital Region”. There are 38 items in the questionnaire which are patterned from two set factors-hygiene and motivators- as

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described by Herzberg in his theory. The response mode to this questionnaire is arranged in numeric scales with the following interpretations: 5 – Very Satisfied (VS), which means that you’re happy with the condition all the time.

4 – Satisfied (S), which means that you are happy with the condition most of the time.
3 – Less Satisfied (LS), this means that you’re sometimes happy with the condition.
2 – Dissatisfied (D), which means that you are not happy with the condition most of the time.
1 – Very Dissatisfied (DS), which means that you are not happy with the condition all of the time.

Distribution of Items
The questionnaire has 38 items which are based on Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory. The distribution of items is as follows:
Factors
1. Motivation
1.1.

Achievement

1, 27, 34

1.2.

Growth and Advancement

4, 16, 18, 19, 35, 37

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Recognition
14, 15, 26, 28, 33

1.4.

Responsibility

5, 6, 20

1.5.

Work Itself

2, 13, 17, 36

2. Hygiene
2.1.

Company Policy and Administration

10, 30, 31

2.2.

Interpersonal Relations

8, 9, 21, 24, 29

2.3.

Remuneration

7, 12, 23, 25

2.4.

Supervision

22, 30

2.5.

Working Condition

3, 11, 32
Total

38 items

The researchers seek the permission of Dr. Marissa B. Ferrer to use the Job Satisfaction Questionnaire in measuring the job satisfaction level of the respondents. But maybe due to her busy schedule no response has been made. However, proper acknowledgment is accorded to Dr. Ferrer as indicated in the acknowledgment page.

Personal Characteristics Questionnaire. This questionnaire, prepared by the researchers, consists of information about the personal characteristics of the respondents. The questions include age bracket, gender, civil status, length of

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service as a Police Officer and highest educational attainment. The researchers chose these variables based upon the review of related literature.

Data-Gathering Procedure

The researchers sought the permission of the Police Officers in selected PNP Police Stations in Metro Manila for the former to administer the questionnaire and the Adversity Quotient® Profile Version 8.1 Online and Job Satisfaction Questionnaire to the Police Officers.

Statistical Treatment Used

The study used the following statistical tools and techniques:

FREQUENCIES-PERCENTAGE
Frequencies-Percentage was used in determining the profiles of the respondents in terms of demographic variables (age, gender, civil status, length of service as police officers and educational attainment) and Adversity Quotient®. Formula:

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Where:
f – Frequency
N – Number of cases

PEARSON CORRELATION COEFFICIENT r
Pearson r was used to determine if there is significant relationship between Adversity Quotient® and Personal Characteristics and Job Satisfaction. Formula:

WEIGHTED ARITHMETIC MEAN
The Weighted Arithmetic Mean was used in determining the profile of the respondents in terms of Adversity Quotient® and its dimension (CORE) and job satisfaction level. In particular, the mean is denoted by x of the scores is given by the formula:

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Chapter 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter deals with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of results of the study on the relationship of Adversity Quotient to personal characteristics and job satisfaction among police officers in Manila Police District. The research problems enumerated in Chapter 1 serve as the guide for the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data.

1.0 PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS
1.1.

Age
Table 1
Frequency Distribution of the Respondents according to Age
Age
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61 and above
Total

34
38
18
9
1
100

%
34%
38%
18%
9%
1%
100%

It could be seen from table 1 that out of 100 respondents, 38 or 38% belongs to 31-40 age group and 34 or 34% belongs to 21-30 age group. This indicates that majority of the respondents are in the early adult to adult years, it is the period of

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time where they gained work experiences and had taken further trainings to establish their careers.

1.2.

Gender
Table 2
Frequency Distribution of the Respondents according to Gender Gender
Male
Female
Total

82
18
100

%
82%
18%
100%

Table 2 shows that from the total number of respondents 82 or 82% are male police officers, and 18, 18% are female. This indicates that in matters concerning public security and safety, there is a domain of male for the position.

1.3.

Civil Status
Table 3

Frequency Distribution of the Respondents according to Civil Status Civil Status
Single
Married
Widow/Widower
Total

33
66
1
100

50

%
33%
66%
1%
100%

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
Table 3 shows that out of 100 respondents, 66 or 66% are married, 33 or 33% are single and 1% is a widower/widow. Findings reveal that in terms of civil status, majority of the police officers in Manila Police District are married.

1.4.

Educational Attainment
Table 4

Frequency Distribution of the Respondents according to Educational Attainment
Educational Attainment
Bachelor’s Degree
Bachelor’s Degree with
MA units
Masteral Degree
Doctoral Units
Total

80
12

%
80%
12%

8
0
100

8%
0%
100%

Table 4 reveals that out of the 100 respondents 80 or 80% have Bachelor’s Degree while 12% have Bachelor’s Degree with MA units. This indicates that to be a Police Officer, the educational attainment should be a Bachelor’s Degree 1.5.

