Forms of Business Organisation Essay Sample

Forms of Business Organisation Pages
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While establishing a business the most important task is to select a proper form of organisation. This is because the conduct of business, its control, acquisition of capital, extent of risk, distribution of profit, legal formalities, etc. all depend on the form of organisation. The most important forms of business organisation are as follows: Sole Proprietorship Joint Hindu Family Business Partnership Joint Stock Company Private Limited Public Limited Co-operative Society Forms of Business Organisation

Sole Proprietorship :
Sole Proprietorship When the ownership and management of business are in control of one individual, it is known as sole proprietorship or sole tradership. It is seen everywhere, in every country, every state, every locality.

Sole Proprietorship: Characteristics :
Sole Proprietorship: Characteristics 1. Ownership : The business enterprise is owned by one single individual, i.e. the individual has got legal title to the assets and properties of the business. The entire profit arising out of business goes to the sole proprietor. Similarly, he also bears the entire risk or loss of the firm. 2. Management : The owner of the enterprise is generally the manager of the business; he is the sole decision maker. 3. Source of Capital : The entire capital of the business is provided by the owner. 4. Legal Formalities : In the setting up, functioning and dissolution of a sole proprietorship business legal formalities are minimal.

Sole Proprietorship: Characteristics :
Sole Proprietorship: Characteristics 5. Legal Status : The proprietor and the business enterprise are one and the same in the eyes of law. There is no difference between the business assets and the private assets of the sole proprietor. The business ceases to exist in the absence of the owner. 6. Liability : The liability of the sole proprietor is unlimited. This means that, in case the sole proprietor fails to pay for the business obligations and debts arising out of business activities, his personal property can be used to meet those liabilities. 7. Stability : The stability and continuity of the firm depend upon the capacity, competence and the life span of the proprietor.

Sole Proprietorship: Advantages :
Sole Proprietorship: Advantages Easy Formation: The biggest advantage of a sole tradership business is its easy formation. Anybody wishing to start such a business can do so in many cases without any legal formalities. 2. Better Control (Prompt Decision Making & Flexibility in Operations ) Full authority of the owner over his business allows prompt decision making & flexibility in operations and thus ensures effective control. 3. Retention of Business Secrets : Another important advantage of a sole proprietorship business is that the owner is in a position to maintain absolute secrecy regarding his business activities. 4. Social Desirability: It promotes Entrepreneurship, Self-employment & Equitable Distribution of Wealth

Sole Proprietorship: Disadvantages :
Sole Proprietorship: Disadvantages Unlimited Liability : In sole proprietorship, the liability of business is recovered from the personal assets of the owner. It restricts the sole trader to take more risk and increases the volume of his business. 2. Limited Financial Resources : The ability to raise and borrow money by one individual is always limited. The inadequacy of finance is a major handicap for the growth of sole proprietorship. 3. Limited Capacity of Individual : An individual has limited knowledge and skill. Thus his capacity to undertake responsibilities, his capacity to manage, to take decisions and to bear the risks of business are also limited. 4. Uncertainty of duration : The existence of a sole tradership business is linked with the life of the proprietor. Illness, death or insolvency of the owner brings an end to the business. The continuity of business operation is, therefore, uncertain.

Joint Hindu Family Business (JHF) :
Joint Hindu Family Business (JHF) A Joint Hindu Family business comes into existence as per the Hindu Inheritance Laws of India. The Joint Hindu Family (JHF) business is a form of business organisation found only in India. In this form of business, all the members of a Hindu undivided family own the business jointly. The affairs of business are managed by the head of the family, who is known as the “KARTA” . In a JHF business only the male members get a share in the business by virtue of their being part of the family. They are called “Co-parceners”. The term co-parceners implies that such an individual has got the right to ask for a partition of the Joint Hindu Family business and to have his separate share. The membership is limited up to three successive generations. Thus, an individual, his sons(s), and his grandson(s) become the members of a Joint Hindu Family by birth.

JHF: Characteristics :
JHF: Characteristics 1. Legal Status : The JHF business is a jointly owned business just like a jointly owned property. It is governed by Hindu Law. It can enter into partnership agreement with others. 2. Membership : There is no membership other than the members of the joint family. Inside the family also, it is restricted only to male members who are co-parceners by birth. 3. Profit Sharing : All co-parceners have equal share in the profits of the business. In the event of death of any of the co-parcener, his wife can claim share of profit. 4. Management : The management of a joint Hindu family business is in the hands of the senior-most family member who is known as the karta. He has the authority to manage the business and his ways of managing can not be questioned by the co-parceners.

