Evils of Spain darkened the Philippine skies
1. Instability of colonial administration
2. Corrupt officialdom
3. No Philippine representation in Spanish Cortes
4. Human rights denied to Filipinos
5. No equality before the law
6. Maladministration of justice
7. Racial discrimination
9. Force labor
10. Haciendas owned by the friars and
11. Guardia civil
CHAPTER 15 “Rizal’s Second Sojourn in Paris and the Universal Exposition of 1889” Summary:
Rizal went to Paris after his stay in London. Despite the social parties and the glittering lights of the city, he continued his fruitful artistic, literary, and patriotic labors. He lived in a little room, together with two other Filipinos- Capitan Justo Trinidad, former gobernadorcillo of Santa Ana, Manila and a refugee from Spanish tyranny, and Jose Albert, a young student from Manila. He wrote letters to his family in Calamba giving an interesting account of his life in Paris. Like any ordinary Filipino tourist in a foreign land, Rizal was fascinated by the Universal Exposition of Paris which opened on May 6, 1889. Rizal and his friends attended the opening ceremonies and saw the cutting of the ribbon by Pres. Sadi Cannot of the Third French Republic. On May 19, 1889, Rizal organized his paisanos (compatriots) into a society called Kidlat Club.
Among its members were, Antonio and Juan Luna,Gregorio Aguilera, Fernando Canon, Lauro Dimayuga, Julie Llorente, Guillermo Puatu and Baldomero Roxas. Kidlat Club was founded by Rizal to bring together the young Filipinos in the French capital so that they could enjoy their sojourn in the city during the duration of the Universal Exposition. Rizal and the members of the Kidlat Club were amazed to see the Buffalo Bull show which featured the American Indians. The red-skinned Indians were proud riding their sturdy ponies, elegantly dressed in their native attire and wearing their war feathers and paints. Rizal was enchanted by the dignified and proud bearing of the American Indians. They are ashamed of their name. Let us be like them he said. Proud of the name Indio and make our Spanish enemies revise their conception of the term. Then he said, they shall be Indios Bravos. Thus was born a new society of Filipino patriots in Paris.
It replaced the ephemeral Kidlat Club. Another society founded by Rizal in Paris during the Universal Exposition of 1889 was the mysterious Sociedad R.D.L.M. Society. The letters R.D.L.M. are believed to be the initials of the socity ‘s secret nameRedencion de los Malayos (Redemption of the Malays). Only a few of Rizal’s trusted friends became members of the RDLM, namely, Gregorio del Pilar, Mariano Ponce, Baldomero Roxas, and Father Jose Maria Changco (Filipino priest). The aim of the secret society was the propagation of all useful knowledge – scientific, artistic, literary in the Philippines. And another aim was the redemption of the Malay race. Rizal’s outstanding achievement in Paris was the publication in 1890 of his annotated edition of Morga’sSucesos. The prologue was written by Professor Blumentritt, who censured Rizal’s errors namely:
1) Rizal commits the error of many historians in appraising the events of the past in the light of present standards and 2) Rizal ‘s attacks on the church were unfair and unjustified because the abuses of the friars should not be construed to mean that Catholicism is bad. Rizal’s annotated and published Morga’sSucesos was the best of the many histories of the Philippines written by early Spanish writers, being accurate in the narration of events,unbiased in judgement, and unmarred by childish fantasies. In December 25, 1889, Rizal and Jose Albert scraped enough money to celebrate Christmas. Shortly after New Year, Rizal made a brief visit to London to check up his annotated edition of Morga Sucesos with the original copy in the British Musem and to see Gertrude Beckett for the last time.
Analysis for the Spanish Rules that darkened Philippine skies: Some of the eleven evil deeds that darkened the Philippine skies of the Spaniards were mentioned to this chapter by Dr. Jose Rizal, especially in his essay the “Indolence of the Filipinos” Rizal made a critical study why his people did not work hard during Spanish regime. Long before the coming of the Spaniards, he pointed out the Filipinos were industrious and hard working. They were very active in agriculture, industries and commerce. The Spanish conquest of the country brought about a decline in economic activities because the Filipinos had abandoned pre-Spanish industries and worked less that their ancestors. Such decline in economic life was due to certain causes: (a) the force labor which compelled thousands of Filipinos laborers to work on shipyard, roads, bridges etc. (b) Spanish government neglect and indifference to agriculture, economic and commerce, (c) the teaching of Spanish missionaries that easier to poor man to enter the heaven than for a rich man. (d) Encouragement and propagation of gambling by Spanish authorities (e) system of Spanish education did not promote economic activity and enterprise, and so on.