Length of Service
Table 5

Frequency Distribution of the Respondents according to Length of Service Length of Service
1 year and below
2 years

4
8

51

%
4%
8%

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
3 years
4 years
5 years and above
Total

16
6
66
100

16%
6%
66%
100%

Table 5 shows the profile of the respondents in terms of years of service as police officers. The 66% have been in service for 5 years and above and the majority are four years and below.

2.0 JOB SATISFACTION LEVEL
1.1.

Over-all Job Satisfaction
Table 6
Mean Score of the Respondents’ Job Satisfaction Level

Distribution of Items
Motivation
Achievement
Growth and
Advancement
Recognition
Responsibility
Work Itself
Hygiene
Company Policy and
Administration
Interpersonal Relations
Remuneration
Supervision
Working Condition
GRAND WEIGHTED
MEAN

Weighted Mean

Verbal Interpretation

4.08
3.89

Satisfied
Satisfied

3.02
3.92
4.11

Satisfied
Satisfied
Satisfied

3.71

Satisfied

3.95
3.85
3.83
3.72
3.81

Satisfied
Satisfied
Satisfied
Satisfied
Satisfied

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Table 6 illustrates the Job Satisfaction level of Police Officers based on both the motivation and hygiene factor. The Work Itself under the Motivation factor has the highest weighted mean with 4.11 while in the Hygiene factor, Interpersonal Relations has the highest weighted mean with 3.95. All of the computed weighted mean shows that it falls under the 3.50-4.49 with the verbal interpretation of “Satisfied”. The result implies that the respondents are satisfied on both the intrinsic and extrinsic factors of their job.

1.2.

Motivation Factor
Table 7

Mean Score of the Respondents in Job Satisfaction according to Motivation Distribution of Items

Weighted Mean

Verbal
Interpretation

1. The respect of my fellow officers
for me in the headquarters.
27. The challenge of the nature of
my job.
34. The sense of accomplishment
and achievement after I complete
the job.
2. Growth and Achievement

4.24

Satisfied

4.01

Satisfied

4.00

Satisfied

4. The levels of promotions I have
reached in my job.
16. The opportunities to learn new
skills in my job.
18. The possibilities of being
promoted for my job.

3.77

Satisfied

4.03

Satisfied

3.92

Satisfied

1. Achievement

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
Satisfied
19. The opportunities of problem3.84
solving for my job.
Satisfied
35. The possibilities for creativity.
3.87
37. The openness to new ideas by
the management.
3. Recognition

3.91

Satisfied

14. The prestige of my job inside
and outside the headquarters.
15. The condition of my
accomplishments to the realization
of the institution’s goals.
26. The appreciation given by my
superior and co-officers for the job I
do for the department/headquarters.
28. The opportunities to participate
in decision-making in the job.
33. The recognition I receive for
outstanding job accomplishments.
4. Responsibility

3.90

Satisfied

4.23

Satisfied

3.76

Satisfied

3.92

Satisfied

3.78

Satisfied

5. The task I am responsible for in
my job
6. The interest I have in nature of
my job.
20. The personal commitment to my
job.
5. Work Itself

4.15

Satisfied

4.09

Satisfied

3.53

Satisfied

2. The nature of my work.

4.11

Satisfied

13. The feeling that I have for my
work
17. The attitude I have for my work

4.06

Satisfied

4.09

Satisfied

36. The sense of pride in my job.

4.19

Satisfied

GRAND WEIGHTED MEAN

3.97

Satisfied

Table 7 illustrates the Job Satisfaction of Police Officers according to their motivation of the 21 out of 38 items in this questionnaire; Question number one

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which states “The respect of my fellow officers for me in the headquarters” has the highest weighted mean of 4.24. Question number twenty which states “My personal commitment to my job” has the lowest weighted mean of 3.53. This table that contained the items on job satisfaction according to motivation received a grand weighted mean of 3.97. All of the computed weighted mean shows that it falls under the 3.50-4.49 with the verbal interpretation of “Satisfied”. The result reveals that the respondents are satisfied in their works, responsibilities and achievement which can be considered as intrinsic factor that affect the job satisfaction of Police Officers.

1.3.

Hygiene Factor
Table 8

Mean Score of the Respondents in Job Satisfaction according to Hygiene Distribution of Items

Weighted Mean

1. Company Policy and
Administration
10. The clarity of procedures, rules and
regulations in the institution.
30. The fairness of authority in the
headquarters.
31. The fairness authorities regarding
promotions.
2. Interpersonal Relations
8. The cordiality of my relationship with my
fellow officers.
9. The interest and concern that the
management shows for my job.
21. The cordiality of my relationship with
my superior.