JHF: Characteristics :
JHF: Characteristics 5. Liability : The liability of each member of the Joint Hindu Family business is limited to the extent of his share in the business. But the liability of the karta is unlimited as, it extends to his personal property. 6. Fluctuating Share : The individual share of each co-parcener keeps on fluctuating. This is because, every birth of a male child in the family adds to the number of co-parceners and every death of a co-parcener reduces the number. 7. Continuity : A Joint Hindu Family business continues to exist on the death of any co-parcener. Even on the death of the karta, it continues to exist as the next senior-most family member becomes karta. However, a Joint Hindu Family business can be dissolved any time either through mutual agreement between members or by partition.

JHF Business: Advantages :
JHF Business: Advantages Assured share in profits : Every co-parcener is assured a share in the profits irrespective of his contribution to the successful running of the business. This , in a way safeguards the interests of some members of the family like minors, sick, disabled and widows. 2. Freedom in managing : The karta enjoys full freedom in conducting the family business. It enables him to take quick decisions without much interference. 3. Sharing of knowledge and experience : A JHF provides opportunity for the young members of the family to get the benefit of knowledge and experience of the elder members and also helps in inculcating virtues like discipline, self-sacrifice, tolerance etc. 4. Continued existence : A Joint Hindu Family business is not affected by the insolvency or death of any member including that of karta. Thus it can continue for a long period of time.

JHF Business: Disadvantages :
JHF Business: Disadvantages 1. Limited resources : Joint Hindu Family business has generally limited financial and managerial resource. Therefore, it can not undertake big and risky business. 2. Scope for misuse of power by the karta : Since the karta has unquestionable authority to manage the business, there is scope for him to misuse it for his personal gains. 3. Scope for conflict : In a JHF business the male members of three successive generations are involved which may lead to conflict between generations. Also there might be a lack of motivation among the members who work hard as the benefits of their efforts are shared by all the co-parceners. 4. Instability : The continuity of business is always under threat. It may be due to a small rift within the family and if a co-parcener ask for a partition the business is closed.

Partnership :
Partnership A partnership form of organisation is one where two or more persons are associated to run a business with a view to earn profit. Persons from similar background or persons of different ability and skills, may join together to carry on a business. Each member of such a group is individually known as ‘partner’ and collectively the members are known as a ‘partnership firm’. These firms are governed by the Indian Partnership Act, 1932.

Partnership: Characteristics :
Partnership: Characteristics Number of Partners : A minimum of two persons are required to start a partnership business. The maximum membership limit is 10 in case of banking business and 20 in case of all other types of business. 2. Contractual Relationship : The relation between the partners of a partnership firm is created by contract. The partners enter into partnership through an agreement which may be verbal, written or implied. If the agreement is in writing it is known as a ‘Partnership Deed’. 3. Competence of Partners : Since individuals have to enter into a contract to become partners, they must be competent enough to do so. Thus, minors, lunatics and insolvent persons are not eligible to become partners. However, a minor can be admitted to the benefits of partnership i.e. he can have a share in the profits.

Partnership: Characteristics :
Partnership: Characteristics 4. Legal Status : The firm means partners and the partners mean the firm. Law does not recognise the firm as a separate entity distinct from the partners. 5. Principal-Agent Relationship : The business in a partnership firm may be carried on by all the partners or any one of them acting for all. This means that every partner is an agent when he is acting on behalf of others and he is a principal when others act on his behalf. 6. Sharing of Profit and Loss : The partners can share profit in any ratio as agreed. In the absence of an agreement, they share it equally. 7. Unlimited Liability : The partners have unlimited liability. Creditors can lay claim on the personal properties of any individual partner or all the partners jointly.

Partnership: Characteristics :
Partnership: Characteristics 8. Transfer of Interest : No partner can sell or transfer his interest in the firm to anyone without the consent of other partners. 9. Voluntary Registration : Registration of partnership is not compulsory but considered desirable as this entitles the firm to several benefits. For example, if it is registered, any partner can file a case against other partners, or a firm can file a suit against outsiders in case of disputes, claims, disagreements, etc. 10. Dissolution of Partnership : Dissolution of partnership implies not only a complete closure or termination of partnership business, but it also includes any change in the existing agreement among the partners due to a change in the number of partners.

