Protecting forests has always been central to CI’s mission. Now it is more important than ever. Did you know the burning and clearing of forests contributes approximately 16 percent of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions and fuels climate change? Human activity is the main cause of deforestation, usually tied to economic development, increasing consumption rates – in both developed and developing countries – and extractive industries such as logging. Pristine jungles are burned and cleared for farming and ranching, or for plantations to produce biofuel crops. Cities and villages expand, prompting industrial development that supplants forests. Loggers extract more trees than the forest can reproduce, destroying ecosystems and leaving roads that invite other exploitative forces. Science in Action: Putting out Fires
The loss is irreplaceable. Tropical forests are home to more than half of all species on Earth, and their destruction means the extinction of countless plant and wildlife species, many still unknown to science. Forests also are important ecosystems in the balance of nature, providing a multitude of resources and services essential to all people. Destruction of habitat and resources forces people to move elsewhere for food, shelter and jobs, leading to greater poverty and social instability. In addition, burning and clearing forests emits approximately 16 percent of the greenhouse gases that cause climate change, more than all the world’s cars, trucks, and airplanes combined. If left intact, these tropical forests are reservoirs of massive amounts of carbon.
VISUAL AID: Check out a graphic representation of the role forests play in climate change. Protecting and restoring forests then is an essential first response to climate change. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, halting deforestation and restoring already degraded areas while adopting more forest-friendly agriculture and management practices would prevent the emission of more than 300 billion tons of carbon dioxide over the next 40 years. That is more than total U.S. emissions over that same period, based on current levels. In Madagascar’s Makira forest, CI has worked with our partners to prevent more than 8 million tons of carbon dioxide from entering the atmosphere. That’s equal to taking 145,000 cars off the road for 10 years. Twelve more of our carbon projects are under way in critical forests around the world, including the Philippines, Peru, Brazil, Guatemala, Mexico, Liberia, Indonesia and Colombia.
Forest conservation in the United States
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Forest Conservation is the practice of planting and maintaining forested areas for the benefit and sustainability of future generations. Around the year 1900 in the United States, forest conservation became popular with the uses of natural resources. It is the upkeep of the natural resources within a forest that are beneficial to both humans and the ecosystem. Forest conservation acts to maintain, plan, and improve forested areas. Forests provide wildlife with a suitable habitat for living along with filtering groundwater and preventing runoff. Contents * 1 History * 2 Forest types * 2.1 Boreal * 2.2 Temperate * 2.3 Sub-tropical * 3 Forest threats * 4 Techniques * 4.1 Afforestation * 4.2 Reforestation * 4.3 Selective logging * 4.4 Controlled burn * 4.5 Wildlife Management Areas * 5 References| History
Around the year 1900 in the United States, Gifford Pinchot lead a movement of conservation. Gifford Pinchot made conservation a popular word in its application to natural resources. Throughout the next two decades, forestry professions became widespread. Following World War I, forestry became a cooperation between private landowners, the states, and the federal government. On March 21, 1933, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt sent a message to the United States Congress to strengthen the United States forest resources. In the following days, congress enacted the establishment of emergency conservation work. This project consisted of twenty five thousand men working on forest protection by planting trees, watershed restoration and erosion control. About 2.2 billion seedlings were planted which marked a start of conservation in the United States. In 1935, the Natural Resources Committee was created to understand, plan and use natural resources. Following World War II, the first Smokey Bear symbol appeared on a poster to represent a fire prevention cooperation. The Smokey Bear icon soon became one of the best advertisement icons in the United States. When people started to realize that the resources were not unlimited within the forests, conservation efforts began to start. Forest types