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Verbal
Interpretation

3.72

Satisfied

3.72

Satisfied

3.71

Satisfied

4.06

Satisfied

3.90

Satisfied

4.05

Satisfied

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
24. The ease communication between the
superior and officers about the problems in
the headquarters.
29. The sense of belonging I have when
working with my fellow officers.
3. Remuneration
7. The salary I get in my job.
12. The security of my job.
23. The fringe benefits I presently enjoy.
25. The productivity incentive in my job.
4. Supervision
22. The acquiring of new skills from my
superior.
30. The delegation of tasks by the
administrator.
5. Working Condition
3. The time allotted to complete assigned
tasks in my work.
11. The comforts of physical working
conditions (place of work, light noise) in
my job.
32. The technical facilities for the work.
GRAND WEIGHTED MEAN

3.79

Satisfied

3.94

Satisfied

3.66
3.72
4.36
3.65

Satisfied
Satisfied
Satisfied
Satisfied

3.87

Satisfied

3.79

Satisfied

3.91

Satisfied
Satisfied

3.64

Satisfied

3.61
3.83

Satisfied
Satisfied

Table 8 indicates the Job Satisfaction of Police Officers according to the hygiene factor, Of the 17 out 38 items in this questionnaire, Question number twenty-three which states “the fringe benefits I presently enjoy” has the highest weighted mean of 4.36. Question number thirty-two which states “The technical facilities for work” has the lowest weighted mean of 3.61.
The results gathered for items on Job Satisfaction according to motivation and the results of gathered for the sub factor hygiene are the same. The entire computed weighted mean falls under 3.50-4.49 with the verbal interpretation “Satisfied”. The result reveals that the

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respondents are satisfied with their interpersonal relationship to coworkers, compensation and working condition which can be considered as extrinsic factors that affects the Job Satisfaction of the Police Officers.

As a whole, results imply that self –fulfillment contributes to the Job Satisfaction of Police Officers is almost the same as the external variables. Moreover, the respondents perceive and manifest an ideal level of fulfillment, satisfaction and motivation in performing their duties.

3.0 ADVERSITY QUOTIENT OF THE RESPONDENTS
3.1.

Control Dimension
Table 9

Adversity Quotient® Profile of the Respondents in terms of Control Dimension Score Equivalent
(Verbal Interpretation)

Frequency

Percentage

High
Above Average
Average

0
4
24

0%
4%
24%

Below Average
11
Low
61
Total
100
GRAND WEIGHTED MEAN: 33.44% – LOW

11%
61%
100%

Table 9 shows the AQ Control® dimension which measures the degree of control a person perceives over adverse events. The table reveals that the Adversity

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Quotient® of the respondents in terms of Control dimension results to low, which means that the respondents perceive the adverse events are beyond their control and there is a little, if anything, they can do to prevent it or limit its damages. Low perceived control can have a highly detrimental effect on the senses of power to alter the situation. The respondents are subjected to a dangerous vulnerability to adversity, increasing its potential toll in their performance, energy and soul.

3.2.

Ownership Dimension
Table 10

Adversity Quotient® Profile of the Respondents in terms of Ownership Dimension
Score Equivalent
(Verbal Interpretation)

Frequency

Percentage

High

0

0%

Above Average
Average
Below Average
Low

0
5
13
82

0%
5%
13%
82%

TOTAL
100
GRAND WEIGHTED MEAN: 31.63 – LOW

100%

Table 10 reflects the AQ® Ownership Dimension which measures the extent to which a person holds himself or herself accountable for any adversity and the necessary contribution for improving the situation.

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The table shows that the

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
Adversity Quotient® of the respondents in the ownership dimension is low which infers that the respondents view adversity as primarily their fault (whether or not it is) and good events and strokes of luck due to external forces. Perceiving oneself as the origin of bad events can be hard on stress level, ego, and motivation of the person. The respondents deflect ownership, avoiding, holding themself accountable for working to solve the situation. Overtime, such a response may lead to self-doubt and withdrawal from major challenges.

3.3.

Reach Dimension
Table 11

Adversity Quotient® Profile of the Respondents in terms of Reach Dimension Score Equivalent
(Verbal Interpretation)
High
Above Average

Frequency

Percentage

4
6

4%
6%

Average

46

46%

Below Average
Low
TOTAL

31
13
100

31%
13%
100%

GRAND WEIGHTED MEAN: 29.22 – AVERAGE

Table 11 reflects the AQ® Reach Dimension which is the perception of how far the adversity reaches other areas of life. The table shows that the weighted mean of Reach Dimension lies at the mid-range (average) which means that the

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respondents react to adverse events somewhat specific. The respondents at weak moments may succumb to the temptation to turn setbacks into disasters, relying on others to pull him/her out of this emotional pit.

3.4.

Endurance Dimension
Table 12

Adversity Quotient® Profile of the Respondents in terms of Endurance Dimension
Score Equivalent
(Verbal Interpretation)
High
Above Average
Average

Frequency

Percentage

14
6
25

14%
6%
25%

Below Average
Low

38
17

38%
17%

TOTAL
100
GRAND WEIGHTED MEAN: 33.82 – AVERAGE

100%

Table 12 reveals the AQ® Endurance Dimension, the perception of time over which good or bad events and their consequences will last. In this table, the grand weighted mean is in mid-range. It indicates that the respondents may react to adverse events and somewhat enduring. This may, on occasion, delay him/her for taking constructive action. With life‘s small to moderate challenges, he/she may probably do a reasonably good job of keeping faith and forging ahead.