Partnership: Advantages :
Partnership: Advantages Easy Formation : A partnership can be formed without many legal formality and expenses. Registration is not mandatory. 2. Larger Resources : As compared to sole proprietorship, a partnership firm can pool larger financial & human resources. 3. Better Management and Flexibility in Operation : Prompt decision making due to a limited number of partners leads to flexibility of operation and better management. 4. Sharing of Risk: In partnership, risk of loss is easier to bear by individual partners as it is shared by all the partners. 5. Protection of minority interest : Every partner has an equal say in decision making. A dissenting partner may withdraw from partnership and can dissolve it.

Partnership: Disadvantages :
Partnership: Disadvantages 1. Limited Capital : As there is a restriction on the maximum number of partners, the capital which can be raised is limited. 2. Unlimited Liability : As the liability of partners is joint and several to an unlimited extent, any one of the partners can be called upon to pay all the debts even from his personal properties. 3. Instability : A partnership firm does not continue to exist indefinitely. The death, insolvency or lunacy of a partner may bring about an unexpected end to partnership. 4. Lack of Harmony : Since every partner has equal right, there are greater possibilities of friction due to differences of opinion among partners which might ultimately result in disruption and closure of the firm.

Joint Stock Company :
Joint Stock Company A Joint Stock Company form of business organisation is a voluntary association of persons who generally contribute money to carry on business. A company is formed by the initiative of a group of persons known as promoters. The money so contributed is the capital of the company. [The proportion of capital to which each member is entitled is called his share, therefore members of a joint stock company are known as shareholders and the capital of the company is known as share capital. ] The total share capital is divided into a number of units known as ‘shares’. The companies are governed by the Indian Companies Act, 1956. The Act defines a company as an artificial person created by law, having separate entity, with perpetual succession and a common seal. Joint Stock Companies are of Two types: Private Limited & Public Limited

Joint Stock Company: Characteristics :
Joint Stock Company: Characteristics Artificial Person : A Joint Stock Company is an artificial person in the sense that it is created by law and does not possess physical attributes of a natural person. However, it has a legal status. 2. Separate Legal Entity : Being an artificial person, a company has an existence independent of its members. It can own property, enter into contract and conduct any lawful business in its own name. It can sue and can be sued in the court of law. A shareholder cannot be held responsible for the acts of the company. 3. Common Seal : Every company has a common seal by which it is represented while dealing with outsiders. Any document with the common seal and duly signed by an officer of the company is binding on the company. 4. Perpetual Existence : A company once formed continues to exist as long as it fulfils the requirements of law. It is not affected by the death, lunacy, insolvency or retirement of any of its members.

Joint Stock Company: Characteristics :
Joint Stock Company: Characteristics 5. Formation : A company comes into existence only when it has been registered after completing the formalities prescribed under the Indian Companies Act 1956. 6. Membership : A Private Limited Company has a minimum membership of two persons and maximum fifty. In case of a Public Limited Company, the minimum is seven and the maximum membership is unlimited. 7. Management : Joint Stock Companies have democratic management and control. Even though the shareholders are the owners of the company, all of the them cannot participate in the management process. The company is managed by the elected representatives of shareholders known as Directors.

Joint Stock Company: Characteristics :
Joint Stock Company: Characteristics 8. Capital : A Joint Stock Company generally raises a large amount of capital through issue of shares. 9. Transferability of Shares : The members of a company are free to transfer their shares to anyone else. 10. Limited Liability : The liability of a member of a Joint Stock Company is limited by guarantee or the shares he owns.

Joint Stock Company: Advantages :
Joint Stock Company: Advantages Limited Liability : In a Joint Stock Company the liability of its members is limited to the extent of shares held by them. It helps the company to raise huge capital. Because of limited liability, a company is also able to take larger risks. 2. Continuity of existence : A company is an artificial person created by law and possesses independent legal status. It has a perpetual existence. 3. Benefits of huge capital and large scale operation : Only this form of organisation can provide enough capital for large scale operations. 4. Social Benefit : A joint stock company offers employment to a large number of people. It facilitates promotion of various ancillary industries, trade and auxiliaries to trade. It promotes Research and Development and facilitates innovation.

Joint Stock Company: Disadvantages :
Joint Stock Company: Disadvantages 1. Formation is not easy: The formation of a company involves compliance with a number of legal formalities under the companies Act and compliance with several other Laws. 2. Excessive government control : A company is expected to comply with the provisions of several Acts. Non-compliance of these invites heavy penalty. 3. Delay in Policy Decisions : A company has to fulfill certain procedural formalities before making a policy decision. These formalities are time consuming and, therefore, policy decisions may be delayed. 4. Control by a Group: Even though the shareholders are the owners of the company, it is controlled by a group of elected persons known as the Board of Directors. Minority interest is not always secured. 5. Social abuses : A JSC being a large scale business organisation, have huge resources and power. Any misuse of such power creates unhealthy conditions in the society.