There are many different types of forests. The many types of forests are categorized by climate and location. 98% of forest cover in the United States is natural with the remaining 2% being plantation land. 33% of the United States is made up of forests. Out of the 33% of the U.S. covered by forests, 37% make up subtropical forests. 48% make up temperate forests. The remaining 15% consist of boreal forests. Boreal
Boreal forests are found in the northern regions of the United States. Canada is made up of boreal forests. These forests have long cold winters and short cool summers. Precipitation can reach over 200 centimeters per year typically in the form of snow. Because of the cold climate in the boreal forests, the growing season is 3 months long. Boreal forests are made up of evergreen trees, mosses, and lichens. Mosses are a plant species that thrive in areas that are moist. Mosses can tolerate dry periods as well by holding water and moisture in the dead leaves and cells. Lichens are organisms in the form of fungal filaments. Algae is a form of lichen in the boreal forests. Temperate
Temperate forests are forests with high levels of precipitation. The yearly precipitation rate is between 20 and 60 inches in the form of rain or snow. Temperatures in temperate forests range from -22 degrees Fahrenheit to 86 degrees Fahrenheit. Temperate Forests within the United States are found on the Eastern region. Temperate forests are able to support a variety of species due to the large amount of rainfall. Mosses and lichens dominate the forest floor with medium size trees above such as dogwood trees. The top canopy is covered by larger trees such as maple trees, Birch trees, and Walnut trees. Sub-tropical
Subtropical forests are found in the United States along the southern border states. These forests are made up of evergreen species and deciduous species. Evergreens are plant species that retain their leaves year round while deciduous trees lose their leaves annually. The consistent warm climate along with consistent rainfall promote more plant growth than any other environment in the United States. Forest threats
Deforestation is a threat to forests according to foresters. Deforestation is the permanent destruction of forests and woodlands. Deforestation is brought about by commercial logging, conversion of woodlands to agricultural land, and the felling of trees for firewood and building material. Commercial logging is that harvest of timber products for the profit that is gained from selling the product. Illegal logging is a threat to forests. Illegal logging is the harvest of timber for economic gain without permission. This method is a threat because it impedes plans and upkeep of a forest. Forests are lost to urban development and building projects. When forest are cleared for these reasons, it creates problems that foresters are concerned with. When heavy machinery is used to clear forests or develop land, the soil becomes compacted. When the soil is compacted, the soil particles are packed tightly together. Soil compaction results in water supply not being absorbed by tree roots and can be deadly to the growth of trees.
Soil compaction also can create flooding. Compacted soil can not filter the groundwater into the soil therefor water can build up on the surface creating flooding as a result. Species extinction is another threat to our forests. With the removal of forests, animal and plant species suffer. Animal species can not survive without the adequate needs of their lifestyle. Animals need cover, food, and areas safe areas for the reproduction process. Altering their environment disrupts the life cycle of animal species and they are oftentimes not able to adapt. Food sources are lost to deforestation. Animal species tend to consume plant life to maintain themselves. With the removal of forests this can result in animals not being able to find food in order to survive.