CHAPTER 16 “In Belgian Brussels (1890)
On January 28, 1890, Rizal left Paris for Brussels, capital of Belgium. Two reasons impelled Rizal to leave Paris, namely: the cost of living in Paris was very high because of the Universal Exposition and the gay social life of the city hampered his literary works, especially the writing of his second novel El Felibusterismo. Rizal was accompanied by Jose Albert when move to Brussels. They lived in a modest boarding house on 38 Rue Philippe Champagne.
During his sojourn in Brussels, Rizal wrote articles for La Solidaridad in defense of his oppressed people and to point out the evils of Spanish rule in the Philippines. Among these articles appeared in the patriotic periodical were: 1. “A la Defensa”, April 30 1889
This was a reply to an anti-Filipino writing of a Spanish author Patricio de la Escosur. 2. “La Verdad Pera Todos” (The Truth for ALL) May 31, 1889. Rizal defense against the Spanish charges that native local officials were ignorant and depraved. 3. “Vicente Barrantes ‘ Tearo Tagalo” June 15, 1889.
Rizal exposes Barrantes ignorance on the Tagalog theoretical art. 4. “Una Profanacion” (A Profanation) July 31, 1889
A bitter attack against the friars for denying Christian burial to Mariano Herbosa, brother-in-law of Rizal. 5. “Verdades Nuevas” (New Truth) July 31, 1889
A reply to Vicente Belloc Sanchez, which asserted that the granting of reforms in the Philippines would ruin the “peaceful and maternal rule” of the friars. 6. “Crueldad” August 15, 1889.
A bit brilliant defense from the scurrilous attacks of his enemies.
7. “Diferenicas” (Differences) September 15, 1889
A reply to biased article entitled “Old Truth”
8. “Inconsequencias” November 30, 1889
A defense of Antonio Luna against the attack of Pablo Mir Deas in the Barcelona Newspaper. 9. “Lianto y Risas” (Tears and Laughter) November 30 1889 A denunciation of Spanish racial prejudice against the brown Filipinos. 10. “Ingratitudes” January 15, 1890
A reply to Governor General Valerino Weyler.
In spite of his European educational and his knowledge of foreign languages. Rizal loved his own native language. He was first to advocate the Filipinization of its orthography. For instance, the Tagalog letters k and w should be used instead of Spanish c and o. Thus the Hispanized Tagalog word salacot should be written salakot.
Rizal criticizes Madrid Filipinos for Gambling. In Brussels, Rizal received news from Juan Luna that the Filipinos in Spain were destroying the good name of their nation by gambling too much. Rizal received letters from home which worried him. The Dominican Order filed suit in a court to dispossess the Rizal family of their lands in Calamba. Meanwhile, including the Rizal family were persecuted. Paciano and Antpnio Lopez and Silvestre Ubaldo were deported to Mindoro. The sad news from home depressed Rizal. His heart bled to know the sorrowful plight of his parents, brother and brother-in-law.
In the face of the suffering which afflicted his family, Rizal planned to go home. He could not stay in Brussels writing a book while his parents, relatives and friends in the distant were persecuted. But all his friends including Blumentritt, were horrified by Rizal’s plan to return to the Philippines. They warn him of the danger that awaited him at home. But Rizal ignored the warning of his friends.
Rizal was so charming and dignified a gentleman that Petite Susanne was attracted to him. Naturally, being a normal young man, he found certain bliss in the company of a pretty Belgian girl, Petite Susanne. Like other women, Suzanne fell in love with Rizal. She cried when he left toward the end of July, 1890 for Madrid.
Analysis for the Spanish Rules that darkened Philippine skies: To this chapter Maladministration of justice, Racial Discrimination and No equality before the Law of Spaniards experienced by the Rizal family when Dominican Order filed a suit in court to dispossess the Rizal family of their lands in Calamba. Meanwhile the tenants and the Rizal family persecuted. Rizal brother Paciano and their brother-in-laws were deportd to Mindoro. Another one is the Denied of Human Right to Filipinos, when Mariano Herbosa husband of Lucia died of cholera, friars denied Christian burial to him.