First-Line Managers are the ones whom meet the non-managerial staff most of the time. They are to direct the non-managerial staff of their daily tasks and duties assigned to them. They are also to monitor the performance and progress of the team. They are also to plan and prioritize the task that is handed down to them from higher management. In most cases, they will know their team members better and will delegate the tasks according to the most suitable team player in order for the task/goal to be completed. They are also motivate their team members and may have to resolve conflicts with in team members. Depending on some environments, First-line mangers may have to engage on the tasks of non-managerial staffs as well. One example will be the managers of McDonalds; they sometimes serve the customers, prepare the food or even clean the floor.
Their titles are mostly known as supervisors, Team leaders, Shift managers, Department Manager, Crew Manager, Store Manager Etc.
Middle Managers like the word middle are in-between Top Level Managers and Frist-line Managers. The Middle Managers basically manages a group of First-line managers and in some cases, a few non-managerial stuffs according to the working environment they are on. Middle Managers are responsible for carrying out the organization’s goal set by the Top Managers. They achieve this by planning out goals for the various team departments. They can also motivate First-line managers and also assist them as well to meet the goals set. Middle Manager is a two way management. Since they are aware of the day to day duties/works of the organization, they can also suggest to the Top Managers and offer feedbacks to Top Managers on how to further improve the organizations work process to gain more profits or success.
Middle Managers have many titles; here are some examples; Department Head,
Agency Head, Project Leader, Unit Chief Etc.
Top Managers are at the top 2 levels of the organization. They basically make decisions that affect the whole organization. They do not direct day to day activities of the organization but rather set goals for the organization and direct the organization to achieve them. Top Managers are responsible for the performance of the organization, like a captain of a ship; he is responsible to get the ship, his crew, goods, and passengers to shore safely.
Top Managers titles are CEO, Vice president, President, Managing Director, Chief Operating Officer, Chief Information Officer Etc.
Differences between Efficiency and Effectiveness
Efficiency is doing the task correctly or “Doing things right” while Effectiveness is doing the tasks that helps to reach the organization goals or “Doing the right things”.
Efficiency focuses on the process (doing things with less effort but gain great results) while Effectiveness focuses on the end results (getting the things done).
Efficiency is short term goals orientated while Effectiveness is long term goals orientated.
Efficiency organization can produce the same amount of units as an Effectiveness organization but they do it at a fraction of the cost while Effectiveness spends more to produce the same amount of units. Thus Efficiency makes more profit.
Organizations can’t run their company with only Efficiency or Effectiveness alone, at one point of time they will lose business or even close down. Organizations are to have both Efficiency and Effectiveness to survive in the market.
Stake Holders are any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the achievements of an organization’s goal.
Stake holders of Gap Company in rank order (according to personal study)
1) Employees: Gap takes their employees seriously as they ensure their well fair is well taken care of. Previously, there were some cases of employment misuse but Gap has learned and improved on its employees well fair. This will bring good product quality and good production.
2) Shareholders: Gap chooses its shareholders carefully and has built a good relationship with them. Gap practices transparency with their shareholders and have gained their trust. Shareholders with this trust, allow Gap to handle their issues while they report to them. Their shareholders have some influence across the world which helped them to establish globally.
3) Customers: Building their customer base over the years got them a pull of steady customers all over the world whom creates demands for their products (clothing from babies to children, teenage, pregnant women, woman and man). This demand also builds their business and revenue.
4) Suppliers: With a demand for their products, Gap needs a pull of suppliers for the production. Gap has maintained good relationships with their suppliers which help them get their supplies. Without these supplies, they will lose their business to other competitors easily.
5) Media: Over the years Gap had some bad publicity due to employment matters. This was a strain to their business but when they have improved their ways, the media help to publish their improvements which help to gain their name again. Good advisements also play apart for their business which reaches out to their customers of their goods and latest products. Good news from media also helps to sustain Gap’s customers and as well gain new ones.
How organization goes global
Minimal Global investmentSignificant Global Investment
1) Global sourcing: Microsoft is one example of placing their support telephone centers in Philippines for Singapore customers as running costs are cheaper over there compared to Singapore itself.
2) Exporting & Importing: Mitsubishi Crop as this expands their market for their goods in the international market. This also broadens the scope for more clients and the profit coming from them.
3) Licensing: Apple has produced products like Ipod and Iphone. There was an immediate need for accessories for these products and Apple has gave license to other companies to produce them, Thus the Docking bay, external speakers, better ear phones, good casings was born. Apple was able to offer their customers an elegant solutions which was made by other companies. Apple will gain sales growth from this method.
4) Franchising: Carl’s junior, where the license was bought by a local here in Singapore. The Brand is already established well in US and also known over the world for its food. This was a good easy setup for the local businessman. His sales were an instant profit. While for Carl’s Junior, the local businessman will have to pay a monthly license fee and may have to also pay part of the profits of the local setup. This depends on the contract agreement from Carl’s junior. This is a two way win business.
5) Join Venture: Sony Ericsson, together they produced great mobile phones at one time. This had opened a new market for one venture Sony and also Helped Ericsson to build up its business back. This will open up new markets and distribution networks, sharing of risks and costs with partner.
6) Foreign Subsidiary: Halliburton watch, an American company which goes foreign subsidiary to avoid taxes to be paid in the US. As long as its foreign companies follow the country government policy which they are in, taxes are not imposed on Halliburton in the US. Another reason is there will be an international presence for Halliburton without the hassle of setting up a new company aboard.
1) Slimmering, M.J. 2006. Encyclopedia of Business (2nd ED): Reference for Business. US: Advameg, Inc. http://www.referenceforbusiness.comhttp://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Log-Mar/Management-Levels.html#b**Question 1
2) Manisha. 2011, Differnece between similar terms and objects:Difference between efficiency and effectiveness.US:Difference Between.net. http://www.differencebetween.net/business/difference-between-efficiency-and-effectiveness/**Question 2
3) Godelnik, R.2011,How Gap became the poster boy for strategic stakeholder engagement.US.TrplePundit. http://www.triplepundit.com/2011/06/gap-became-poster-boy-strategic-stakeholder-engagement/**Question 3
4) Honeill.2008,Gap:Strategic management:Introduction;Vision, Mission and stalkholders.US.StudyMode.com. http://www.studymode.com/essays/Gap-Strategic-Management-Introduction-Vision-Mission-137287.html**Question 3
5) 2012,B2B Marketplace-Guide & research center:Benefits of importing and exporting.India:Worldpress.com. http://blogs.exportersindia.com/2012/01/12/benefits-of-importing-and-exporting/**Question 4
6) Fowler, P.M.2012,Advantages & Disadvntages of Licensing the rights to the company’s production process.US:Hearst Communications, Inc. http://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-disadvantages-licensing-rights-companys-production-process-15460.html**Question 4
7) Howard. F.2012,eHow Money:The advantages of Foreign Subsidaries.US:Demand Media.Inc. http://www.ehow.com/info_8596010_advantages-foreign-subsidiaries.html