Unmanaged recreational use is also a threat to forests. Unmanaged reacreational use is the use of the forested lands by the public at an uncontrolled rate. As recreational use as increased among forests, foresters have noticed an increase in land management that is needed. Invasive species threaten forests ecosystems. Invasive species are any species that is not native to that ecosystem and economic harm along with harm to the environment. Invasive species cause disruptions in the function of the ecosystem. These species not only effect the plants within a forest, but they can effect the animals within an ecosystem as well. The financial impact cause by invasive species is 138 billion dollars per year with economic loss and control costs. Techniques
Techniques of forest conservation are used to improve forested areas and to make the available resources sustainable. Afforestation
Afforestation is a proactive method used to improve forests. Afforestation is the planting of trees for commercial purposes. The supply of wood and wood products from afforested areas has prevented the over use and destruction of natural forests. Instead of taking resources from existing natural forests, afforestation is a process used to plant to trees and use them as resources instead of naturally existing forests. Afforestation is a way to create a forest. Afforestation occurs when the planting of trees is introduced to an area that previously had no trees. This creates habitat for wildlife, recreational areas, and commercial use while not causing harm to natural forests. Reforestation
Reforestation is another method to sustain forests by improving existing forested areas. Reforestation is a method of planting trees in an existing forested area. This method is used in reaction to deforestation. When forests are removed without reestablishment they can be reforested by planting trees in the same area to rebuild the existing forest. Selective logging
Selective logging is another method used to meet the needs of both the forests and humans seeking economical resources. Selective logging is the removal of trees within a stand based on size limitations. This technique allows for forest regeneration to occur between and after the selective harvest cycles. Controlled burn
Although it can be threatening if it is not controlled, fire is a successful way to conserve forest resources. Controlled burn is a technique that is used to manage forests. Fire can benefit the ecosystem within a forest. Fire is natural and it is also a tool of foresters used to improve the forests. It renews the forest undergrowth and also stimulates the germination of trees species. In some species of trees such as the Sequoia, seedlings remain in dormancy until broken by fire. As a result, These species can not reproduce without fire. Wildlife Management Areas
State departments of natural resources and conservation develop, maintain, and manage public lands across the nation. Special regulations and rules apply on all Wildlife Management Areas across the United States. Wildlife Management Areas are accessible to the public for many recreational uses. Hunters and campers enjoy the land to harvest wild game on a legal basis. Hunting is permitted on Wildlife Management Areas but there are rules and regulations. A valid hunting license is required, and often a Wildlife Management Area land use permit is also required. Along with public use of the Wildlife Management Areas, State departments of natural resources provide necessary management to upkeep the land. The management techniques within a Wildlife Management Area include developing habitat for wildlife along with conserving the natural land resources. Land resources within a Wildlife Management Area are conserved by not allowing the harvest of tree species or alteration of the land in any way.
Forest is defined as a plant community of trees and woody vegetation with a more or less closed canopy and forest conservation is the management of human use of the forest so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit to present generation while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspiration of future generations. Need and importance of forest conservation:
Forest conservation is essential for maintenance of essential ecological processes and life supporting systems. Preservation of diversity of species and ensuring. It helps in the social and economic development of nation forests confer a variety of benefits both nor-material and material. Advantages of forest conservation:
The following are the advantages and necessities of forest conservation. 1. Forest conservation support life on earth.
2. It maintains quality of water and air, the basic essentials of existence of life. 3. Stability in soil is possible by trees, enables the land based plants and animals to live. 4. From their biodiversity grows wealth in the form of food, medicines, essential for human health. 5. It acts as Carbon sinks absorbing Carbon dioxide and keeps global warning at body. 6. Forests influence climate and educe extremes of temperature. They conserve soil and regulate moisture and stream flow. It prevents soil erosion and floods. 7. Forests also supply raw materials to so many industries like pulp-paper, news print, saw milling, matches, medicinal herbs.. 8. It is the source of wood for use in houses construction and fuel wood. 9. Forests help in main export items like teak, paper, paper boards, natural resins, seeds obtained from forests. 10. Forests also source of revenue to the Government in the form of royalty, from leases of forest products. 11. It also provides employment to a large many people.
Means and ways of forest conservation:
Forests and wild life help in the ecological balance of the locality. So it should be conserved by the means as follows: 1. A forestation is applied to created new forests. Such trees acts as wind break to check the velocity of wind and prevents blowing away of fertile top soil. So forest conservation leads to soil I conservation. 2. By preventing deforestation conservation of forest is possible. 3. Over grazing: Over grazing of cattle, goats, sheep should not be allowed. They can not only destroy vegetation but also pull out roots of plants. 4. Industrial Use: The excessive use of woods and forest products by industries should be checked to conserve the forests. 5. Forest conservation can be made by preventing commercial exploitation in these areas and the protection from fuel-starved villagers. 6. Green Plantation: Green Plantation programme should be launched rapidly and community forests to be created with the co-operation of the local villagers on the community land. 7. By social forestry: Use of public and common land to produce in decentralized way fire wood, fodder, and small timber and also manage forest conservation. 8. Forest conservation Act 1980, Orissa Forest Act 1972 should be worked out for forest conservation. 9. Forest conservation is important factor to be thought about all over the World. Forest consists of plants from small to larger ones along with birds & animals.