Co-operative Society :
Co-operative Society A co-operative society is entirely different from all other forms of organisation discussed previously in terms of its objective. The co-operatives are formed primarily to render services to its members. It functions under the Cooperative Societies Act, 1912 and other State Co-operative Societies Acts. Any ten persons can form a co-operative society. The main objectives of co-operative society are: rendering service rather than earning profit mutual help instead of competition and self help in place of dependence.

Co-operative Society: Types :
Co-operative Society: Types On the basis of objectives, various types of co-operatives are formed : Consumer co-operatives : These are formed to protect the interests of ordinary consumers of society by making consumer goods available at reasonable prices. E.g. Kendriya Bhandar in Delhi, Alaka in Bhubaneswar etc. b. Producers co-operatives : These societies are set up to benefit small producers who face problems in collecting inputs and marketing their products. E.g. The Weavers co-operative society, the Handloom owners cooperative society etc. c. Marketing co-operatives : These are formed by producers and manufactures to eliminate exploitation by the middlemen while marketing their product. E.g. Kashmir Arts Emporium, J&K Handicrafts etc.

Co-operative Society: Types :
Co-operative Society: Types d. Housing Co-operatives : These are formed to provide housing facilities to its members. They are called co-operative group housing societies. e. Credit Co-operatives : These societies are formed to provide financial help to its members. The rural credit societies, the urban co-operative banks etc. come under this category. f. Farming Co-operatives : These are formed by small farmers to carry on work jointly and thereby share the benefits of large scale farming. Besides these types, other co-operatives can be formed with the objective of providing different benefits to its members, like the construction co-operatives, transport co-operatives, co-operatives to provide education etc.

Co-operative Society: Characteristics :
Co-operative Society: Characteristics 1. Voluntary association : Individuals having common interest can come together to form a co-operative society. Any person can become a member of such an organisation and leave the same. 2. Membership : The minimum membership required to form a co-operative society is ten and the maximum number is unlimited. 3. Body corporate : Registration of a society under the Co-operative Societies Act is a must. Once it is registered, it becomes a body corporate and enjoys certain privileges just like a joint stock company. Some of the privileges are: (a) The society enjoys perpetual succession. (b) It has its own common seal. (c) It can own property in its name. (d) It can enter into contract with others. (e) It can sue others in court of law.

Co-operative Society: Characteristics :
Co-operative Society: Characteristics 4. Service Motive : The primary objective of any co-operative organisation is to render services to its members in particular and to the society in general. 5. Democratic Set up : Every member has a right to take part in the management of the society. Generally the members elect a committee known as the Executive Committee to look after the day to day administration. 6. Sources of Finances : A co-operative organisation starts with a fund contribute by its members in the form of units called shares. It can also raise loans and secure grants from the government easily. One fourth of the profits are transferred to its fund every year. 7. Return on capital : The return on capital subscribed by the members is in the form of a fixed rate of dividend after deduction from the profit.

Co-operative Society: Advantages :
Co-operative Society: Advantages Easy Formation : Any 10 persons can voluntarily form an association and get themselves registered with the Registrar of Co-operative societies which is society is easy as compared to a company. 2. Limited Liability : The liability of the members is limited to the extent of capital contributed by them. 3. Open Membership : There is no restriction on any individual to be a member of any co-operative. 4. Management : A co-operative functions in a democratic manner. Each member has only one vote. 5. Stability : It does not cease to exist in case of death, or insolvency or resignation of a member. It has thus a fairly stable life. 6. State Assistance : Co-operatives get a lot of patronage in the form of exemptions and concessions in taxes and financial assistance from the State Governments which no other organisation gets.

Co-operative Society: Disadvantages :
Co-operative Society: Disadvantages 1. Limited Capital : The amount of capital that a co-operative can generate is limited because of the membership remaining confined to a locality or region or a particular section of people. 2. Problems in Management : At times, co-operative do not function efficiently due to lack of managerial skill and motivation. 3. Lack of Co-operation : Co-operatives are formed with the very idea of co-operation. However, friction among the members due to individual interests are quite common. 4. Lack of Secrecy : Maintenance of business secrecy is one of the important factors for the success of enterprise which the co-operatives always lack. 5. Dependence on Government : The inadequacy of capital and various other limitations make co-operatives dependant on the government for support and patronage and subject themselves to Interference.

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