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3.5.

Over-all Adversity Quotient® Level
Table 13

Profile of the Respondents in terms of Over-all Adversity Quotient® Level Score Equivalent
(Verbal Interpretation)
High
Above Average

Frequency

Percentage

0
1

0%
1%

Average
Below Average
Low
TOTAL

5
19
75
100

5%
19%
75%
100%

GRAND WEIGHTED MEAN: 127.81 – LOW

As gleaned in Table 13, the Adversity Quotient® level of the respondents falls on low with a mean of 127.81. It means that the respondents probably suffered unnecessarily in a number of ways. They maybe unnecessarily feel his/her fortitude wavered and despondency or not feeling well about themselves at the moment they were taking the exam. However, their motivation, energy, vitality, health, performance, persistence, and hope can be greatly revitalized by learning and practicing the tools in raising AQ®.

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4.0 RELATIONSHIP OF PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS TO ADVERSITY
QUOTIENT®
4.1.

AQ® Control Dimension
Table 14

Relationship of Personal Characteristics to AQ® Control Dimension Personal
Characteristics vs.
AQ® Control
Dimension
Gender
Civil Status
Age
Educational Attainment

Computed
Pearson-R

Verbal
Interpretation

0.56
0.20
0.16
0.95

Moderate
Low
Low
High

Length of service

0.26

Low

In this table, Pearson Correlation Coefficient r was used to determine the significant relationships between the respondents’ personal characteristic and Adversity Quotient® CORE Dimensions. It could be seen in Table 14 that the computed r for the significant relationship between gender and AQ® Control dimension is 0.56 in which it is considered as moderate coefficient because in Pearson Correlation Coefficient, an r of .8 and above is considered a high coefficient, an r around .5 is moderate and an r of .3 and below is considered as low coefficient. Therefore, the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between gender and AQ® Control dimension of the respondents is accepted. It means that

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gender and AQ® Control dimension of the respondents is not significantly related. The degree of control a respondent perceives over difficult situations is not related to his/her gender. Their perceived capacity to be in control whenever there is an adversity is not affected by their gender.

The computed r for the significant relationship between civil status and AQ® Control dimension of the respondents is 0.20 which falls on low coefficient. Therefore, the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between civil status and AQ® Control dimension of the respondents is accepted. Heedless of the civil status, a police officer has the innate capability to be in control during adverse events.

The computed r for the significant relationship between age and AQ® Control dimension of the respondents is 0.16 which is low coefficient. Therefore, the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between age and AQ® Control dimension of the respondents is accepted. This implies that the perceived capacity to be in control in times of adversity is not dictated by the age of the respondents. The computed r for the significant relationship between educational attainment and AQ® Control dimension of the respondents is 0.95 which is a high coefficient. Therefore, the hypothesis that there is
no significant relationship between educational attainment and AQ® Control dimension of the respondents is rejected. The perceived control of the respondents over life’s dire events is concomitant to

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their educational attainment. This shows that the degrees earned by the respondents determine their level of success in handling adverse challenges that come along their way.
The computed r for the significant relationship between the length of service and AQ® Control dimension of the respondents is 0.26 which is a low coefficient. Therefore, the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between the length of service and AQ® Control dimension of the respondents is accepted. The number of years of service of the respondents has nothing to do with their capabilities in perceiving to control difficult events. Also, length of time the respondents handle their respective position is not related with the perceived implicit capacity to be in control during times of distress.

4.2.

AQ® Ownership Dimension
Table 15

Relationship of Personal Characteristics to AQ® Ownership Dimension Personal
Characteristics vs.
AQ® Ownership
Dimension
Gender
Civil Status
Age

Computed
Pearson-R

Verbal
Interpretation

0.30
0.25
0.41

Low
Low
Low

Educational Attainment
Length of Service

0.46
0.53

Low
Moderate

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
To determine the significant relationships between personal characteristics and AQ® Ownership Dimension of the respondents, Pearson r was used in Table 15. The computed r for the significant relationship between gender and AQ® Ownership Dimension of the respondents is 0.30 which is described as low coefficient. Therefore, the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between gender and AQ® Ownership Dimension of the respondents is accepted. It shows that the gender of the respondents has nothing to do with the extent to which they hold themselves accountable for any adversity; neither has it dictated the necessary contribution they can give for improving the situation.

The computed r for the significant relationship between civil status and AQ® Ownership Dimension of the respondents is 0.25, a low coefficient. So, the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between civil status and AQ® Ownership Dimension of the respondents is accepted. Their civil status is unassociated to their accountability and responsibility for the result of adversity. It indicates that having sense of accountability and at the same time the capacity to do right actions to ameliorate the situation due to adversity can be possessed by the respondents heedless of their civil status.

