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Financial Management Essay Sample

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Financial Management Essay Sample

Treasury bills are instrument of short-term borrowing by the Government of India, issued as promissory notes under discount. The interest received on them is the discount which is the difference between the price at which they are issued and their redemption value. They have assured yield and negligible risk of default. Under one classification, treasury bills are categorised as ad hoc, tap and auction bills and under another classification it is classified on the maturity period like 91-days TBs, 182-days TBs, 364-days TBs and two types of 14-days TBs. In the recent times (2002–03, 2003–04), the Reserve Bank of India has been issuing only 91-day and 364-day treasury bills. the auction format of 91-day treasury bill has changed from uniform price to multiple price to encourage more responsible bidding from the market players.[4] the bills are two kinds- Adhoc and regular. the adhoc bills are issued for investment by the state governments, semi government departments and foreign central banks for temporary investment. they are not sold to banks and general public. The treasury bills sold to the public and banks are called regular treasury bills. they are freely marketable. commercial bank buy entire quantity of such bills issued on tender . they are bought and sold on discount basis

In the global money market, commercial paper is an unsecured promissory note with a fixed maturity of no more than 270 days. Commercial paper is a money-market security issued (sold) by large corporations to get money to meet short term debt obligations (for example, payroll), and is only backed by an issuing bank or corporation’s promise to pay the face amount on the maturity date specified on the note. Since it is not backed by collateral, only firms with excellent credit ratingsfrom a recognized rating agency will be able to sell their commercial paper at a reasonable price. Commercial paper is usually sold at a discount from face value, and carries higher interest repayment rates than bonds. Typically, the longer the maturity on a note, the higher the interest rate the issuing institution must pay. Interest rates fluctuate with market conditions, but are typically lower than banks’ rates.[1] CALL MONEY MARKET

The call money market deals in short term finance repayable on demand, with a maturity period varying from one day to 14 days. S.K. Muranjan commented that call loans in India are provided to the bill market, rendered between banks, and given for the purpose of dealing in the bullion market and stock exchanges.[2] Commercial banks, both Indian and foreign, co-operative banks, Discount and Finance House of India Ltd.(DFHI), Securities trading corporation of India (STCI) participate as both lenders and borrowers and Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC), Unit Trust of India(UTI), National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)can participate only as lenders. The interest rate paid on call money loans, known as the call rate, is highly volatile. It is the most sensitive section of the money market and the changes in the demand for and supply of call loans are promptly reflected in call rates. There are now two call rates in India: the Inter bank call rate’and the lending rate of DFHI. The ceilings on the call rate and inter-bank term money rate were dropped, with effect from May 1, 1989. The Indian call money market has been transformed into a pure inter-bank market during 2006–07. [3] The major call money markets are in Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Ahmedabad. REPO’S

Repo is an abbreviation for Repurchase agreement, which involves a simultaneous “sale and purchase” agreement.[5] When banks have any shortage of funds, they can borrow it from Reserve Bank of India or from other banks. The rate at which the RBI lends money to commercial banks is called repo rate, a short term for repurchase agreement. A reduction in the repo rate will help banks to get money at a cheaper rate. When the repo rate increases borrowing from RBI becomes more expensive.[1]. CERTIFICATE OF DEPOSITS

A certificate of deposit (CD) is a time deposit, a financial product commonly sold in the United States by banks, thrift institutions, and credit unions. CDs are similar to savings accounts in that they are insured and thus virtually riskfree; they are “money in the bank”. CDs are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) for banks and by the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) for credit unions. They are different from savings accounts in that the CD has a specific, fixed term (often monthly, three months, six months, or one to five years), and, usually, a fixed interest rate.

It is intended that the CD be held until maturity, at which time the money may be withdrawn together with the accrued interest. In exchange for keeping the money on deposit for the agreed-on term, institutions usually grant higher interest rates than they do on accounts from which money may be withdrawn on demand, although this may not be the case in an inverted yield curve situation. Fixed rates are common, but some institutions offer CDs with various forms of variable rates. For example, in mid-2004, interest rates were expected to rise, many banks and credit unions began to offer CDs with a “bump-up” feature. These allow for a single readjustment of the interest rate, at a time of the consumer’s choosing, during the term of the CD. Sometimes, CDs that are indexed to the stock market, the bond market, or other indices are introduced. A few general guidelines for interest rates are:

* A larger principal should receive a higher interest rate, but may not. * A longer term will usually receive a higher interest rate, except in the case of an inverted yield curve (i.e. preceding a recession) * Smaller institutions tend to offer higher interest rates than larger ones. * Personal CD accounts generally receive higher interest rates than business CD accounts. * Banks and credit unions that are not insured by the FDIC or NCUA generally offer higher interest rates. * COLLATERISED LENDING AND BORROWING OBLIGATIONS

Definition of ‘Collateralized Borrowing And Lending Obligation – CBLO’A money market instrument that represents an obligation between a borrower and a lender as to the terms and conditions of the loan. Collateralized borrowing and lending obligations (CBLOs) are used by those who have been phased out of or heavily restricted in the interbank call money market.| | Investopedia explains ‘Collateralized Borrowing And Lending Obligation – CBLO’CBLOs were developed by the Clearing Corporation of India (CCIL) and Reserve Bank of India (RBI). The details of the CBLO include an obligation for the borrower to repay the debt at a specified future date and an expectation of the lender to receive the money on that future date, and they have a charge on the security that is held by the CCIL.

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