Whatever be the climate trees protect us from heat, chilled or wind. Thousand of species of plants & animals are there in the forest. Forests are biological communities. Different types of forests namely rain forests, damp forests, dry forests, savannas etc are there. To remove atmospheric pollutants from the air, trees acts as filters. 10. What is photosynthesis? It is a method in which mammals inhale oxygen from air & exhale carbon dioxide. For the growth method, plants use carbon dioxide. In wooden tissues, plants store carbon. Plants exhale oxygen to the atmosphere. Photosynthesis is essential to life. Plants, animals, humans, trees – all are linked in way or other. In the carbon cycle, trees have an important role. Through forest conservation, they can preserve the trees for future generation. From the school classes itself more youthful generation ought to be taught about forest conservation. 11. People cut trees in the forest for wood. The woods are used as doors & windows for building constructions.
Indoor furniture as well as outdoor furniture can be formed form the wood. Some examples of furniture are table, chair, cot, chair, dresser, bookcase etc. Every year, trees in the forest are cut down by the people. A major environmental issue is warming of the earth’s atmosphere. Some causes of global warming are air pollution, deforestation etc. Thousands of species of birds & animals are threatened to life due to loss of forests around the World namely orangutan, mountain gorilla, manatee, jaguar, & Puerto Rican parrot. 12. The year 2011 is celebrating around the World as the year of forests. Rain forests are in places like Indonesia, Malaysia, Brazil etc. They grew every year 80 inches. They may be as high as 400 inches. In Plantation Forestry, trees are planted & grown for wood production in plantations. Dry Forests are present in places like India, Australia Africa etc. Trees of such forests are smaller in sizes. As the name implies, such forests receive tiny rain every year. In the coursework of dry season, trees of such forests lose their leaves.
Forest conservation is important factor to be thought about all over the World. Forest consists of plants from small to larger ones along with birds & animals. Whatever be the climate trees protect us from heat, chilled or wind. Thousand of species of plants & animals are there in the forest. Forests are biological communities. Different types of forests namely rain forests, damp forests, dry forests, savannas etc are there. To remove atmospheric pollutants from the air, trees acts as filters. What is photosynthesis? It is a method in which mammals inhale oxygen from air & exhale carbon dioxide. For the growth method, plants use carbon dioxide. In wooden tissues, plants store carbon. Plants exhale oxygen to the atmosphere. Photosynthesis is essential to life. Plants, animals, humans, trees – all are linked in way or other. In the carbon cycle, trees have an important role. Through forest conservation, they can preserve the trees for future generation. From the school classes itself more youthful generation ought to be taught about forest conservation.
People cut trees in the forest for wood. The woods are used as doors & windows for building constructions. Indoor furniture as well as outdoor furniture can be formed form the wood. Some examples of furniture are table, chair, cot, chair, dresser, bookcase etc. Every year, trees in the forest are cut down by the people. A major environmental issue is warming of the earth’s atmosphere. Some causes of global warming are air pollution, deforestation etc. Thousands of species of birds & animals are threatened to life due to loss of forests around the World namely orangutan, mountain gorilla, manatee, jaguar, & Puerto Rican parrot. The year 2011 is celebrating around the World as the year of forests. Rain forests are in places like Indonesia, Malaysia, Brazil etc. They grew every year 80 inches. They may be as high as 400 inches. In Plantation Forestry, trees are planted & grown for wood production in plantations. Dry Forests are present in places like India, Australia Africa etc. Trees of such forests are smaller in sizes. As the name implies, such forests receive tiny rain every year. In the coursework of dry season, trees of such forests lose their leaves.