The computed r for the significant relationship between age and AQ® Ownership Dimension of the respondents is 0.41 which is low coefficient. Therefore,

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between age and AQ® Ownership Dimension of the respondents is accepted. Hence, the age of the respondents is not related with the perceived tendency to view themselves accountable for the result of any difficulties they are facing and the degree to which they take part to make the situation better.

The computed r for the significant relationship between educational attainment and AQ® Ownership Dimension of the respondents is 0.46, a low coefficient. Therefore, the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between educational attainment and AQ® Ownership Dimension of the respondents is accepted. This shows that the degrees earned by the respondents is not a basis for the determination of their level of responsibility in the outcome of adversities, neither has it contributes to the extent to which they take part in improving the situation caused by the difficulties.

The computed r for the significant relationship between the length of service and AQ® Ownership Dimension of the respondents is 0.53 which is a moderate coefficient. Therefore, the hypothesis that there is no significant
relationship between the length of service and AQ® Ownership Dimension of the respondents is still accepted. This means that the extent to which the respondents hold themselves accountable for improving their situation is not related to the number of years they are in service. Thus, whether a respondent is a neophyte in service or have been for

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longer time span, he/she is liable for the result of any challenges and is expected to take part in making the situation better.

4.3.

AQ® Reach Dimension
Table 16
Relationship of Personal Characteristics to AQ® Reach Dimension

Personal
Characteristics vs.
AQ® Reach Dimension
Gender

Computed
Pearson-R

Verbal
Interpretation

0.52

Moderate

Civil Status

0.12

Low

Age

0.53

Moderate

Educational Attainment
Length of Service

0.21
0.31

Low
Low

In this table, Pearson r was also used to determine the significant relationships between personal characteristics and AQ® Reach Dimension of the respondents. The computed r for the significant relationship between gender and AQ® Reach Dimension of the respondents is 0.52 which is a moderate coefficient. Therefore, the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between gender and AQ® Reach Dimension of the respondents is still accepted. It means that the respondents’ gender has nothing to do with their ability to let adversity invade other areas of their lives. So whether a respondent is a male or female, he/she may respond to adverse events in somewhat specific manner.

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The computed r for the significant relationship between civil status and AQ® Reach Dimension of the respondents is 0.12 which falls on a low coefficient
r. The hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between civil status and AQ® Reach Dimension of the respondents is accepted. Therefore, the civil status of the respondents is unassociated to their ability to perceive good or bad events reaching into other areas of their life.

The computed r for the significant relationship between age and AQ® Reach Dimension of the respondents is 0.53 which is considered as moderate coefficient. Still, the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between age and AQ® Reach Dimension of the respondents is accepted. It implies that the age of the respondents is not a determinant to their perceived ability to limit the extent adversity in affecting other aspects of life.

The computed r for the significant relationship between educational attainment and AQ® Reach Dimension of the respondents is 0.21 which is a low coefficient. So the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between educational attainment and AQ® Reach Dimension of the respondents is accepted. It indicates that educational attainment is not associated to their ability to perceive good or bad events reaching into other areas of life. It is still up to the person to decide on what kind of event that will affect him/her.

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
The computed r for the significant relationship between the length of service of the respondent and AQ® Reach Dimension is 0.31 which is also a low coefficient. Therefore, the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between the length of service and AQ® Reach Dimension of the respondents is accepted. This implies that the years of service in which the respondents handle the position do not determine their capabilities to perceive events which will affect their lives, whether good or bad, that they encounter in the course of performing their respective duties.

4.4.

AQ® Endurance Dimension
Table 17

Relationship of Personal Characteristics to AQ® Endurance Dimension Personal
Characteristics vs.
AQ® Endurance
Dimension
Gender

Computed
Pearson-R

Verbal
Interpretation

0.34

Low

Civil Status

0.30

Low

Age

0.21

Low

Educational Attainment
Length of Service

0.42
0.35

Low
Low

To determine the significant relationship between personal characteristics and AQ® Endurance Dimension of the respondents, Pearson r was used in Table 17. The computed r for the significant relationship between gender and AQ® Endurance

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
Dimension of the respondents is 0.34 which describe as low coefficient. Therefore the decision was to accept the null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between gender and AQ® Endurance Dimension of the respondents. The result implies that the perception of time in which the adversity and its consequences would most likely last is not influenced by the gender of the respondents. So gender my not be an issue in determining the perceived stability on views regarding the concept of endurance.

The computed r for the significant relationship between civil status and AQ® Endurance Dimension of the respondents is 0.30 which is also a low coefficient. So the null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between civil status and AQ® Endurance Dimension of the respondents is accepted. It implies that the civil status of the police respondents has nothing to do with their ability to perceive the duration over which good or bad events and their corresponding consequences will last or endure.

The computed r for the significant relationship between age and AQ® Endurance Dimension of the respondents is 0.21 which falls on the low coefficient of r. Therefore, the null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between age and AQ® Endurance Dimension of the respondents is accepted. This
shows that the perceived capacity to view the length of adversity and the consequences it brings

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are not related to the ages of the respondents. This further indicates that the ability to cope up with such instances is not dependent on the age as well. The computed r for the significant relationship between the level of educational attainment and the AQ® Endurance Dimension of the respondents is 0.42 which is another low coefficient. Therefore, the decision was to accept the null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between the educational attainment and AQ® Endurance Dimension of the respondents. The result indicates that the degrees earned by the respondents do not determine their perception on the length of time in enduring hardships as well as its consequences. Educational attainment furthermore, does not affect the respondents’ ability to go on with their normal lives and to keep moving forward.

The computed r for the significant relationship between the length of service and the AQ® Endurance Dimension of the respondents is 0.35, a low coefficient. So the null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between the length of service and AQ® Endurance Dimension of the respondents is accepted. This shows that police officers’ perception on the duration of a particular adverse situation as well as the length of experiencing its effect is not determined by the years of their services in the position. Hence, a police officer serving for only a year can have the capacity to endure adversity and its effect is in the same manner as those performing their duties for longer years.

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4.5.

Over-all Adversity Quotient®
Table 18

Relationship of Personal Characteristics to Over-all Adversity Quotient® Personal
Characteristics vs.
Over-all AQ®
Gender

Computed
Pearson-R

Verbal
Interpretation

0.23

Low

Civil Status

0.34

Low

Age
Educational Attainment
Length of Service

0.37
0.26
0.55

Low
Low
Moderate

To determine the significant relationship between personal characteristics and Adversity Quotient® of the respondents, Pearson r was used in Table 18. The computed r for the significant relationship between gender and Adversity Quotient® of the respondents is 0.23 which is a low coefficient. Therefore, the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between gender and Adversity Quotient® of the respondents is accepted. The result shows that regardless of gender, respondents have the ability to handle and overcome any adversities they might encounter in their life.

The computed r for the significant relationship between civil status and Adversity Quotient® of the respondents is 0.34 which is also a low coefficient. Therefore, the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between civil status

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and Adversity Quotient® of the respondents is accepted. The result shows that the capability to go on with the vast areas of life even with the occurrence of difficulties and hardships is not determined with the civil status.

The computed r for the significant relationship between age and Adversity Quotient® of the respondents is 0.37 and falls as low coefficient. So the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between age and Adversity Quotient® of the respondents is accepted. It indicates that the age of the respondents is not a basis in determining their ability to live a normal life inspite of the presence of adverse challenges.

The computed r for the significant relationship between educational attainment and Adversity Quotient® of the respondents is 0.26, another low coefficient. Thus, the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between educational attainment and Adversity Quotient® of the respondents is also accepted. The result shows that the degree earned by the respondents
has nothing to do with their ability to perform a good job amidst the hardships that their system is experiencing.

The computed r for the significant relationship between the length of service and Adversity Quotient® of the respondents is 0.55 which is a moderate coefficient. But still, the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between length of service and Adversity Quotient® of the respondents is accepted. This implies that

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
years in which the respondents are handling their respective duties does not gauge their capacity to do their obligations successfully even with the presence of adversity.
As a whole, the result of the findings shows that Personal Characteristics of the respondents is not significantly related to their Adversity Quotient®. Though educational attainment is somewhat related on to how they perceive to control adverse events, the age, gender, civil status and length of service are not an impediment to stay focused and resolute in adversity and in challenging tasks and responsibilities of being a police.

5.0 RELATIONSHIP OF THE LEVEL OF JOB SATISFACTION TO ADVERSITY QUOTIENT®
Table 19
Relationship of the Level of Job Satisfaction to Adversity Quotient® Job Satisfaction vs.
Adversity Quotient®
Control

Computed
Pearson-R
0.34

Verbal
Interpretation
Low

Ownership

0.87

High

Reach
Endurance
Overall

0.27
0.29
0.42

Low
Low
Low

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
In Table 19, the Pearson r was also used to determine the significant relationship between job satisfaction level and AQ® CORE Dimensions of the respondents. The computed r for the significant relationship between the job satisfaction level and AQ® Control dimension of the respondents is 0.34 which is a low coefficient. Therefore, the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between job satisfaction level and AQ® Control dimension of the respondents is accepted. This indicates that the respondents’ perception of his their control over adverse events is not affected by the level of their job satisfaction as police officers. Whether they are satisfied or not with their jobs, they can successfully overcome those difficulties by being optimistic, calm and open-minded. The computed r for the significant relationship between job satisfaction level and AQ®
Ownership dimension of the respondents is 0.87 which indicates a high coefficient. Thus, the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between job satisfaction level and AQ® Ownership dimension of the respondents is rejected. This implies that the perceived accountability for the result of any adverse event as well as the responsibility the respondents hold for themselves in improving the situation is affected by the job satisfaction level they have in handling their positions. The more they are satisfied with their job, the more they held accountable for any difficulties that they may encounter and the more they will find a way to ameliorate the situation.

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
The computed r for the significant relationship between the job satisfaction level and AQ® Reach dimension of the respondents is 0.27 which is low coefficient. So, the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between job satisfaction level and AQ® Reach dimension is accepted. This indicates that the respondents’ perceived capacity to limit the extent of the effects brought about by any adverse challenge in a manner that the other areas of their lives are not affected is not determined by the job satisfaction level they have as police officers. The computed r for the significant relationship between job satisfaction level and AQ® Endurance dimension of the respondents is 0.29, a low coefficient. Therefore, the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between job satisfaction level and AQ® Endurance dimension of the respondents is accepted. This implies that the job satisfaction level is not correlated with the respondents’ perception of being stable or unshaken upon learning the causes and the apparent temporary or lasting effects of any adversity they are facing in performing their jobs. The computed r for the significant relationship between job satisfaction level and Over-all Adversity Quotient® of the respondents is 0.42, also a low coefficient. Hence, the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between job satisfaction level and Over-all Adversity Quotient® of the respondents is accepted. This Over-all indicates that job satisfaction level among respondents is not related

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
with their perceived ability to handle abstruse instances in life and to overcome them successfully while in the lines of their duties.
As a whole, the result of the findings shows that the Job Satisfaction Level of the respondents is not significantly related to their Adversity Quotient®. But, in terms of the extent to which the respondents own, or takes responsibilities for the outcomes of adversity or the extent to which they hold themselves accountable for improving the situation, their job satisfaction level correlates. However, despite these findings and their vulnerability to adversity because of the nature of their jobs, the respondents still manages to become resilient most of the time and able to cope up and fight to whatever challenges, difficulties and hardships that comes their way.

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
Chapter 5

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter combines the highlights of the significant findings of the study, conclusions and the recommendations presented by the researcher. This research work was undertaken to investigate the relationship of Personal Characteristics and Job Satisfaction to Adversity Quotient® of the Police Officers in Manila Police District.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:
1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

Age

Gender

Civil Status

Educational Attainment

Length of Service

2. What is the level of Job Satisfaction of the respondents? 3. What is the level of Adversity Quotient of the respondents in terms of: –

Control

Ownership

Reach

78

-

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
Endurance

Overall AQ®

4. Is

there

a

significant

relationship

between

the

following

personal

characteristics of the respondents and their Adversity Quotient® –

Age

Gender

Civil Status

Educational Attainment

Length of Service

5. Is there a significant relationship between the Job Satisfaction level of the respondents and their Adversity Quotient®

The study tested the following hypotheses:
1. There is no significant relationship between the following personal characteristics of respondents and their Adversity Quotient® –

Age

Gender

Civil Status

Educational Attainment

Length of Service

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
2. There is no significant relationship between the respondents’ level of Job Satisfaction and Adversity Quotient®.

To find answers to these research questions and hypotheses, the study employed descriptive correlational method in assessing the relationship of personal characteristics and job satisfaction level to Adversity Quotient®. Random Sampling technique was employed to include in the study a total of 100 Police Officers as respondents in Manila Police District.

The data were gathered using standard questionnaires. The checklist on demography covered the following variables: ages, gender, civil status, years of service and educational attainment. The questionnaire on job satisfaction was adapted from the Job Satisfaction Questionnaire by Dr. Marissa B. Ferrer. The questionnaire for Adversity Quotient® was taken from Adversity Quotient Profile® Version 8.1 Online by Dr. Paul Stoltz.

The data were subjected to statistical treatment. The frequency and percentage were used specifically in dealing with nominal data generated by personal characteristics checklist. Weighted Arithmetic Mean was used to calculate the Job Satisfaction Questionnaire. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient r was used to determine the relationship between Adversity Quotient® and job satisfaction and personal characteristics of the respondents.

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
Summary of Findings

After the data have been treated and interpreted, the significant findings of the study are; as to the profile of the respondents in terms of age, respondents belong to 31-40 and 21-30 age groups. This indicates that majority of the respondents are in the early adult to adult years. Second,
on the profile in terms of gender, there is a domain of male for the position. Third, on the profile in terms of civil status, majority of the Police Officers in MPD are married. Fourth, on the profile in terms of educational attainment, Police Officers at least have a Bachelor’s Degree. Last, on the profile in terms of length of service, majority have been in the service for 5 years and above.

The respondents rating in terms of job satisfaction level according to motivation has a grand weighted mean of 3.97 and all the computed weighted mean fall under the verbal interpretation “Satisfied.” The result reveals that the respondents are satisfied in their works, responsibilities and achievement. In terms of Job Satisfaction level according to hygiene, the grand weighted mean is 3.83 and all fall under the interpretation “Satisfied.” It also shows that the respondents are satisfied in their interpersonal relationship, compensation and working condition.

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
Overall, the result implies that self-fulfillment contributes to the Job Satisfaction of Police Officers as well as the external variables.
The respondents rating in terms of their Adversity Quotient® CORE Dimensions, majority of the respondents belong to low range of AQ® Control dimension with a weighted mean of 33.44 which indicates that respondents perceive the adverse events are beyond their control and they think that they can’t do anything to prevent it or limit its damages. In terms of the AQ® Ownership dimension, majority of the respondents below to low range with a weighted mean of 31.63 which implies that the respondents view adversity as primarily their fault (whether or not it is) and good events and strokes of luck are due to external forces. In terms of AQ® Reach dimension, majority of the respondents is in average range with a weighted mean of 29.22. This shows that the respondents react to adverse events somewhat specific. In terms of AQ® Endurance dimension, majority of the respondents is in the below average range. This implies that the respondent may react to adverse events and somewhat enduring. Respondents’ rating in terms of their Over-all Adversity
Quotient®, majority of them is in low range which indicates that the respondents may be at the moment suffering in a number of ways and also unnecessarily feel his/her fortitude wavered and or despondency. But through learning and practicing the tools in raising AQ, their motivation, persistence and performance can be revitalized.

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
On the significant relationship between personal characteristics and Adversity Quotient® CORE Dimensions, there is no significant relationship between gender, civil status, age, educational attainment and length of service and AQ® Control, Ownership, Reach and Endurance dimension of the respondents. However, educational

attainment

correlates

with

AQ®

Control

dimension.

Personal

characteristics and their Over-all Adversity Quotient® of the respondents are not significantly related thus the null hypothesis is accepted.
On the significant relationship between the Job Satisfaction level and Adversity Quotient®, the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between job satisfaction and Adversity Quotient® in Control, Reach, Endurance and Over-all AQ® of the respondents is accepted. Though,
the AQ® Ownership dimension correlates with the job satisfaction level of the respondents and hence, the null hypothesis in this is rejected.

Conclusions

Based on the above-mentioned findings, the following conclusions were drawn:

1. Majority of the respondents of this study are married and in their early adult to adult years. More than half of the respondents are male. With regards to

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
educational attainment, majority of the Police Officers are graduates of Bachelor’s Degree only. Most of them served as Police Officers for five years and above.
2. The respondents are generally satisfied and contented with their overall job as Police Officers.
3. The respondents are within the low range of Adversity Quotient® in Control and Ownership dimensions. In terms of Adversity Quotient® in Reach and Endurance dimensions the respondents are within the average range. 4. The respondents have low level of Adversity Quotient®.

5. The study showed that there is no significant relationship between the personal characteristics and Ownership, Reach and Endurance dimensions and the Over-all AQ® of the respondents. However, there found to be a significant relationship between educational attainment and AQ® Control dimension of the respondents.

6. With regard to the relationship between job satisfaction and Adversity Quotient®, the study showed that there is no significant relationship in Control, Reach, Endurance and Over-all AQ®. Though, there found to be a significant relationship between AQ® Ownership dimension and the level of job satisfaction.

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
Recommendations

In the light of the foregoing conclusions, the following recommendations are hereby forwarded:

1. As the level of Job Satisfaction is not very high among respondents, there is a need to improve more on the kind of motivation the institution is giving to the police officers. The study recommends providing monetary support of the administration to improve headquarters and outposts for the Police Officers, especially the availability of technical facilities needed to perform their jobs effectively and efficiently. Safety and security are also important factors to be improved. This can be achieved by providing incentives, insurance and health benefits for them and for their family to keep them motivated and satisfied in performing their duties. It is also recommended that administration should improve the skills, knowledge, and competencies among Police Officers through national and international seminars and trainings and in employing modern technology to their line of work.

2. Police Officers should pursue and finish their Master’s Degree to make them fully equipped with gainful skills and expertise so as to have a greater degree of control over adverse events.

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
3. Police Officers should constantly conduct a psychological assessment for them to monitor their capacity to be in control of the adverse events and its consequences as they perform their duties.

4. It is recommended that the present study may be reviewed, criticized, and
even replicated using more varied samples, variables and other surveys and measurement techniques and include the rank of the Police Officers to provide a deeper comparisons of the results.

5. The Philippine National Police Administration should purchase testing instruments and facilities for Adversity Quotient and conduct regular and continuous tests for in-service policemen and new applicants. 6. An intervention program or counseling is highly recommended for policemen who suffer from unnecessary waver of fortitude and despondency. 7. The Neuro-Psychiatric Unit should perform pertinent actions after the results of the Neuro exams have been released and given to the clients. 8. Inclusion of life coaching and mentoring in the conduct of seminar and trainings of PNP is highly recommended.

9. Future researchers may widen the coverage of their studies by extending to the regional and national scope.

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
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Lerman, Robert and Avner Ahituv. (2005). How Do Marital Status, Wage Rates and Work Commitment Interact? ftp://repec.iza.org/dps/dp1688.pdf. Lugtu, Vincent. (2010). Adversity Quotient® as Correlates to Personality Temperament Traits among the Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) Police: Basis for a Proposed Recruitment and Selection. Thesis, Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila, Philippines.

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